Методические указания Санкт-Петербург




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Федеральное агентство по образованию


Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования

Санкт-Петербургский государственный технологический институт

(Технический университет)


Кафедра иностранных языков


Лобановская Т.Л.


THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

(английский язык)


Методические указания


Санкт-Петербург

2010 г.


УДК 802.0 /075.8/.


Лобановская Т.Л. The Russian Federation:

методические указания / Т.Л. Лобановская. - СПб.: СПбГТИ(ТУ), 2010-51 с.

Методические указание предназначены для использования на занятиях по английскому языку на 1 курсе экономического факультета по разговорной теме “Наша Родина – Российская федерация”. Данное пособие состоит из двух частей. Первая часть включает в себя пять текстов для аудиторной работы, в которых представлена общая информация о стране – географическое положение, климат, административное и территориальное деление, политические условия, экономика, и информация об экономических регионах. Все тексты снабжены лексическими и грамматическими упражнениями, которые будут способствовать активному усвоению текстового материала.

Вторая часть методических указаний содержит тексты для самостоятельного внеаудиторного чтения, такие как краткая историческая справка, искусство России, ВВП, денежная политика, налоги, промышленность, сельское хозяйство, банковское дело, торговля, международные отношения, наука и технологии и другие. Они информативны и могут быть использованы при подготовке индивидуальных сообщений по отдельным аспектам разговорной темы.

Методические указания соответствуют рабочей программе по иностранному языку внеязыковых вузах.


Рецензент: Селиванова М.В.,

кандидат филологических наук,

доцент кафедры английского языка естественных факультетов

Санкт-Петербургского государственного

педагогического университета

им. А.И.Герцена


Утверждены на заседании учебно-методической комиссии гуманитарного отделения 23.12.2009г.


Рекомендовано к изданию РИСо СПБГТИ(ТУ)


Часть I Тексты для аудиторной работы


Text 1 GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION


I Introduction

Russia, officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation, is a country in northern Eurasia (Europe and Asia together). It is a semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. Russia shares land borders with the following countries (from northwest to southeast): Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania (via Kaliningrad Region), Poland (via Kaliningrad Region), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. It also has maritime borders with Japan (by the Sea of Okhotsk), the Republic of Korea (by the Sea of Japan), Sweden (by the Baltic Sea), Turkey (by the Black Sea), and the United States (by the Bering Strait). At 17,075,400 square kilometers (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is, in area, the largest country in the world, covering more than an eighth of the Earth’s land area; with 142 million people, it is the ninth largest by population. It extends across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe, spanning 9 time zones, and incorporating a wide range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources, and is considered an energy superpower. It has the world's largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's unfrozen fresh water. Russia established worldwide power and influence from the times of the Russian Empire to being the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first and largest constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower. The Russian Federation was founded following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, but is recognized as the continuing legal personality of the Soviet state. Russia is constitutionally a semi-presidential republic with the President acting as head of state and the Prime Minister acting as head of government under a representative democratic structure. Nevertheless, leading Western pro-democracy organizations claim Russia exhibits few democratic attributes, for example the nation is described as ‘not free’ by Freedom House. Russia has the world's eighth largest GDP (Gross Domestic Product) by nominal GDP or sixth largest by purchasing power parity with the eighth largest military budget. It is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the world's largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G8, APEC and the SCO, and is a leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The Russian nation can boast a long tradition of excellence in every aspect of the arts and sciences, as well as a strong tradition in technology, including such significant achievements as the first human spaceflight.


II Geography and topography



Fig.1 The map of the Russian Federation

The geography of Russia entails the physical and human geography of Russia, a country extending over much of northern Eurasia. Comprising much of eastern Europe and northern Asia, it is the world's largest country in total area. Due to its size, Russia displays both monotony and diversity. As with its topography, its climates, vegetation, and soils span vast distances. From north to south the East European Plain is clad sequentially in tundra, coniferous forest (taiga), mixed and broad-leaf forests, grassland (steppe), and semi-desert (fringing the Caspian Sea) as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. The country contains 40 UNESCO Biosphere reserves.

The two widest separated points in Russia are about 8,000 km (5,000 mi) apart along a geodesic line. These points are: the boundary with Poland on a 60 km long (40-mi long) spit of land separating the Gulf of Gdańsk from the Vistula Lagoon; and the farthest southeast of the Kuril Islands, a few miles off Hokkaidō Island, Japan. The points which are furthest separated in longitude are 6,600 km (4,100 mi) apart along a geodesic line. These points are: in the West, the same spit; in the East, the Big Diomede Island (Ostrov Ratmanova). The Russian Federation spans 11 time zones. Russia has the world's largest forest reserves and is known as "the lungs of Europe", second only to the Amazon Rainforest in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs. It provides a huge amount of oxygen for not just Europe, but the world. With access to three of the world's oceans — the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific — Russian fishing fleets are a major contributor to the world's fish supply. The Caspian is the source of what is considered the finest caviar in the world. Most of Russia consists of vast stretches of plains that are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast. Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus (containing Mount Elbrus, Russia's and Europe's highest point at 5,642 m (18,510 ft)) and the Altai, and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range or the volcanoes on Kamchatka. The Ural Mountains, rich in mineral resources, form a north-south range that divides Europe and Asia. Russia possesses 10% of the world's arable land. Russia has an extensive coastline of over 37,000 kilometers (23,000 mi) along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, as well as the Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black and Caspian seas. The Barents Sea, White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan are linked to Russia. Major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. The Diomede Islands (one controlled by Russia, the other by the United States) are just three kilometers (1.9 mi) apart, and Kunashir Island is about twenty kilometers (12 mi) from Hokkaidō. Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with one of the world's largest surface water resources. The largest and most prominent of Russia's bodies of fresh water is Lake Baikal, the world's deepest, purest, most ancient and most capacious freshwater lake. Lake Baikal alone contains over one fifth of the world's fresh surface water. Other major lakes include Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega, two largest lakes in Europe. Of Russia's 100,000 rivers, The Volga is the most famous—not only because it is the longest river in Europe but also because of its major role in Russian history. Russia has a wide natural resource base unmatched by any other country, including major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, timber and mineral resources.


Active vocabulary


Semi-presidential (=presidential-parliamentary) – президентско-парламентский

To share land borders with – граничить на суше с

To have maritime borders – иметь морскую границу с

To extend - простираться, тянуться; длиться

To span 11 time zones - охватывать 11 часовых поясов

Forest reserves – лесные ресурсы

Unfrozen fresh water – жидкая пресная вода

Dissolution - распад, упадок, конец, смерть; исчезновение, вымирание; увядание

Legal personality of the Soviet State – правопреемник Советского государства

To boast a long tradition of – гордиться богатыми традициями

Spit – зд. длинная отмель

To entail – влечь за собой, вызывать

To be apart along geodesic line – быть разделенными вдоль геодезической линии

Geodesic line – геодезическая линия

Сoniferous forest - хвойный, шишконосный лес

Longitude – геогр. долгота

Parity - равенство; равноправие

Сontributor toвкладчик, жертвователь; спонсор

Capacious - ёмкий, вместительный

Arableпахотный


Ex. 1 Mach the word combination with its definition:


1. It is a system of government in which a president and a prime minister are both active participants in the day-to-day administration of the state.

2. It is a border found in or near the sea.

3. It is a small point of land especially of sand or gravel running into a body of water.

4. It is angular distance measured on a great circle of reference from the intersection of the adopted zero meridian with this reference circle to the similar intersection of the meridian passing through the object.

5. It is a person who gives something, especially money, in order to provide or achieve something together with other people

6. Part of land fit for or used for the growing of crops.

7. It is the quality or state of being equal or equivalent.


a. Spit

b Semi-presidential republic

c. Maritime border

d. Longitude

e. Contributor to

f. Arable land

g. Parity


Ex. II Read and translate the text “Geographical Position”.


Ex. III Answer the following questions:


1. What is another title of Russia?

2. What countries does Russia share borders with?

3. What is the RF area?

4. How many time zones does Russia span?

5. Where does Russia extend?

6. Why Russia is considered to be an energy superpower?

7. What is Russia after the dissolution of the USSR?

8. What GDP does Russia have?

9. What international organizations Russia is a member of?

10. What does Russia display due to its size and why?

11. What are the two widest separated points in Russia? Where are they?

12. Why Russia is known as “the lungs of Europe”?

13. Why do you think the Russian fishing fleets are a major contributor to the world’s fish supply?

14. What is considered the finest caviar in the world?

15. What does Russia topographically consist of?

16. What are the famous mountains in Russia?

17. What are the Urals famous for?

18. What is the length of the Russian coastline?

19. What is Lake Baikal?

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