Annex 2 – Consultation and expertise up to the adoption of the post-2010 eu biodiversity target

НазваниеAnnex 2 – Consultation and expertise up to the adoption of the post-2010 eu biodiversity target
Дата конвертации01.11.2012
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Annex 11 – Supporting evidence for some proposed measures

  1. Supporting evidence for the nature protection measures

  • Natura 2000 in Scotland (Environment Group, 2004): The estimates were developed based on information from seven representative case study areas, extrapolated over the total number of Natura 2000 sites in the area. The cost estimates includes direct costs (management and policy) and opportunity costs. The benefits arising from both use values (e.g. recreational use) and non-use values were measured using contingent valuation questionnaire surveys (willingness to pay). Finally, a cost benefit analysis was carried out to estimate the net benefits of Natura 2000 in Scotland. The benefit-cost ratios are strongly positive (about 7:1 for protection overall, and 12:1 for the incremental value of the Natura 2000 designation), and there are additional values not assessed (social, cultural, educational, research, environmental services and health values: all likely to be positive, though possibly partly included in the non-use responses). The broad result that non-use values from local and international populations could justify Natura 2000 costs and opportunity costs seems robust.

  • Natura 2000 in the Netherlands (Kuik et al, 2006): A 2006 assessment by the Dutch Institute for Environmental Studies of the benefits associated with Natura 2000 in the Netherlands has provided the estimated value of different benefits associated with Natura 2000 sites, calculated as an average of € / ha / year benefits from different key Natura 2000 ecosystems. Based on these average values, benefits provided by Natura 2000 in the Netherlands were estimated to be around € 4000 / ha / year. Recreation and tourism as well as wider ecosystem functions were important components of this value. Non-use benefits were also important. The provisioning service of raw materials was of lesser importance in the Netherlands. The authors extrapolated the gross welfare benefits of all Natura 2000 areas in the Netherlands (1.1 million ha), deriving an estimate of around € 4.5 billion / year.

  • Large Blue butterfly conservation in Germany (Watzold et al 2008). This study considers optimal conservation levels of Large Blue butterflies (protected by the EU Habitats Directive) via payments to conserve specific times and sequences of mowing regimes on which the species depends. Costs include opportunity costs and compensation payments needed; Benefits are based on an ecological model to determine the ecological effects of alternative mowing regimes, coupled with contingent valuation. The results show that conservation is cost-effective up to maximum level assessed

  1. Supporting evidence for restoration and green infrastructure measures

  • Lower Danube Green Corridor (WWF, 2000). The 2236 km2 corridor (Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova and Ukraine) has made significant improvements to water quality; increased biodiversity; lowered risks from flooding; and improved local livelihoods. The flood in 2005 caused an estimated €396 million worth of damage. The cost of the restoration has been estimated at €183 billion. The estimated value of the ecosystem services provided is €500ha/yr and additional future earnings are estimated at €85.6 million per year.

  • River Elbe floodplain restoration (Meyerhoff and Dehnhardt, 2007). The context of this study is restoration along River Elbe (Germany) through dike shifting, reducing agriculture impact and constructing fish ladders. This combines a partial a cost benefit analysis based on CV study, avoidance costs, engineering costs and land opportunity costs, and a statistical model of nitrogen retention as a result of reduced water runoff velocities in two areas, then scaled up to whole restoration area. Recreation and flood protection benefits, carbon benefits and/or methane disbenefits were not valued and could be significant, which would strengthen conclusions. 8 scenarios were considered, with BCRs ranging from 2.5 to 4.1. Separate sensitivity scenarios still produced a positive NPV, providing robust support for the conclusion that NPVs are positive.

  • Skjern river restoration in Denmark (Dubgaard, 2004). This study focused on the restoration of the Skjern river from a channelled river to a meandering course, with the creation of outflows from the river to the Fjord with the intention of forming a delta of app. 220 ha in time, the creation of a lake of approximately 160 ha, permitting periodical floods on land within the project area. This would involve the transfer of 1,550 ha of arable land to extensive grazing. An ex-post CBA which uses value transfer, market prices and replacement costs to value costs and benefits, showed that up to at least 5% social discounting, the project appears to have a positive net present value. The net present value was of DDK 228 million at 3% discount rate, and 67 million at 5%.

  • Blackwater Estuary, UK (Luisetti et al., 2008). This study focused on an estuary of 5,500 hectares with open water, mudflats and saltmarshes, and the costs and benefits of maintaining flood defences with sea-level rise and coastal squeeze of intertidal wetlands. Benefits were estimated through a production function for fish (bass) and sediment burial estimates from simultaneous fisheries and biogeochemistry studies, carbon calculations taking into account methane and nitrous oxide emissions, market prices for coastal defence work (costs avoided) and fish production function; three carbon price estimates, and finally stated preference for “composite environmental benefit”. Results show that with constant discount rate, the highest NPV is the Deep Green scenario (£106m over 25 years, £192m over 100 years) but with declining discount rates the Extended Deep Green scenario looks better over longer horizons. Overall, the study shows that managed realignment can be cost-beneficial if account is taken of non-marketed benefits, in particular for conservation and recreation.

  • National Forest, UK (eftec, 2010). Large regeneration area including some former landfill sites, quarries, other post-industrial brownfield sites, in the context of a long-term project to create woodlands and priority open habitats on 33% of The National Forest land area. The study estimated £178m of costs based on actual and predicted expenditures for achieving the objectives, compared to £1,623m of benefits, largely from recreation, with lesser contributions from carbon, biodiversity and aesthetic values in particular. Results indicate a Net Present Value of £1.44bn, and a Cost Benefit ratio of 9.1:1.

  • Agro-ecosystem of Sint-Truiden, Belgium (Turkelboom, 2010). A series of actions were undertaken primarily to protect the village from soil erosion and mud floods, including almost 20 hectares of grassed waterways, 150 hectares of grassed buffer strips, 40 earthen dams (retention ponds) and 150 ha of conservation tillage in the catchment. The total cost of the control measures is low (€126/ha/20 years). This figure is low if one compares to the saving of the damage and clean-up costs caused by muddy floods in the study area (€54 /ha/year) and all the secondary benefits, which included improvement of downstream water quality; reduction in downstream dredging costs; reduced psychological stress to inhabitants who were frequently threatened by muddy floods; increase in biodiversity (birds and mammals); and enhanced landscape quality due to the new green and blue corridors through the landscape. Local entrepreneurs responded to bikers and hikers exploring the area by transforming traditional farms into bed-&-breakfast facilities, and by promoting agro- and eco-tourism.

  1. Supporting evidence for agri-forestry related measures

  • A study on restoring land to increase forage for bumblebees in intensively farmed landscapes in UK (Pywell et al. 2006) shows clear benefits from pollination services for semi-natural ecosystems and a wide range of agricultural and horticultural crops, and many garden plants.

  • An assessment of costs and benefits of wild goose conservation in Scotland (Macmillan et al., 2004) demonstrates that wild goose numbers have risen rapidly over the past 30 years which cause some damage in crops. Farmers receive compensation for putting in place conservation schemes (feeding and buffer areas for geese on farmland). The study estimated the willingness to pay of the general public for goose conservation measures and the costs of goose damage to agriculture. The resulting cost-benefit ratio was of 700:1 for measures allowing a 10% increase in endangered species, and 113:1 for measures allowing a 10% increase in all species. The study concluded that goose conservation measures were good value for money for taxpayers.

  • The assessment “Agriculture-forest conversion in Wales” (Bateman et al, 2005) looks at costs and benefits of establishing multi-purpose woodland on agriculture land. Net benefits in the latter areas reach as high as £200/ha/year in 1990 prices. Overall the analysis shows that there are substantial areas of Wales which would yield significant net social benefits from conversion out of agriculture and into multi-purpose woodland.

  1. Supporting evidence for fisheries related measures

  • Several studies showed that overfishing has significant economic impacts. Cod fishing in the Baltic in 2002 represented a cost of US$ 128.6 million compared with what could have been harvested with sustainable yields. Similarly, the North Sea cod fishery lost US$ 195.3 (WWF-Germany, 2002). Economic and social consequences of failing to apply Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) was also dramatically demonstrated in the case of Newfoundland, Canada after the collapse of North Atlantic cod stocks in the early 1990s. The sector provided between 80 and 100% of income in some communities, and 20% of the population was employed in the fishery. The collapse resulted in over 40,000 people losing their jobs, including 10,000 fishermen.

  • Ecosystem-based fisheries management has resulted in highly successful fish stock rebuilding efforts in California, the northeast United States and northwest Australia. Efforts have involved experimentation with closed areas, gear and effort restrictions, and new approaches to catch allocation and enforcement.

  • Marine conservation zones in the UK (Defra 2009): The study looks at costs to government for implementing and maintaining the marine conservation network as well as the costs to business from restrictions on activity and benefits from the conservation zones (including food and raw materials; nutrient cycling; climate regulation; sea defence; cognitive values (research spending) and expenditure (education) with specific marine focus. The conclusion is that active conservation of the UK marine habitat has a positive net present value. Establishment of a network of marine conservation zones (MCZs) throughout UK waters has a Benefit Cost Ratio of between 6.7 and 38.9. Sensitivity testing shows that even given the uncertainty in the estimates it is rather unlikely that the BCR could be below 1.

  • Restricting damaging fishing practices (Homarus Ltd, 2007). The study considers a proposed conservation zone of 60 square nautical miles centred on Lyme Regis, UK. Within this area, scallop dredging would be stopped, but more sustainable forms of fishing would be allowed (e.g. dive catching of scallops, crustacean potting and fixed netting of skates and rays), as would recreational use. The results suggest that benefits from other uses are at least double benefits from scallop dredging. This provides good evidence that protection would be beneficial, given that the environmental benefits of protection are unknown but certainly positive.

  1. Supporting evidence for measures related to Invasive Alien Species

  • McConnachie et al. (2003) review 10 benefit-cost studies of successful biological control programs, including four insect pests, four terrestrial weeds, and two aquatic weeds. For terrestrials, the benefit-cost ratios range from 1.9:1 to 24:1.

  • Van Wilgen et al. (2004) estimate the costs and benefits of biocontrol of six invasive weed species in South Africa, where biocontrol has been practiced since 1910. They estimate benefit-cost ratios ranging from 8:1 for red Sesbania to 709:1 for jointed cactus.

  1. Supporting evidence for measures related to achieving the global target

  • Conservation in Sumatran oil palm plantations - Bateman et al (2009), Bateman et al (2008). This study looked at costs of possible conservation measures within palm oil plantations in Sumatra, which would contribute to sustaining tiger populations and other species in surrounding land. This is compared to potential price premium for ‘conservation-grade’ palm oil. The analysis shows a ‘win-win’ situation in that the optimal areas for biodiversity are also the areas with least opportunity cost. The smallest conservation area scheme requires only the lowest (15%) price premium to generate a small yet positive net benefit for the plantation; larger schemes are not viable at the lower price premium level. The results suggest that a reorganization of conservation efforts incorporating the strategies underpinning recent conservation-grade and Fairtrade production movements would provide an economic incentive for a majority of plantations to see conservation as an economically beneficial undertaking.

  • Coral mining in Indonesia and Sri Lanka - Ohman and Cesar, 2000. This study examines the socio-economic effects of coral mining for lime production in Lombok, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. Extraction of corals has a detrimental effect on the reef ecosystem and recovery is slow. Tourism is an important industry in Lombok and is growing rapidly. Other activities include fishing and mangrove forestry. The study compares cost-benefit analyses of two sites of coral mining. The analyses produces different values which reflects the biological differences in fisheries in the two areas as well as the production differences in lime from coral. Both studies suggest net economic losses from coral mining once the ecosystem service impacts are taken into account.

  • Mangrove conservation, Southern Thailand - Sathirathai and Barbier, 2001 – This study reviews the case of conservation of mangroves in Southern Thailand versus conversion to shrimp farms, when water and flood protection services are taken into account. The study compares costs and benefits of three different land-use options for mangroves in Southern Thailand, and concludes that the value of conserving mangroves in Surat Thani Province is higher than that of converting mangroves to shrimp farms.


Bateman, I.J., Lovett, A.A., & Brainard, J.S. 2005. Applied Environmental Economics: A GIS Approach to Cost-Benefit Analysis Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.

Bateman, IJ, Fisher, B, Glew, DW and Watkinson, A, 2008. Making Tigers Pay: Marketing Conservation Of The Sumatran Tiger Through ‘Tiger Friendly’ Oil Palm Production, CSERGE Working Paper ECM 08-06

Bateman, IJ, Coombes, E, Fisher, B, Fitzherbert, E, Glew, D and Naidoo, R, 2009. Saving Sumatra’s species: Combining economics and ecology to define an efficient and self-sustaining program for inducing conservation within oil palm plantations, CSERGE Working Paper EDM 09-03Defra 2009, Marine and coastal access bill impact assessment: Introduction to the House of Commons, Defra, London.

Dubgaard, A. 2004, Cost-benefit analysis of wetland restoration, Journal of Water and Land Development 8, 87-102

Eftec, 2010, Flood and coastal erosion risk management: Economic valuation of environmental effects - Annex 1, Defra.

Environmental Group, 2004. An Economic Assessment of the Costs and Benefits of Natura 2000. Sites in Scotland, Scottish Executive Research Report 2004/05

Homarus Ltd, 2007. Estimate of Economic Values of Activities in Proposed Conservation Zone in Lyme Bay Report to the Wildlife Trusts

Kuik, O., Brander, L. & Schaafsma, M. 2006. Globale Batenraming van Natura 2000 gebieden.

Luisetti, T., Turner, K., & Bateman, I. 2008. An ecosystem services approach to assess managed realignment coastal policy in England. CSERGE Working Paper ECM 08-04

Macmillan, D., Hanley, N., & Daw, M. 2004. Costs and benefits of wild goose conservation in Scotland. Biological Conservation, 119: 475-485

McConnachie, A.J., M.P. de Wit, M.P. Hill, and M.J. Byrne. 2003. Economic Evaluation of the Successful Biological Control of Azolla filiculoides in South Africa. Biological Control 28(1): 25–32.

Meyerhoff, J. & Dehnhardt, A. 2007. The European water framework directive and economic valuation of wetlands: The restoration of floodplains along the river Elbe. European Environment, 17, (1) 18-36 available from:

Ohman, M. C. & Cesar, H. S. J. 2000. "Costs and Benefits of Coral Mining," In Collected Essays on the Economics of coral Reefs, H. S. J. Cesar, ed., Kalmar, Sweden: CORDIO, pp. 85-93.

Pywell R.F., Warman E.A., Hulmes L., Hulmes S., Nuttall P., Sparks T.H., Critchley C.N.R. & Sherwood A., 2006. Effectiveness of new agri-environment schemes in providing foraging resources for bumblebees in intensively farmed landscapes. Biological Conservation, 129, 192-206

Sathirathai, S. & Barbier, E.B. 2001. Valuing mangrove conservation in Southern Thailand. Contemporary Economic Policy, 19, (2) 109-122

Turkelboom, F. (2010) TEEBcase 'Changed agro-management to prevent muddy floods, Belgium, available at:

van Wilgen, B.W., M.P. de Wit, H.J. Anderson, D.C. Le Maitre, I.M. Kotze, S. Ndala, B. Brown, and M.B. Rapholo. 2004. Costs and Benefits of Biological Control of Invasive Alien Plants: Case Studies from South Africa. South African Journal of Science 100(1/2): 113–122.

WWF-Germany, 2002. The economics of a tragedy at sea: Costs of overfishing of cod from the North Sea and the Baltic. (2002 converted to US$, rate from 31.12.2002,

Annex 12 – Examples of good practice on restoration and green infrastructure in the EU

  1. Strengthening Ecosystem services
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