Materials of Art and Archaeology




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Materials of Art and Archaeology


Bibliography


Part X. Dyes and Pigments


Norbert S. Baer


Conservation Center

Institute of Fine Arts

New York University


April 2003

Materials of Art and Archaeology


Bibliography


Introduction


Part I. Inorganic Materials (2003).


Part II. Metals (1999).


Part III. Organic Materials (2003).


Part IV. Instrumental Methods (2003).


Part V. Environment (1999).


Part VI. Museology (2003).


Part VII. Dating and Provenance (2003).


Part VIII Library and Archive Materials (2003).


Part IX Stone (1999).


Part X. Dyes and Pigments (2003).

Cumulative Index


May be obtained from:


Conservation Center

Institute of Fine Arts

Inorganic New York University

14 East 78th Street

New York, New York 10021


April 2003


PART X: DYES AND PIGMENTS


CONTENTS




Dyes: General References 1


Alizarin 2


Cochineal 2


Indigo 2


Madder Red 2


Tumeric 3


Pigments: General References 3


Asphaltum 4


Azurite 5


Bianco di San Giovanni 5


Cadmium Yellow 5


Calcium Carbonate 5


Chrome Red 5


Chrome Yellow 6


Cobalt Blue 7


Cobalt Yellow 7


Emerald Green 7


Gamboge 7


Gold 8


Indian Yellow 8


Lead Tin Yellow 8


Lead White 9


Madder Lake 9


Malachite 9


Maya Blue 10


Orpiment and Realgar 10


Prussian Blue 10


Red Lead 11


Smalt 11


Titanium Dioxide 11


Ultramarine 15


Ultramarine: Deterioration 16


Vandyke Brown 16


Verdigris 17


Vermilion 17


Zinc Oxide 17


Dyes: General References


E. N. Abrahart, Dyes and Their Intermediates, Second Edition, Edward Arnold, London (1977).


R.J. Adrosko, Natural Dyes in the United States, United States National Museum Bulletin 281, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. (1968) vii + 160pp.


American Cyanamid Company, Direct Colors on Viscose Rayon, American Cyanamid Company, New Jersey.


B. Ash, Introducing Dyeing and Printing Batsford, London (1970) 119pp.


F. Beech, The Dyeing of Woolen Fabrics, London (1902).


C.L. and A.B. Berthollet, Elements of the Art of Dyeing, Volumes I and II, London (1824).


F.J. Bird, The American Practical Dyer's Companion, Henry Carey Baird, Philadelphia (1882).


F. Brunello, The Art of Dyeing in the History of Mankind, Phoenix Dye Works, Cleveland, OH (1973).


E. Clayton, Identification of Dyes on Textile Fibres, 2nd Edition, The Society of Dyers and Colourists, London, 39pp.


C. Crowell, "Color from the Fields," Chemistry 46 No.9 14 17 (1973).


D.G. Duff, R.S. Sinclair, and D. Stirling, "Light induced Colour Changes of Natural Dyes," Studies in Conservation 22 No. 4 161 169 (1977).


D.G. Duff, R.S. Sinclair, and D. Stirling, "The Fastness to Washing of Some Natural Dyestuffs on Wool," Studies in Conservation 22 No.4 170 176 (1977).


C.E.P. Exmouth, Dyes and Dyeing, McBride and Company, New York (1921).


R.E. Farris, "Natural Dyes," In Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Third Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, Volume 8, (1991). pp. 351-373.


R.L. Feller, Editor, Artists’ Pigments, a Handbook of Their History and Characteristics, Vol. 1, Oxford University Press, New York (1986) 300pp.


P. Fitzgerald, The Effect of Light on Dyed Materials, Institute of Fine Arts (1962).


E. Fitzhugh, Editor, Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics, Volume 3, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1997) 364pp.


R.J. Gettens and G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopedia, D. Van Nostrand, New York (1962) Dover Editions (1966) 333pp.


C.H. Giles and R. Haslam, "Measurement of Particle Size of a High Lightfastness Direct Dye in Cellulose by p Nitrophenol Adsorption," Textile Research Journal 45 No.5 347 350 (1977).


J.H. Hofenk de Graaff, "Natural Dyestuffs for Textile Materials: Origin, Chemical Constitution, Identification" ICOM Committee for Museum Laboratories, Brussels (1967) 88pp.


J.H. Hofenk de Graaff, and W.G.T. Roelofs, "Preliminary Report on the Identification of Yellow Dyestuffs in Ancient Textiles with Thin layer Chromatography," ICOM Committee for Conservation, Amsterdam (1969).


J.H. Hofenk de Graaff, and W.G.T. Roelofs, "On the Occurrence of Red Dyestuffs in Textile Materials from the Period 1450 1600," ICOM Committee for Conservation, Madrid (1972) 35pp.


G.H. Hurst, Silk Dyeing, Printing, and Finishing, George Bell, London (1892).


G. Irick, Jr. and E.G. Boyd, "Effect of Light Source on the Photodegradation of Certain Disperse Dyes," Textile Research Journal 43 No.4 238 241 (1973).


R.M. Johnston, "Spectrophotometry for the Analysis and Description of Color," Journal of Paint Technology 39 No.509 346 354 (1967).


K.M. Kashiwagi, "Color Characteristics of Traditional Vegetable Dyeing," Textile Research Journal 43 No.7 404 408 (1973).


S.P. Kierstead, Natural Dyes, Bruce Humphries, Boston (1950) 104pp.


T. Love, The Art of Cleaning, Dyeing, Scouring, and Finishing, Longmans Green, London (1854).


F. Mayer, The Chemistry of Natural Coloring Matters, Translated by A.H. Cook, Reinhold, New York (1943).


J. Morton, Fast Dyeing and Dyes, Scotland (1929).


J. Napier, Chemistry Applied to Dyeing, Henry Carey Baird, Philadelphia (1853).


J. Napier, A Manual of Dyeing Receipts, Henry Carey Baird, Philadelphia (1858).


J. Napier, A Manual of the Art of Dyeing, R. Griffin, Glasgow (1853) xvi + 405pp.


National Aniline and Chemical Co., Inc., National Acid Dyes on Wool, New York.


National Aniline and Chemical Co., Inc., National Dyes for Rayon Piece Goods, New York.


I. Nogid, "Natural Organic Dyes used in Russia for Dyeing Fabrics," ICOM Committee for Conservation, Washington New York (1965).


Oil and Colour Chemists' Association, Pigments, Dyestuffs and Lakes, Paint Technology Manuals, Part 6, Reinhold, New York (1966) ix 340 pp.


W. Partridge, Practical Treatise on Dyeing, William Partridge, New York (1834).


D. Paterson, The Science of Colour Mixing, Scott, Greenwood & Co., London (1900).


R.H. Peters, Textile Chemistry Volume 3, Elsevier Publishing, Amsterdam (1975) 889pp.


L.S. Pratt, The Chemistry and Physics of Organic Pigments, Wiley, New York (1947) 359pp.


J.R. Roberts, The Dyeing of Paper, E.I. duPont, Wilmington, Delaware (1924) 102pp.


P. Rys and Zollinger, Fundamentals of the Chemistry and Application of Dyes, Wiley Interscience, New York (1972) 196pp.


M. Saltzman and A.M. Keay, "Colorant Identification", Journal of Paint Technology 39 No.509 360 367 (1967).


C.M. Schweiger, "Techniques for Analysis of Dyes on Historic Textiles," Thesis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska (1971) 126pp.


F. Sherry, The Dyer's Practical Guide, Franklin, Mass. (1884). Supplement (1886).


J.W. Slater, The Manual of Colours and Dye Wares, Crosby Lockwood and Co., London (1882).


D. Smith, The Dyer's Instructor, Henry Carey Baird, Philadelphia (1860).


M. Stein, Die Prüfung der Beugfarben (1874).

W. Tucker, The Family Dyer and Scourer, E.L. Carey and A. Hart, Philadelphia.


U.S. Department of Agriculture, Home Dyeing with Natural Dyes, M.S. Furry and B.M. Viemont, Misc. Pub. No. 230, U.S. Government Printing Office (1935).


U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Navajo Native Dyes, Their Preparation and Use, N.G. Bryan and S. Young (1940).


K. Venkataraman, The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes, Academic Press, New York (1952).


D.N. Wilcox, Jr., "`Kekule'and the Dye Industry," Centennial Advances in Chemistry Series No.61 American Chemical Society (1966) Chapter 3.


R. Wizinger, "Black", Geigy Ciba Review No.2 2 32 (1973).


Alizarin


R.L. Feller, R.M. Johnston-Feller and C.W. Bailie, "Determination of the Specific Rate Constant for the Loss of a Yellow Intermediate during the Fading of Alizarin Lake," Journal of the American Institute of Conservation 25 No. 2 65-72 (1986).


R.M. Johnston-Feller, R.L. Feller, C.W. Bailie and M. Curran, "The Kinetics of Fading: Opaque Paint Films Pigmented with Alizarin Lake and Titanium Dioxide," Journal of the American Institute of Conservation 23 No. 2 114-129 (1984).


R.M. Johnston-Feller, R.L. Feller, C.W. Bailie and M. Curran, "Kinetics of Fading of Alizarin Lake," In AIC Preprints of Papers Presented at the Eleventh Annual Meeting Baltimore, MD 25-29 May 1983, AIC, Washington DC (1983). pp. 65-73.


D. Saunders and J. Kirby, "Light-induced Colour Changes in Red and Yellow Lake Pigments," National Gallery Technical Bulletin 15 79-94 (1994).


H. Schweppe and J. Winter, "Madder and Alizarin," In Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics, Volume 3, E. Fitzhugh, Editor, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1997). pp. 109-142.


See also: Pigments: Madder Lake


Cochineal


D. Frid, “Cochineal – Cactus Blood,” Filberarts 20 No. 4 11-12 (1994).


V.P. Golikov, “Technology of Dying Silk by Cochineal. Part 1: Theoretical Analysis of the Problem and Development of Investigation Methods,” In ICOM Committee for Conservation, 9th Triennial Meeting, Dresden, German Democratic Republic, 26-31 August 1990: Preprints, ICOM Committee for Conservation, Los Angeles (1990). pp. 289-293.


G.W. Taylor, “New Light on the Insect Red Dyes of the Ancient Middle East,” Textile History 18 No. 2 143-146 (1987).


A. Verhecken and J. Wouters, “The Coccid Insect Dyes: Historical, Geographical and Technical Data,” Bulletin Institut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique/Koninklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium 22 (1988). pp. 207-239.


J. Wouters and A. Verhecken, “The Coccid Insect Dyes: HPLC Computerized Diode-Array Analysis of Dyed Yarns,” Studies in Conservation 34 No. 4 189-200 (1989).


Indigo


Anon., “Indigo, the King of Dyeing Elements, is 100 Years Old,” Textilveredlung 25 No.7-8 246-247 (1990).


J.H. Hofenk-de Graaf, “A Simple Method for the Identification of Indigo,” Studies in Conservation 19 No. 1 54-55 (1974).


E. Hendricks, M. Van Ekeima Hommes and K. van Levy, “Indigo used in the Haarlem Civic Guard Group Portraits by Franz Hals,” In Painting Techniques: History, Material and Studio Practice, IIC, Dublin (1998). pp. 166-170.


Madder Red


Z.C. Koren, “HPLC Analysis of the Natural Scale Insect, Madder and Indigoid Dyes,” Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colorists 110 No. 9 273-277 (1994).


J.B. Percival, “Madder, Its Cultivation and Usefulness,” Textile Colorist 39 No. 457 1-2 (1917).


K.G. Ponting, “Madder,” International Dyer 158 17-21 (1977).


H. Schweppe and J. Winter, "Madder and Alizarin," In Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics, Volume 3, E. Fitzhugh, Editor, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1997). pp. 109-142.


Turmeric


R. Dossie, The Handmaid to the Arts, New Edition, with Considerable Additions and Improvements, Wilson, Spence and Mawman, York (1796). pp. 93-94.


J.H. Hofenk-DeGraff, Natural Dyestuffs, Origin, Chemical Constitution, Identification, Central Research Laboratory for Objects of Art and Science, Amsterdam (1969). 110pp.


D.J. Lee, L. Bacon and V. Daniels, “Some Conservation Problems Encounters with Turmeric on Ethnographic Objects,” Studies in Conservation 30 No. 4 184-188 (1985).


N. Purinton and M. Watters, “A Study of Materials Used by Medieval Persian Painters,” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 30 No. 2 125-144 (1991).


H. Schweppe, Practical Hints on Dyeing with Natural Dyes, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC (1986). pp. 11-12.


P.M. Whitmore and G.R. Cass, “The Ozone Fading of Traditional Japanese Colorants,” Studies in Conservation 33 No. 1 29-40 (1988).


Pigments: General References


N. F. Barnes, "Color Characteristics of Artists' Pigments," Journal of the Optical Society of America 29 208-214 (1939).


C.E. Barnett, "Physics and Chemistry of Pigments," Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 41 272-279 (1949).


J.G. Bearn, The Chemistry of Paints, Pigments, and Varnishes, E.Benn Ltd., London (1923) x+ 277pp.


K.W. Bentley, The Natural Pigments, Interscience, New York (1960) 306pp.


J. Bersch, The Manufacture of Mineral and Lake Pigments, Translated from the 2nd rev. ed. by A.C. Wright, Scott, Greenwood, London (1901) 476pp.


J. Bersch, Malerfarben und Malmittel, Wien Leipzig, A. Hartleben (1905) v-xv + 342pp.


P. Burri, C. Naydowski, D.C. Spielmann and E.T. Swanson, "Using Classical Theory to Design a Pigment with Improved Optical Properties," Tappi 80 193-199 (1997).


M.H. Butler, "An Investigation of the Materials and Techniques Used by Paul Cezanne," American Institute for Conservation: Preprints, 12th Annual Meeting 20-33 (1984).


D.E. Cabelli, T.F. Mathews, "The Palette of Khatchatur of Khizan" J. Walters Art Gallery 40 37-40 (1982).


D.E. Cabelli, T.F. Mathews, "Pigments in Armenian Manuscripts of the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries" Revue des études Arméniens N.S. 18 33-47 (1984).


D.E. Cabelli, M.V. Orna, T.F. Mathews, "Analysis of Medeival Pigments from Cicilian Armenia" In Archaeological Chemistry III, ACS Advances in Chemistry Series 205, J.B. Lambert, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1984) pp 243-254.


E. Caley, “Ancient Greek Pigments,” Journal of Chemical Education 23 314-316 (1946).


J.H. Carlson and J. Krill, "Pigment Analysis of Early American Watercolors and Fractur," Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 18 19-32 (1978).


B. Cho, J. Baum, P. Revesz, W.S. Taft, D. Mayer and J.W. Mayer, "Ion Beam Analysis of Pigments," In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology II, Editors, P.B. Vandiver, J. Druzik and G.S. Wheeler, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA (1990) pp.125-132.


A.H. Church, The Chemistry of Paints and Painting, Seeley, London (1901) 310pp.


J. Clarke, "Two Aboriginal Rock Art Pigments from Western Australia: Their Properties, Use and Durability," Studies in Conservation 21 No.3 134-142 (1976).


C. Coffignier, Couleurs et Peintures, J.B. Baillière et fils, Paris (1924) vii + 762pp.


P. Coremans, R.J. Gettens, and J. Thissen, “La Technique des ‘Primitifs Flamands’,” Studies in Conservation 1 1-29 (1952).


S. Cove, "Constable's Oil Painting Materials and Techniques," In Constable, L. Parris and I. Flemming-Williams, Editors, Cross River Press, New York (1993) p. 502.


M. Dörner, The Materials of the Artist and Their Use in Painting, Revised Edition, Translated by E. Neuhaus, Harcourt, Brace, New York (1949) xvi + 435pp.


A. Eibner, Malmaterialenkunde als Grundlage der Maltechnik, Springer, Berlin (1909) 480pp.


M. Farnsworth, "Ancient Pigments, Particularly Second Century B.C. Pigments from Corinth," Journal of a Chemical Education 28 72-76 February (1951).


G. Field, Chromotography: A Treatise on Colours and Pigments and of Their Powers in Painting, Winsor and Newton, London (1869?) xviii + 424pp.


T.H. Fielding, Ackermann's Manual of Colours, Used in the Different Branches of Water-Colour Painting: with an Ample Description of the Value and Properties of Each Colour, Ackermann & Co., London (1844). 63pp. + 8pp.


T.H. Fielding, Index Of Colours And Mixed Tints For The Use Of Beginners In Landscape And Figure Painting, Printed for the author and sold by Parbury, Allen, & Co., London (1830) 40pp.


S.E. Filippakis, B. Perdikatsis and T. Paradellis, "An Analysis of Blue Pigments from the Greek Bronze Age," Studies in Conservation 21 No.3 143-153 (1976).


R.J. Gettens and G.L. Stout, Painting Materials: A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover, New York (1966) x + 333pp.


N.W. Hanson, “Some Painting Materials of J.M.W. Turner,” Studies in Conservation 1 162-173 (1954).


R.D. Harley, Artists' Pigments; c. 1600-1835, A Study in English Documentary Sources, 2nd Edition, Butterworth, Boston, London (1982) 236pp.


R.D. Harley, "Field's Manuscripts: Early Nineteenth Century Colour Samples and Fading Tests," Studies in Conservation 24 75-84 (1979).


H. Hiler, Notes on the Technique of Painting, Faber & Faber, London (1934) viii + 340pp.


W. Hsü, K. Chou, and Y. Li, "X-ray Analyses of the Inorganic Dunhauang Pigments," Dunhuang Studies 187-197 (1983) [in Chinese].


B.B. Johnson, "A Preliminary Study of the Technique of Indian Miniature Paintings," In Papers Presented in a Symposium at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, October, 1970, P. Pal, Editor, Brill, Leiden (1972) pp. 139-146.


B. Keisch and R.C. Callahan, "Rubens' The Gerbier Family: Investigation by Lead Isotope Mass Spectrometry," Studies in the History of Art, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (1973) pp.75-78.


H. Kühn, "A Study of the Pigments and the Grounds Used by Jan Vermeer,” National Gallery of Art, Report and Studies in the History of Art, 1968 155- 202 (1969).


H. Kühn, "Farbmaterial und Technischer Aufbau der Gemälde von Niklaus Manuel," Maltechnik/Restauro 83 No.3 155-171 (1977).


H. Kühn, "Untersuchungen zu den Pigmenten und Malgründen Rembrandts, durchgeführt an den Gemälden der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden," Maltechnik/Restauro 83 No.4 223-233 (1977).


H. Kühn, "Naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung von Leonardos 'Abendmahl' in Santa Maria della Grazie in Mailand," Maltechnik-Restauro 91, No. 4 24-51 (1985).


A. Lucas and J. Plesters, "Titian's 'Bacchus and Ariadne'," National Gallery Technical Bulletin (London) 2 97-106 (1978).


R. Mayer, The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, 5th Edition, Viking, New York (1991) xv + 761pp.


W.C. McCrone, "Size, Shape, and Size Distribution of Pigments," In Pigment Handbook, Volume 3, Editor, T.C. Patton, Wiley, New York (1973) pp.63-76.


M.V. Orna and T.F. Mathews, "Pigment Analysis of the Glajor Gospel Book of U.C.L.A.," Studies in Conservation 26 57-72 (1981).


D. Patterson, Editor, Pigments: An Introduction to their Physical Chemistry, Elsevier, London (1967) xii + 210pp.


J. Plesters, "Cross-sections and Chemical Analysis of Paint Samples," Studies in Conservation 2 110-157 (1955-1956).


S. Profi, B. Perdikatis and S.E. Filippakis, "X-ray Analysis of Greek Bronze Age Pigments from Thera (Santorini)," Studies in Conservation 22 No.3 107-115 (1977).


E-L. Richter and H. Härlin, "The Pigments of the Swiss Nineteenth-century Painter Arnold Böcklin," Studies in Conservation 19 83-87 (1974).


J. Riederer, "Recently Identified Egyptian Pigments," Archaeometry 16, No. 1 102-109 (1974).


A. Roy, “The Palettes of Three Impressionist Paintings,” National Gallery Technical Bulletin 9 13-15, 17-19 (1985)


A. Roy, Artists’ Pigments: A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics, Volume 2, Oxford University Press, New York (1993) 231pp.


E. Taguchi and M. Taguchi, "Spectrophotometric Identification of Color Materials, Especially Organic Pigments and Their Combined Colors – with Reference to the Pigments Used in the Scroll, 'Genji-monogatari 54-jo Emaki' of Edo-period," Kobunkazai no Kagaku 20/21 18-37 (1977) [in Japanese].


J.H. Townsend, "The Materials and Techniques of J.M.W. Turner: Pigments," Studies in Conservation 38 No. 4 231-254 (1993).


F.W. Weber, Artists’ Pigments: Their Chemical and Physical Properties, D. Van Nostrand, New York (1923) vii + 228 pp.


K. Yamasaki, "Technical Studies on the Pigments Used in Ancient Paintings of Japan," Proceedings of the Japan Academy 30 781-785 (1954).


Asphaltum


R.E. Child, “Pitch, Tar, Bitumen and Asphalt? A Sticky Problem,” In Resins: Ancient and Modern, Preprints of the Conference held at the Department of Zoology, University of Aberdeen, 13-14 September, 1995, M.M. Wright and J.H. Townsend, Editors, Scottish Society for Conservation and Restoration, Edinburgh 111-113 (1995).


K. Erdőhalmi-Török and M.K. Bendefy, “Microscopic Investigations of 19th Century Darkened Painting Samples,” In ICOM Committee for Conservation, 9th Triennial Meeting, Dresden, German Democratic Republic, 26-31 August 1990, Preprints, ICOM Committee for Conservation, Paris 14-17 (1990).


J.H. Stoner, “Art Historical and Technical Evaluation of Works by Three Nineteenth-century Artists: Allston, Whistler, and Ryder,” In Appearance, Opinion, Change: Evaluating the Look of Paintings, United Kingdom Insititute for Conservation, London 36-41 (1990).


F.W. Weber, Artists’ Pigments: Their Chemical and Physical Properties, D. Van Nostrand, New York (1923) pp20-22.


R. White, “Brown and Black Organic Glazes, Pigments, and Paints,” National Gallery Technical Bulletin 10 58-71 (1986).


Asphaltum : also known as Bitumen, Mineral Pitch, Antwerp Brown, and Mummy.


Azurite


R.J. Gettens and E.W. Fitzhugh, "Azurite and Blue Verditer," Studies in Conservation 11 54-61 (1966).


B. Guineau, "Analyse non destructive des pigments par microsonde Raman laser: exemples de l'azurite et de la malachite," Studies in Conservation 29 35-41 (1984).


J.R.J. Van Asperen de Boer, "An Examination of Particle Size Distributions of Azurite and Natural Ultramarine in Some Early Netherlandish Paintings," Studies in Conservation 19 No.4 233-243 (1974).


Bianco di San Giovanni


C. Cennini, The Craftsman's Handbook, Translated by D.V. Thompson, Jr., Dover, New York (1960), see p. 34.


E. Denninger, "What is 'Bianco di San Giovanni,'" Studies in Conservation 19 185-187 (1974).


R.J. Gettens, E.W. Fitzhugh and R.L. Feller, "Calcium Carbonate Whites," Studies in Conservation 19 157-184 (1974).


D.V. Thompson, Jr., The Materials and Techniques of Medieval Painting, Dover, New York (1956); see p. 97.


Cadmium Yellow


Cadmium Association, Technical Notes on Cadmium, Cadmium Pigments, London and New York (1978) pp.


H.H. Church, "Cadmium Yellow" In The Chemistry of Paints and Painting, Seeley and Co., Ltd., London (1901) pp.142-148.


H.S. Clarke, "Cadmium Pigments: A Non-toxic Group of Pigments," In Proceedings Society of Plastics Engineers Annual Technical Conference New Orleans (1979) pp.300-306.


I. Fiedler and M.A. Bayard, "Cadmium Yellows, Oranges and Reds," In R.L. Feller, Editor, Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York (1986) pp.65-108.


W.G. Huckle, G.F. Swigert and S.E. Wiberley, "Cadmium Pigments - Structure and Composition," Industrial Engineering Chemistry Product Research and Development 5 No.4 (December 1966) 362-366.


H. Kittel, "Cadmiumgruppe," In Pigmente: Herstellung, Eigenschaften, Anwendung, Wissenschaftliche Verlags­gesellschaft MbH, Stuttgart (1960) pp.196-206.


M. McCann, "Cadmium Hazards," Art Hazard News, 13, No.1 2 (1990).


T.C. Patton, "Cadmium Sulfide Pigments," In Pigment Handbook, Vol. 1: Properties and Economics, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1973) pp.389-393.


G.R. Streatfield, "The Safety of Cadmium Pigments," Pigment Resin Technology 5 No.6 18 (1976).


F. Stromeyer, "New Details Respecting Cadmium," Annals of Philosophy, Translated from Annalen der Physik 14 269-274 (1819).


H.W.D. Ward, "New Cadmium Pigments," The Chemical Trade Journal and Chemical Engineer 80 59-60 (1927).


Calcium Carbonate


M. Black, “Coccoliths,” Endeavor 24, No. 93 131-137 (1965).


E.G. Cox and T.H. Goodwin, “The Quantitative Analysis of Calcite-Aragonite Mixtures by X-rays,” Chemistry and Industry 11 172 (1933)


R.L. Feller, “Ruben’s The Gerbier Family: Technical Examination of the Pigments and Paint Layers,” In Studies in the History of Art, National Gallery of Art, Washington (1973) pp. 54-57.


R.J. Gettens, E.W. Fitzhugh and R.L. Feller, "Calcium Carbonate Whites," Studies in Conservation 19 No.3 157-184 (1974).


C.K. Huang and P.F. Kerr, “Infrared Study of Carbonate Minerals,” American Minerologist 45 311-324 (1960).


M.J.D. Low and J.M.D. Tascon, “An Approach to the Study of Minerals Using Infrared Photothermal Beam Deflection Spectroscopy,” Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 12 20-21 (1985).


A.R. Lukens, “Calcium Carbonate Inert Pigments,” Paint, Oil, and Chemical Review 22-28 (27 March 1941).


A.H. Pfund, “Some Optical Properties of White Paint Pigments in the Ultra-violet Spectrum,” Proceedings, American Society for Testing and MaterialsI23 369-378 (1923).


J. Winter, “Note on the Preparation and Mounting of Samples of Chalk/Glue Ground from Paintings for Scanning Electron Microscopy,” Studies in Conservation 20 169-173 (1975).


Chrome Red


H.F. Clay and V. Watson, "The Lightfastness of Lead Chrome Pigments," Journal of the Oil and Colour Chemists' Association 38 167-175 (1955).


H. Kühn and M. Curran, "Chrome Yellow and Other Chromate Pigments," In R.L. Feller, Editor, Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York (1986) pp.187-216.


R.C. Schiek, "Lead Chromate Pigments" In T.C. Patton, Editor, Pigment Handbook, Vol. 1, Properties and Economics, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1973) pp.357-370.


V. Watson and H.F. Clay, "Some Important Properties of Chromes," Journal of the Oil and Colour Chemists' Association 27 3-18 (1945).


G. Wormald, "Chromate Pigments" In R.R. Myers and J.S. Long Editors, Treatise on Coatings 3: Pigments Part I, Marcel Dekker, New York (1975) p.305ff.


Chrome Yellow


M.R Alderson., N.S. Rattan, L. Bidstrup, "Health of workmen in the Chromate-producing Industry of Great-Britain," British Journal of Industrial Medicine 38 No. 2 117-24 (1981).


G. Bloch, "Chrome Yellows and Molybdate Oranges," Double Liaison 161 51 (1969).


J.A. Campbell, "Spectral Evidence for Interionic Forces in Crystals-Chromates and Dichromates," Spectrochimica Acta 21 1333-1343 (1965).


V.H. Chalupski, "The Manufacture and Properties of Chromium Pigments," In M.J. Udy, Editor, Chromium, Vol. 1, Reinhold, New York (1956) pp.357-384.


E.E. Christofano, G.L. Kennedy, Jr., D.E. Gordon, M.L. Keplinger, and J.C. Calandra, "Toxicity of Lead Chromate Pigments and Tissue Residues Following 90 Days Feeding to Beagle Dogs. Hercules, Inc., Wilmington, Delaware: and Industriaal Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Northbrook, Illinois," Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 37 161 (1976).


H.F. Clay and V. Watson, "Some Important Properties of Chromes," Journal of the Oil and Coulour Chemists' Association 27, No. 283 3-18 (1944).


N.A. Dalager , T.J. Mason, J.F. Fraumeni, R. Hoover, and W.W. Payne, "Cancer Mortality among Workers Exposed to Zinc Chromate Paints," Journal of Occupational Medicine 22 No. 1 25-29 (1980).


J.M. Davies, "Lung Cancer Mortality of Workers in Chromate Pigment Manufacture: An Epidemiological Survey." Journal of the Oil and Colour Chemists' Association 62 157-163 (1979).


W.P. Doyle and P. Eddy, "Infrared Spectra of Chromates (V) of Calcium, Strontium and Barium," Spectrochemica Acta 23A 1903-1907 (1967).


E.J. Dunn, Jr., "Lead Pigments In R.R. Myers and J.S. Long Editors, Treatise on Coatings 3: Pigments Part I, Marcel Dekker, New York (1975).


E.J. Dunn, Jr., "Normal Lead Silico Chromate," In Pigment Handbook, Vol. 1, T.C. Patton, Editor, Wiley, New York, (1973) pp. 371-373.


R. Haug, "Über Belichtungsveruche mit Chromgelb," Deutsche Farben-Zeitschrift 5 343-348 (1951).


E. Hermann, "Chromate Pigments," Farbe Lack 72 No.11 (1966).


Imperial Chemicals Industries, Lead Chrome Paints, the Facts (1981) 12pp.


F.M. Jaeger and H.C. Germs, "Über die binären Systeme der Sulfat, Chromat, Molybat und Wolframat des Bleies," Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie 119 145-173 (1921).


M.L. Kastens and M.J. Prigotsky, "Barium Potassium Chromate Pigment," Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 41, Pt. 2 2376-2382 (1949).


G.L. Kennedy, Jr., M.L. Keplinger, R.J. Wigender, E.E. Christofano, and J.C. Calandra, "Toxicity of Lead Chromate Pigments and Tissue Residues Following 90 Days Feeding to Albino Rats. Industrial Laboratories, Inc. Northbrook, Illinois: and Hercules, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware," Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 37 160 (1976).


H. Kühn and M. Curran, "Chrome Yellow and Other Chromate Pigments," In R.L. Feller, Editor, Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York (1986) pp.187-216.


S. Långard and T. Norseth, "A Cohort Study of Bronchial Carcinomas in Workers Producing Chromate Pigments," British Journal of Industrial Medicine 32 62-65 (1975).


J. Meschezerski, "Trennung des Baryums von Stronium und Calcium durch neutrales chromsaures Kali," Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie 21 399-400 (1882).


N.C. Pearre and A.V. Heyl, Jr., The History of Chromite Mining in Pennsylvania and Maryland, Pennsylvania Topographic and Geologic Survey, Harrisburg, PA (1959).


S. Pollack and R.L. Feller, "On the Crystallography of Chrome Orange," Journal of Coatings Technology 48 No. 618 68 (1976).


R.C. Schiek, "Lead Chromate Pigments" In T.C. Patton, Editor, Pigment Handbook, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1973) pp.357-370.


M. Schofield, "Chromium Pigments," Paint Manufacturer 18 394-396 (1948).


A.A. Socolow, "Pennsylvania Chrome-Yellow Heritage," Pennsylvania Geology June (1976).


M.L. Somme-Dubru, M. Genet, A. Mathieux, P.G. Rouxhet, and L. Rodrique, "Evaluation by Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy of the Stabilization of Chrome-Yellow Pigments," Journal of Coatings Technology 53 No. 683 51-56 (1981).


H. Wagner and H. Schirmer, "Basisches Bleichromat und seine Umwandlung," Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie 222 245-248 (1935).


H. Wagner, M. Zipfel, G. Heinz, and R. Haug, "Ursachen und Behebung der Cromgelb-Lichtunechtheit," Farben Zeitung 38 932-934 (1933).


V. Watson and H.F. Clay, "The Lightfastness of Lead Chrome Pigments," Journal of the Oil and Colour Chemists' Association 38 167-175 (1955).


G. Wormald, "Chromate Pigments," In R.R. Mayers and J.S. Long Editors, Treatise on Coatings 3: Pigments Part I, Marcel Dekker, New York (1975) pp. 317-332.


Cobalt Blue


T. Pamer, "Modern Blue Pigments," In The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Preprints of Papers Presented at the Sixth Annual Meeting, Fort Worth, Texas 1-4 June 1978, pp.107-118.


"Synthetic Inorganic Complexes," In T.C. Patton, Editor, Pigment Handbook, Vol. 1, Properties and Economics, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1973) pp.419-427.


H.P. Preuss, Pigments in Paint, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ (1974) viii + 134pp.


E. Simunkova, J. Brothankova-Bucifalova and J. Zelinger, "The Influence of Cobalt Blue Pigments on the Drying of Linseed Oil," Studies in Conservation 30 No.4 161-166 (1985).


Cobalt Yellow


K.A. Hofmann and O. Burger, "Contribution to the Chemistry of Cobaltic Nitrates," Beriche der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 40 3298-3301 (1907).


A. Rosenheim and I. Koppel, "Über Kobaltoxydnitrate und einige Kobaltnitrocyanverbindungen," Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 17 35-38, 41-43 (1898).


E. Saint-Evre, "Note sur l'action de l'azotite de potasse sur le nitrate de cobalt," Comptes rendus 33 166-167 (1851).


E. Saint-Evre, "Recherches sûr une combinasion nouvelle du cobalt," Comptes rendus 35 552-555 (1852).


A. Stromeyer, "Über das salpetrigsaure Kobaltoxyd-kali," Liebig's Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie 96 218-231 (1855).


Emerald Green


G. Banik and J. Ponahlo, "Some Aspects Concerning Degradation Phenomena of Paper Caused by Green Copper Containing Pigments," In Preprints of the ICOM Committee for Conservation, 6th Triennial Meeting, Ottawa, 21-25 September 1981, ICOM, Paris (1981) pp.14-28.


N.S. Bromelle, "Russell and Abney Report of the Action of Light on Water Colours," Studies in Conservation 9 No.4 140-152 (1964).


A. Clapp and R.D. Buck, "Emerald Green and Ultramarine," ICA Newsletter 1 No.1 4-5 (1963).


F. Mairinger et al., "The Destruction of Paper by Green Copper Pigments, Demonstrated by a Sample of Chinese Wallpaper," In Conservation Within Historic Buildings, Preprints of the Contributors to the Vienna Congress, 7-13 1980, International Institute for Conservation, London (1980) pp.180-185.


Gamboge


S. A. Ahmad, W. Rigby, and R.B. Raylor, "Gamboge: Part 2," Journal of the Chemical Society: Part C. Organic 772-779 (1966).


M. Amorosa, G. Giovanninetti, and V. Zecchi, "Esters and Hydrocarbons of Gamboge Gum," Annali della Facolta di Agraria, Università Cattolica del Sarco Cuore 9 241-250 (1969); Chemical Abstracts 73: 101976.


M. Amorosa and A. Guarnieri, "A Uronic Polysaccharide in Gamboge: 2. Methylation of the Polysaccharide, Methanolysis, and the Compounds Obtained and 3. Compounds Obtained by Partial Analysis," Annali di Chimica 58 573-596 (1968); Chemical Abstracts 69:67646, 67647


M. Amorosa and Lipparini, "α-Gambogic Acid: A Constiuent of Gamboge," Annali di Chemica 45 977-982 (1955); Chemical Abstracts 50: 12080b.


H. Auterhoff, H. Frauendorf, W. Liesenklas, and C. Schwandt, "Structure of the Main Component of Gamboge Resin," Angewnadte Chemie, International Edition 1 455 (1962).


H. Auterhoff and W. Liesenklas, "Chemistry of Gamboge, 3: Main Components of Gamboge," Archiv der Pharmazie 299 91-96 (1966); Chemical Abstracts 64: 12635b.


C.W. Baile, R.M. Johnston-Feller and R.L. Feller, “The Fading of Some Traditional Pigments as a Function of Relative Humidity,” In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1988). pp. 287-292.


N. H. Dyson and W. Rigby, "Gamboge. 1: The Contitution of the Acids C11H10O4 and C12H10C6 Derived from Gabogic Acid," Journal of the Chemical Society 1858-1863 (1963).


V.S. Gupta, P.L.N. Rao, S.N. Vaidya, and R. Ramaseshan," Molecular Formula and Indentity of β-Guttiferin and α-Gambogic Acid," Chemistry and Industry 1469-1470 (1962).


Kew Bulletin, "Siam Gamboge [
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