Excerpts From “The Universal Theory Of Contiguity; a unified Field Theory,” by Judith James Stone © 1998




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Excerpts From “The Universal Theory Of Contiguity; A Unified Field Theory,” by Judith James Stone © 1998
FARADAY’S FIELD


The discovery of ‘electromagnetism’ in 1820 culminated from Hans Christian Oersted’s finding that a ‘magnetic circular current’ would be generated when passing electricity into a wire. The whole field theory quest spawned from this event. To determine from where, the ‘magnetic matter,’ ** of which Oersted’s ‘circular current’ was composed, became the main focus of the scientific world. The fact that Oersted’s magnetic current was a circular one, forming a sheath that surrounded the wire, caused a flurry of analytical debate. Maxwell's Equations are a composite; a reflection of all of the ‘accepted’ scientific work that culminated from Oersted’s discovery. In the second volume of Maxwell’s two volume treatises 1 that were written to outline these works, Maxwell states in article 645 that he has included Faraday’s experimental researches nos. 3266 and 3268 2 in his Equations. These researches reflect Faraday’s analogies with regard to magnetic lines of force, or the lines that can be seen in the iron sprinklings that surround a bar magnet, shown in the photo, below.

LINES OF FORCE AS THEY

APPEAR IN THE IRON

SPRINKLINGS AROUND A

BAR MAGNET


Faraday: “By magnetic curves, I mean the lines of magnetic forces, however, modified by the juxtaposition of poles, which would be depicted by iron filings; or those to which a very small magnetic needle would form a tangent.” 3

_________________________________________________________

1 A Treatise on Electricity & Magnetism, Vol. 2,” by James Clerk Maxwell, Dover Publications, New York, N.Y. (1954).

2 “Michael Faraday,” L. Pearce Williams, pg. 510,. Da Capo Series, N. Y. (1965). Also, in his paper read before the Cambridge Philosophical Society on 10 Dec., 1855, ‘On Faraday’s Lines of Force,’ by James Clerk Maxwell. (1965).

3 Williams, L. Pearce, “Michael Faraday,” p. 200, Da Capo series, New York, N.Y. (1965).
Excerpts From “The Universal Theory Of Contiguity; A Unified Field Theory,” by Judith S. Stone, © 1998


Faraday’s researches showed that the lines of force occur in two instances; as ‘electric lines of force,’ which are developed through electromagnetic induction, and as ‘magnetic lines of force,’ which are strains that appear within the medium. The strains are evidence of the forces that lie within a bar magnet. If the magnet is moved, electrical currents, and induction occurs, which causes the two phenomena to be ‘intimately’ related, but the magnetic forces that generate the electrical current were something completely different. It is for this reason that Faraday occupied himself with experimental researches that related to understanding the operations of these magnetic lines for close to half a century


Maxwell credited William Thomson (later to be known as Lord Kelvin) for the final mathematization of the ‘magnetic lines of force.’ However, Thomson mathematized the central, circular portion of the magnetic lines, only; a proposition that Faraday would have opposed, inasmuch as the straight magnetic lines on the end, to Faraday, served as an integral part to the operation of the whole magnetic field that forms from these lines. In addition, Thomson portrayed these lines as ‘electrostatic,’ not magnetic, also a proposition that Faraday would have opposed. By portraying the ‘magnetic lines of force’ as, solely, electrostatic Thomson’s mathematization ultimately served to support the theories of André-Marie Ampère, whose theories Faraday had, fervently, opposed for close to fifty years. Faraday's disagreements regarding Ampère's analogies are well documented in L. Pearce Williams' book, “Michael Faraday,” 4


Thomson: “All the views which Faraday has brought forward and illustrated or demonstrated by experiment, lead to this method of establishing the mathematical theory, and, as far as the analysis is concerned, it would, in most general propositions, be even more simple, if possible, than that of Coulomb.” 5


_________________________________________________________

4 Ibid 3

5 Ibid 3, p. 510, William Thomson, ‘On the Mathematical Theory of Electricity in Equilibrium,’ L. em E. Phil. Mag., 4 Ser., 8(1854), 53. The paper was first published in the Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal for November 1845.

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