Marci/ctx preflight Calibration Report




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MARCI/CTX Preflight Calibration Report





Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

Mars Color Imager (MARCI) and

Context Camera (CTX)

Pre-Flight Calibration Report


Number: MSSS-CTX-DOC-2002

Version: 1.5

Issue Date: 9 August 2005

Authors: MARCI/CTX Team: M. Malin, P.I.;

J. Bell, W. Calvin, B. Cantor, M. Caplinger, T. Clancy,

T. Ghaemi, R. Haberle, P. James, S. Lee, T. McConnochie,

E. Noe Dobrea, M. Ravine, P. Thomas, M. Wolff

Customer: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Project

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Project: MRO Context Camera

MRO Mars Color Imager

Contract: 1238365, 1239970


Malin Space Science Systems, Inc.

P.O. Box 910148

San Diego, CA 92191


CHANGE LOG


DATE

SECTIONS CHANGED

REASON FOR CHANGE

REVISION

12/23/04







Initial Team Release

2/3/05

All

New inputs received from team

Additions, Revisions

4/3/05

Sections 1 (Jim, Tony); 3.3.1.1 (Jim); 3.3.1.2 (Jim, Tim); 3.3.5 (Peter); 3.3.6 (Wendy); 3.3.8 (Jim); 5 (Wendy); Appendices K1 and K2 (Jim, Tony)

New inputs received from team

Revisions

6/6/05

Section 5

New inputs received from team

Revisions

6/13/05

All

Table of Contents

Format headings

6/15/05

2,3,appendicies

New data, plots, pictures, write-ups

Insert data, new headings, and new appendices

8/2/05

All

Update to version 1.4; Final pre-flight version

Update to CTX sections, refinement of MARCI sections

8/8/05

All

Final pre-flight version 1.5

Final updates































































TABLE OF CONTENTS


1. Introduction. 6

1.1. Purpose. 10

1.2. Requirements. 10

1.3. Scope. 11

1.4. Applicable Documents. 11

1.5. Calibration Strategy. 12

1.5.1. Objectives. 12

1.5.2. Performance Verification. 12

2. Component Level Testing and Calibration. 13

2.1 MARCI Component Level Calibration and Testing. 13

2.1.1. Standalone CCD Test and Calibration. 13

2.1.1.1. CCD Read Noise, Linearity, Scale Factor and Full Well. 13

2.1.1.2. Bias and Dark Current. 13

2.1.1.3. Quantum Efficiency (QE). 13

2.1.2. Filter Blocking and Transmission. 14

2.1.3. Optics Performance. 14

2.2. CTX Component Level Calibration and Testing. 14

2.2.1. Standalone CCD Test and Calibration. 14

2.2.2. Filter Blocking and Transmission. 14

2.2.3. Optics Performance. 15

3. Standalone Camera Level Testing and Calibration. 16

3.1. Overview and Requirements. 16

3.2. Tests and Procedures. 16

3.3. Detailed MARCI Test Descriptions and Results. 18

3.3.1. CCD Testing and Performance Validation. 18

3.3.1.1. Gain, Read Noise, Linearity, Full Well. 18

3.3.1.2. Dark Current. 21

3.3.2. Radiometric Calibration. 26

3.3.2.1. VIS Filters. 26

3.3.2.1.1. Sphere Calibration. 26

3.3.2.1.2. MARCI VIS Absolute Radiometric Calibration. 27

3.3.2.2. UV Filters. 28

3.3.2.3 Additional MARCI UV Radiometric Calibration Work to be Completed in 2005-2006 31

3.3.3. Flatfielding. 36

3.3.3.1. VIS Filters. 36

3.3.3.1.1. Test Setup and Procedures. 36

3.3.3.1.2. Analysis. 37

3.3.3.2. UV Filters. 40

3.3.4. System Spectral Throughput. 45

3.3.4.1. VIS Filters. 45

3.3.4.2. UV Filters. 53

3.3.4.3. Summary of VIS and UV Filters. 58

3.3.5. Geometric Target Imaging. 61

3.3.5.1. Visible Imager Geometric Calibration. 61

3.3.5.1.1. Stability of Rotation Stage. 65

3.3.5.1.2. Fitting Results. 65

3.3.5.1.2.1. Focal Length. 65

3.3.5.1.2.2. Functions to Map Angles. 66

3.3.5.1.3. Summary and Recommendations. 70

3.3.5.2. Ultraviolet Camera Geometric Calibration. 70

3.3.5.2.1. Measurements and Modeling. 70

3.3.5.2.2. Summary and Recommendations. 72

3.3.6. MTF/PSF Target Imaging. 74

3.3.6.1. Measurement of Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). 74

3.3.6.2. Test Set-up and Procedures. 74

3.3.6.3. Vertical Bar Results. 75

3.3.6.4. MTF Determination. 76

3.3.6.5. Discussion. 79

3.3.6.6. Horizontal Bar Results. 79

3.3.6.7.Summary. 81

3.3.7. Scattered and Stray Light Tests. 87

3.3.8. Observations of Geologic Samples. 90

3.3.9. Polarization. 94

3.4. Detailed CTX Test Descriptions and Results. 97

3.4.1. Introduction and Relevant CTX Background Information. 97

        3.4.1.1. 12 bit to 8 bit Data Conversion. 97

        3.4.1.2. DAC Voltage Offset Setting. 97

        3.4.1.3. Imaging Modes. 98

3.4.2. CCD Testing and Performance Validation. 99

3.4.2.1. QE, Gain, Read Noise, Linearity, Full Well. 99

3.4.2.1.1. Quantum Efficiency (QE) 99

3.4.2.1.2. Linearity. 100

3.4.2.1.3. Gain, Read Noise, and Full Well. 102

3.4.2.2. Dark Current. 103

3.4.3. Radiometric Calibration. 103

3.4.3.1. Data Set and Analysis Method. 103

3.4.3.2. Results 104

3.4.3.3. Validation 104

3.4.4. Flatfielding. 108

3.4.4.1. Effect of Electronic Rework on CTX Flat. 111

3.4.5. System Spectral Throughput. 112

3.4.6. Geometric Calibration. 115

3.4.7. CTX Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). 116

3.4.8. Scattered and Stray Light Tests. 121

3.4.9. Observations of Geologic Samples. 122

3.4.10. Polarization. 123

4. System Level (ATLO) Calibration and Testing. 124

4.1. Overview and Requirements. 124

4.2. Tests and Procedures. 126

4.3. Detailed MARCI Test Descriptions. 126

4.3.1. Geometric Target Imaging 126

4.3.2. Coherent Noise (EMI/EMC) Testing. 127

4.3.3. Dark Current Images. 127

4.4. Detailed CTX Test Descriptions. 127

4.4.1. Geometric Target Imaging. 127

4.4.2. Coherent Noise (EMI/EMC) Testing. 127

4.4.3. Dark Current Images. 127

4.4.3.1. Summary. 130

5. In-Flight Calibration, Testing, and Validation. 131

5.1. Overview and Requirements. 131

5.2. Post Launch and Cruise Observations. 132

5.2.1. Earth and Moon Observations. 132

5.2.2. Star Cluster Observations. 133

5.3. Aerobraking Phase. 133

5.4. Mapping Orbit. 133

5.4.1. In-Flight Darks, Flatfields, and Stray Light. 133

5.4.2.In-flight Bias and Dark Current Measurements. 134

5.5. Additional Primary Science Phase (PSP) Calibrations. 134

5.5.1. Overview and Requirements. 134

5.5.2. Standard Mars Regions. 134

5.5.3. Standard Stars. 134

5.5.4. Calibration Stability. 135

6. Calibration Data Format and Archiving. 136

7. Calibration and Test Schedule. 136

8. References. 137

9. Appendices and Ancillary Calibration Files and Data 138

Appendix A: MARCI on the Mars Climate Orbiter. 141

Appendix B: CTX: The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera. 142

Appendix C: MARCI Calibration Procedures for Spectral/Monochromator Data 143

MARCI-VIS spectral response, using the monochromator 143

[430 nm band] 143

[550 nm band] 144

[600 nm band] 144

[650 nm band] 145

[720 nm band] 146

Appendix D: MARCI Calibration Procedures for Radiance data. 148

MARCI-VIS Radiance Calibration (including LTF) 148

Appendix E: MARCI Radiometric Response Coefficient Data and Sample Plots. 153

Appendix F: MTF Observation Filenames and Parameters. 159

Appendix G: MTF Curves for each Filter and Distance using Vertical Bars. 161

Appendix H: Representative MTF IDL Code. 164

Appendix I (Following pages): Data Sheet for Kodak KAI-1001 CCD used for MRO/MARCI. 166

Appendix J (Following pages): Data Sheet for Kodak KLI-5001G CCD used for MRO/CTX. 167



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