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|Міністерство освіти і науки України|
Приазовський державний технічний університет
Кафедра іноземних мов та перекладу
“History and Culture of Britain
(late 18th-19th centuries)”
(для самостійної та аудиторної
роботи студентів ІІ курсу)
УДК 811.111’24 (076.5)
Навчально-методична розробка з Лінгвокраїнознавства “History and Culture of Britain (late 18th –19th centuries” (для самостійної та аудиторної роботи студентів II курсу) / Уклад: Чих О.І. ; ПДТУ.– Маріуполь: 2004 – 42с.)
Навчально-методична розробка призначена для аудиторної та самостійної роботи студентів 2 курсу спеціальності 7.03.05.07. Розробка містить матеріал з історії та культури Великої Британії, коментар до текстів та запитання з метою контролю.
Матеріал може вивчатися самостійно та дає можливість використовувати його для семінарів.
Рецензент: Ангарова Л.М., ст. викладач
Укладач: Чих О.І., ст. викладач
Відповідальний за випуск: Лазаренко Л.М., доцент
Затверджено на засіданні кафедри іноземних мов та перекладу
Протокол № 8 від 20 листопада 2003р.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND TO BRITAIN
I. BRITAIN AND THE FRENCН REVOLUTION OF 1789.
THE WARS WITH FRANCE (1789 - 1815)
1. Britain After the war of American Independence.
The War of American Independence ended as a war of Britain against half the world. France and Spain fought her by sea and land, the French ships seriously endangered her communications with India; Russia, Prussia, Holland and the Scandinavian Powers united their diplomatic and naval forces in the «armed neutrality of the North» to defend the rights of neutrals against the Mistress of the Seas (1780). In Ireland, for the first and last time in history, Protestants and Catholics united to overthrow the system by which their common interests were sacrificed to England.
The recovery of the thirteen colonies, that had already become the United States of America, was for ever impossible. The results meant a defeat for the king’s policy of personal government. The Tory and right Whig politicians who brought the country to the brink of political bankruptcy had to go, and in 1783 William Pitt the Younger1 became prime minister in the country at the age of 24 as the head of the revived Tory Party. He had strongly opposed the king»s personal government and American policy, but he was ready to make an alliance on his own terms with the crown. George III, since he could no longer rule in person, greatly preferred Pitt to the Whigs. The first decade of Pitt’s Ministry (1783-1793), before the French revolutionary wars came to confuse the issues, was a Ministry of peace and reconstruction, no less wise and more active than that of Walpole. Pitt reconstituted the finances of the country, restored its prestige at home and abroad, began to rebuild a new British Empire on the ruins of the old, modernized and secured the governments of Canada and India. After Walpole’s example, he reconstituted the power of the Prime Minister in the State as the true governor of the land, not the mere instrument of the royal will. He finally fixed the British conception of the Cabinet, as a responsible and united body, dependent on an independent House of Commons.
Owing to the personal ascendancy of Pitt the revived Tory party became for a while an instrument of progress. After the defeat of George Ill»s attempt to revive the power of the Crown, there had been a full restoration of aristocratic, Parliamentary government. Under the wise statesmanship of the younger Pitt, a Tory oligarchy became as firmly seated as the former Whig oligarchy of the Walpole era. Government depended once more, not on Court favour, but on the free judgment of the Houses of Parliament. Both Walpole and the younger Pitt though supported by the Peers, were in the fullest sense House of Commons men; their power rested on the rotten borough2 system more than on the House of Lords.
The old Whig and the new Tory oligarchies were much the same, in spite of the change of political label. The monopoly of power by the landowning class remained as before. The religious and political system with which the new Toryism was identified, was none other than the «Hanoverian» scheme of things which had been saved by the prudence of Walpole and the energy of Pitt’s father. But there was a change. The Whig oligarchs had defended the existing system against Stuart reaction supported by the French Bourbon3 despotism. The Tory oligarchs defended the same system against a new democratic movement at home and against armed French Revolution abroad.
Just when English political parties were beginning to divide on the double issue of religious equality and Parliamentary Reform, came the news of the French Revolution (1789-1791). With the French Revolution and the wars that followed, an end was put to all political changes in England for thirty years.
NOTES AND СОMMENTS
1.Уильям Питт Младший /1759-1806/, премьер-министр Англии /1783-1801, 1804-1806/.
2. «Гнилое местечко» - обезлюдевший в конце 18 в. и в начале 19 в. избирательный округ в небольших городах и деревнях; в также округах депутатов фактически назначали местные лендлорды; были упразднены в течение 19 в.
3. Бурбоны - королевская династия во Франции /конец 16 - начало 19 вв./
2. The Napoleonic Wars.
In 1789 for nearly a decade France had appeared to be falling into a decline. Unbalanced budgets and a bankrupt treasury, an army and a navy incompetently led and irregularly paid, a peasantry permanently overtaxed and suffering from the famine formed the background to and the reason for the calling of an assembly1 that had not met since 1614. Before long the Third Estate2 found itself in violent conflict with the Crown and the aristocracy and was forced along the path of revolutionary struggle. In this it received strong support from the peasantry and the lower classes in the towns. On July 14th the people of Paris stormed the Bastille. In October they marched out to Versailles and brought the King back as a prisoner to Paris.
To foreign observers all these events appeared to confirm their first impression that France was sinking into anarchy and could be neglected. The European Powers Austria, Russia and Prussia only by degrees realised that a new power, and new menace was arising out of the chaos. It was in England that this realisation first found expression. Here the power of the bourgeoisie had been consolidated in the revolutionary period a century earlier and here alone, therefore, the dominant sections of the bourgeoisie had no sympathy with the Revolution in France. British interests were not at first directly threatened. It was the conquest of Belgium and the denouncing of commercial treaties connected with that country that brought revolutionary France into direct conflict with British interests. Early in 1793 Britain entered the war, joining with Austria, Prussia and Spain to form the First Coalition. From the formation of the First Coalition in 1793 Britain, unlike other powers who changed sides or drifted in and out of the war, remained constantly at war against France till the capture of Paris in 1814. The main source of her strength was the modern and capitalist organisation which enabled trade and industry to increase even under war conditions and vast sums of money to be raised without bankruptcy.
During the greater part of twenty years of war, the immense superiority of the new French national spirit and organisation over the old-fashioned machinery of the Continental States ensured the death of each successive Coalition that England encouraged and financed against France (1793-1805). Pitt regarded the world crisis as a repetition, under changed political conditions, of the Seven Years» Wаr, and he hoped to fight for naval supremacy and colonial conquest, while sending over a few British troops and much British money to enable the allies to maintain themselves in Europe. But he had not his father»s genius for war; it was a very different France with which he had to deal. In 1793 a vigorous advance on Paris from the Netherlands might have changed the course of history. But the chance was let slip, and the Revolution had time to organize its latent energies. Neither the Austrian nor the British armies then in Flanders had the training or the leadership for such an enterprise.
Pitt, moreover, in 1793, sent a large part of the available British forces to the West Indies: the French West Indian Islands should be his Canada, which he would win for the Empire. In his generation the wealth of the sugar islands, where great fortunes were made by English planters, caused them to be much more highly regarded than Canada, and the sacrifices which Pitt made to preserve and to acquire such islands for the Empire, seemed very natural at the time. But he had no knowledge of the local conditions of warfare in the West Indies comparable to the knowledge his father had acquired of how Canada was to be won. Disease swept off the British soldiers by thousands. The slaves in the French and English islands rose. This affair, which added little to the British Empire, was only liquidated after the death of 40,000 British soldiers in three years (1793-1796).
These fearful losses in the tropical world, and the inefficient army system of the day, crippled England»s efforts in Europe. The preoccupation of Prussia and Russia in sharing up Poland, prevented them from playing the part against France assigned to them in Pitt’s scheme. The British and Austrian armies were driven out of the Low Countries3. In 1795 the First Coalition collapsed. Finally, Napoleon»s conquest of Italy (1796-97), and his establishment there of vassal Republics, introduced a new era of French conquest and of world politics. In 1797 Austria, beaten by Napoleon, was driven out of the war, leaving England alone against France. The war could probably have been ended but for the most fatal of Napoleon»s errors. This was his decision to strike at Britain through Egypt and the East instead of through Ireland. Ireland had been more affected by the French Revolution than any other country in Europe. There had been a demand for Irish independence and preparations for revolt. When the French Military propagandists offered Republican liberty to Ireland, their aid was accepted. But the Irish protestants could not join the French to set up a Celtic (Catholic) Republic. The Rebellion of 1798 was put down by the British Government. Later on, to strengthen control over the English settlers who ruled Ireland through an Irish Parliament from which Catholics were excluded (in a country where nearly all the native population were Catholic), this separate parliament was abolished and Ireland was legally united with Britain (January 1, 1800).
While the rebellion in Ireland was still going on, Napoleon had sailed for Egypt, had seized Malta on the way from the Knights of St. John. The path to Constantinople and India seemed open. The destruction of his fleet at the Battle of the Nile4 (August 1, 1798) put him out of the way. The battle of the Nile was one of the cardinal events of the whole war. It restored British naval power. Another consequence of the Nile was the restored dominance of Britain in Mediterranean waters. The power of the English fleet was finely based on Malta, which they took from the French in 1800 and relinquished. Austria and Russia felt encouraged to form the Second Coalition, which after a sudden and brief day of success in North Italy under Suvoroff (1799), perished on the field of Marengo5 at the hands of Bonaparte. After his defeat at the battle of the Nile, Napoleon slipped back to France and by the coup d’etat of the 18th Brumaire (November 9) he established himself as First Consul. As First Consul he now had at his command all the civil and military resources of France, which he reorganised as the resources of no nation had ever been organised before, giving France the modern administrative institutions by which she has lived ever since.
Next followed the episode of the «armed neutrality» formed by Russia and the Scandinavian Powers against England, partly on grounds of neutrals’ complaints of the right of search as exercised by the lords of the sea, partly as admirers and would-be allies of Bonaparte, for whose friendship the Czar Paul of Russia had yearnings. The assassination of the Czar (1801) and Nelson’s destruction of the Danish fleet under the guns of the Copenhagen forts, put an end to the peril in that quarter. French and Spanish, Dutch and Danish fleets had been shattered. The Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon were taken from the Dutch to secure the sea route to India. But on land no one could make head against Bonaparte. The two victorious enemies recognized their respective limits by the Treaty of Amiens 6.
It soon appeared that Bonaparte interpreted the Treaty of Amiens to mean the retirement of Britain behind the sea curtain, while he remained free to annex every State of Europe. It was not so that British statesmen interpreted the peace they had signed, which in their eyes set an agreed limit to French expansion. So in 1803 the war was resumed.
NOTES AND COMMENTS
1. Учредительное собрание во Франции.
2. Третье сословие, буржуазия.
3. Нидерланды, Бельгия и Люксембург.
4. Около Абукира /острова и мыса в дельте Нила/ во время Египетской экспедиции Наполеона Бонапарта английский флот во главе с контр-адмиралом Г.Нельсоном разгромил французский флот, и армия Бонапарта оказалась отрезанной в Египте от Франции».
5. Около Маренго /селение в Сев.Италии/ 14 июня 1800 г. во время войны Франции против 2-й антифранцузской коалиции французская армия Наполеона Бонапарта разбила австрийские войска и заняла Северную Италию .
6. Амьенский мирный договор, заключен 27 марта 1802 г. в Амьене между Францией и ее союзниками, с одной стороны, и Великобританией - с другой; заверил распад 2-й антифранцузcкой коалиции. Договор, предусматривавший освобождение подписавшими его сторонами некоторых территорий, занятых ими в ходе войны, обеспечил лишь непродолжительную передышку; в мае 1803 г. война между Великобританией и Францией вспыхнула вновь.
The French аrmу was gathered for the invasion of England. But in 1805 the British fleet under Admiral Nelson defeated the сombined French and Spanish fleets off Gape Trafalgar.
The Battle of Trafalgar1 gave Britain unchallenged control of the seas: from 1805 until World War II the British Royal Navy was the largest in the world and Britain «ruled the waves». It is myth that Trafalgar saved England from invasion - before that the plans for the invasion had been abandoned: by the promise of very large sums of money Pitt persuaded Austria and Russia to join in the Third Coalition and the French Army had been marched across Europe to meet the new enemy.
Soon after Trafalgar Napoleon captured Vienna and overwhelmed both Austrians and Russians at Austerlitz2. After another defeat at Friedland3 in 1807 the Czar of Russia made his peace with Napoleon, for six years neither Austria nor Prussia counted as European Powers. Napoleon now ruled over an Empire spread over a large territory of Europe.
In the long run, it was upon Russia and Spain, the two remotest and least developed of the European Powers that Napoleon was finally broken. For a time Napoleon and the Czar Alexander dominated Europe but Napoleon was not prepared to treat Alexander as an equal and the latter refused to be subordinate. Failing all else Napoleon decided on economic blocade of Britain (“Continenta1 System»4). Portugal for a century dominated by the British Government, refused to recognize the blockade. A French army was therefore sent to prevent trade between Portugal and Britain. At the same time, Napoleon tried to change his indirect control over Spain for a direct rule by making his brother Joseph king. This caused an immediate and universal revolt.
In 1808 Arthur Wellsley, later Duke of Wellington5, was sent with a small army to defend Portugal and encourage the Spanish insurrection. In 1811, when Napoleon had to draw away a part of his forces for the invasion of Russia, Wellington was able to take the offensive and step by step the French were driven out of the Peninsula. The disastrous retreat of Napoleon’s army from Russia set Europe once more ablaze. Napoleon was decisively beaten at Leipzig in October 1813. In April 1814 the Allies entered Paris and Napoleon banished to Elba. England, Russia, Austria and Prussia then settled down at the Congress of Vienna7 to fight over the profits of victory. Their deliberations were interrupted in 1815 by the sudden return of Napoleon to France and the One Hundred Days» Campaign which ended with his defeat at Waterloo7. The main features of the settlement arrived at by the Congress of Vienna were the restoration of despotism. The Holly Alliance8 in which Russia, Austria and Prussia agreed to give each other mutual support against the horrors of insurgent democracy did not survive the upheavals of 1830.
England’s share in the plunder was taken mainly outside Europe. The foundations for a great extension of the Empire were laid by the acquisition of a number of strategic key points: Malta, Mauritius, Ceylon, and the Cape.
NOTES AND COMMENTS
1. Трафальгарское сражение - 21 октября 1805 г., у мыса Трафальгар, около г. Кадис /Испания/ во время войны Франции против 3-й антифранцузской коалиция. Английский флот адмирала Г.Нельсона /был убит в бою/ разгромил франко-испанский флот адмирала П. Вильнева, что обеспечило господство английского флота на море.
2. Аустерлицкое сражение - 20 ноября /2 декабря/ 1805 г.. решающее сражение между русско-австрийскими и французскими войсками во время войны 1805 г. около г. Аустерлиц. Французская армия Наполеона I разбила русско-австрийские войска под командованием М.И. Кутузова, вынужденного действовать по одобренному Александром I неудачному плану австрийского генерала Ф.Вейротера. После сражения 3-я антифранцузская коалиция распалась.
3. Во время русско-прусско-французской войны 1806-1807гг. под Фридландом русская армия потерпела
поражение от наполеоновских войск, после чего Россия заключила Тильзитский мирный договор 1807 г.
4. Континентальная блокада - торговая блокада Великобритании, объявленная Наполеоном I в 1806 г. Всем союзным и подвластным Франции государствам запрещалось вести торговлю, поддерживать почтовые и другие сношения с Британскими островами. По Тильзитскому мирному договору 1807 г. к Континентальной блокаде вынуждена была присоединиться и Россия. После разгрома Наполеона в России /1812 г./ Континентальная блокада перестала соблюдаться большинством стран. Формально отменена с отречением Наполеона от престола /апрель 1814 г./
5. Первый герцог Веллингтон /Артур Уэсли - 1769-1852/ - английский фельдмаршал и государственный деятель. В 1815 г. разбил Наполеона при Ватерлоо.
6. Венский конгресс /I8I4-I8I5 гг./- конгресс европейских государств, завершил войны коалиций европейских держав с Наполеоном I.
7. Ватерлоо - населенный пункт в Бельгии, южнее Брюсселя; в период «Ста дней» около Ватерлоо 18 июня 1815 г. англо-голландские войска А.Веллингтона и прусские войска Г. Блюхера разгромили армию Наполеона I, что привело к вторичному отречению его от престола.
8. Священный Союз - реакционный союз Австрии, Пруссии и России, заключенный в Париже после падения империи Наполеона I. Целями являлось подавление революционных и национально-освободительных движений. В ряде актов участвовала Великобритания. Противоречия между европейскими государствами расшатывали Священный Союз, и в конце 20-нач. 30-х гг. XIX в. он фактически распался.
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