Potential methods and research needs for receptor methods to distinguish among fugitive dust sources




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НазваниеPotential methods and research needs for receptor methods to distinguish among fugitive dust sources
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THE FUGITIVE DUST CHARACTERIZATION STUDY

(FDCS):

POTENTIAL METHODS AND RESEARCH NEEDS FOR RECEPTOR METHODS TO DISTINGUISH AMONG FUGITIVE DUST SOURCES


Prepared by

John G. Watson Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV

Lowell Ashbaugh, University of California, Davis, CA

Gary Casuccio, RJ Lee Group, Monroeville, PA

Judith C. Chow, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV

Stephen Francis, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA

Patrick Gaffney, California Air Resources Board, Sacrament, CA

Jamie Fine

Tom Gill, USDA-ARS, Lubbock, TX

John Gillies, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV

Ron Higashi, University of California, Davis, CA

Philip K. Hopke, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY

Ann Kennedy, ARS, Spokane, WA

Douglas Lowenthal, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV

Karen Magliano, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA

Philip Roth, ENVAIR, San Anselmo, CA

John Sagebiel, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV

Dale Shimp, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA

Tony VanCurran, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA

Barbara Zielinska, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV

Steven Ziman, Chevron Research, Richmond, CA

Ted Zobeck, USDA-ARS, Lubbock, TX

Table of Contents


1. Introduction 3

1.1 Statement of Problem 3

1.2 Objectives 4

1.3 Coordination with Other CRPAQS Studies 4

2.1 Emissions Estimates in the San Joaquin Valley 6

2.2 Sampling Period 6

2.3 Sampling Domain 6

2.4 Priorities for Characterization 6

3. Potential Characteristics of Different Dusts and Activities 8

4. Analytical Methods 9

5. Dust Sampling and Preparation Methods 11

5.1 Site Selection 11

5.2 Site Documentation 11

5.3 Number of Samples 12

5.4 Sample Collection 12

5.5 Sample Preservation, Preparation, and Storage: 13

6. Analytical Methods for Selecting Profile Subsets 14

6.1 Sample Requirements. 14

6.2 Data base requirements 14

6.3 Source Mixtures 15

6.4 Testing Methods 15

6.5 Performance Measures 16

7. Implementation 16

8. References 17

1. Introduction


Both annual average and 24-hour PM10 standards are exceeded at most measurement locations in the San Joaquin Valley. Chow et al. (1993, 1996) show that suspended fugitive dust is a major PM10 and a significant PM2.5 component during the summer and fall.

Significant contributors to the geological fraction are believed to be: 1) suspended dust from paved and unpaved roads (including unpaved shoulders); 2) suspended dust from agricultural operations such as land preparation, cultivation, harvesting, and wind erosion of fallow land; 3) and road and building construction (Ahuja et al., 1989; Houck et al., 1989, 1990). Contributions from these fugitive dust sources to PM10 and PM2.5 measured at receptors need to be estimated to assign priorities emissions estimation studies and to determine the degree to which dust emissions must be controlled.

Newly promulgated PM2.5 and PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm and 10 µm, respectively) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS, U.S. EPA, 1997) are intended to protect community exposure in populated areas. Therefore, quantifying contributions from multiple fugitive dust to PM levels in communities is a more important goal that determining contributions to the highest PM10 measured in any part of the SJV.
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