Innovation and New Product Development in smes: An Investigation of the Scottish Food Industry




НазваниеInnovation and New Product Development in smes: An Investigation of the Scottish Food Industry
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3.8Analysis of innovation potential indicator questionnaire data



As stated above to test the innovation potential of respondents with high-suspected innovation proclivity, Dr. Peterson’s (Peterson, 2000) innovation potential indicator questionnaire (Appendix 12.3) was used. The instrument has 36 questions which are used to rank innovation potential of respondents through a test of four attributes namely motivation to change, challenging behaviour, adaptation and consistency of work styles. Here motivation to change and challenging behaviour are indicators of presence of innovation potential whereas adaptation and consistency of work styles reflect a lack of innovativeness. The fifth attribute social desirability is innovation potential neutral and used here as a masking influence on order not to make the statements in the questionnaire too obvious for respondents. Low or high scores for these attributes are interpreted in the following manner.


Attribute

Low score implies

High score implies

Motivation to change:

Enjoys reflection, seeks clarity persists to completion of tasks, may need support to try new ideas

Seeks change and stimulation; tolerates ambiguity; easily bored

Challenging behaviour

Promotes and maintains harmony, not contentious; acceptance of authority; socially conforming

Independent; assertive; challenges authority; non-conformist; headstrong and rebellious

Adaptation

Seeks originality; dares to be different; uninhibited by the current practice; radical; decides on instinct not facts

Keen to refine available approaches; values experience and evidence; accepts boundaries of operation

Consistency of work styles

Uses a range of work styles; flexibility; welcomes variety; comfortable with incomplete instructions; less detail conscious

Methodical; efficient; planful in approach; adheres to procedures; attends to detail; prefers structured tasks


The respondents were asked to rate each of the 36 statements in the questionnaire on a scale of 1 to 5 with the following specification:

  1. Strongly disagree

  2. Disagree

  3. Neither agree nor disagree

  4. Agree

  5. Strongly agree

3.8.1Measurement of motivation to change


The following nine statements in the questionnaire are designed to test the respondent’s level of Motivation to change. For Statements 2, 7, 13, 15, 27 and 32 higher score indicate higher Motivation to change whereas for statements 6, 17 and 19 the inverse is true i.e. lower the score higher the respondent’s level of Motivation to change.


No.

Statement

2

I tend to reset the goals and objectives of the work regularly.

6

I find it difficult to cope with shifting work goals.

7

I find it easy to generate enthusiasm to complete tasks at work.

13

If I had a new idea, I would find it easy to influence others in the department.

15

I have ideas that would significantly improve the way the job is done.

17

I like to tackle one problem at a time.

19

I try to avoid getting caught up in problems that have no clear-cut answers.

27

I like to have frequent changes in the way I do the work.

32

I require a positive feedback from others to persist with a new idea.



3.8.2Measurement of challenging behaviour



The following eight statements in the questionnaire are designed to test the respondent’s level of Challenging behaviour. For Statements 4, 5, 24, 29, 30, 31 and 35 higher the score higher the Challenging behaviour whereas for statements 8 the inverse is true i.e. lower score indicates the respondent’s higher level of Challenging behaviour.



No.

Statement

4

I believe it is better to ask for forgiveness than to ask for permission.

5

I would describe myself as a risk taker in the work that I do.

8

I would never try out new ideas without proper authority.

24

I feel constrained by the work culture and the way "the things are done around here".

29

The peers describe me as a non-conformist.

30

I would always challenge a decision at work if I thought it was necessary.

31

It does not bother me if people around me at work disapprove the work methods.

35

I am better at thinking up new ways of doing things than actually carrying them out.



3.8.3Measurement of adaptation



The following seven statements in the questionnaire are designed to test the respondent’s level of Adaptation. For statements 1, 9, 14, 22, 23 and 28 higher score reflects higher Adaptation level whereas for statement 36 the reverse is the case i.e. lower score means the respondent’s higher level of Adaptation.



No.

Statement

1

I would always evaluate an idea before putting it into practice.

9

I only suggest new ways of doing things if they are really necessary to get the job done.

14

I prefer to use tried and tested methods to get the job done.

22

I try to adapt older methods of doing things rather than dream up totally new ideas.

23

I try to improve the way I do the job rather than try ways that are totally new.

28

Others would describe me as predictable in the way I do the work.

36

To make significant improvements I need to be creative in reaching solutions



3.8.4Measurement of consistency of work style



The following six statements in the questionnaire test the respondent’s level of Consistency of work styles. For statements, 10, 21, 26, 33 and 34 higher score means higher Consistency of work styles whereas for statement 18 lower score indicate higher level of respondent’s Consistency of work styles.


No.

Statement

10

I follow a strict system in the way I do the work.

18

I sometimes get criticized for lacking discipline in m work methods.

21

I tackle the work methodically.

26

I am consistent in the way that I tackle work.

33

I try to analyse new ideas carefully before using them for work.

34

I find it difficult to gain a fresh perspective on old problems at work.



3.8.5Measurement of social desirability



The following six statements in the questionnaire are designed to test the respondent’s level of Social Desirability. For statements 3, 11, 16 and 25 higher the score higher the Social Desirability whereas for statements 12 and 20 the inverse is true i.e. lower the score higher the respondent’s level of Social Desirability.



No.

Statement

3

I look forward to taking part in brainstorming sessions.

11

I find it easy to look at a problem from many different perspectives.

12

I am aware that I am one of the last persons in the workgroup to accept something new.

16

I often contribute to changes in the way the department works.

20

I find it difficult to persuade others into the way of thinking.

25

If I felt strongly about a proposal, I would take a stand against others.



Following is a completed questionnaire that illustrates the calculations.

 

STATEMENT

Strongly disagree

Disagree

Neither agree nor disagree

Agree

Strongly agree

Adaptation

Motivation to change

Social Desirability

Challenging Behaviour

Consistency of work style

1

I would always evaluate an idea before putting it into practice.



=







2

 

 

 

 

2

I tend to reset the goals and objectives of the work regularly.







=



 

4

 

 

 

3

I look forward to taking part in brainstorming sessions.







=



 

 

4

 

 

4

I believe it is better to ask for forgiveness that to ask for permission.









=

 

 

 

5

 

5

I would describe myself as a risk taker in the work that I do.









=

 

 

 

5

 

6

I find it difficult to cope with shifting work goals.



=







 

4

 

 

 

7

I find it easy to generate enthusiasm to complete tasks at work.









=

 

5

 

 

 

8

I would never try out new ideas without proper authority.



=







 

 

 

4

 

9

  I only suggest new ways of doing things if they are really necessary to get the job done.



=







2

 

 

 

 

10

I follow a strict system in the way I do the work.



=







 

 

 

 

2

11

I find it easy to look at a problem from many different perspectives.









=

 

 

5

 

 

12

I am aware that I am one of the last persons in the workgroup to accept something new.







=



 

 

2

 

 

13

If I had a new idea, I would find it easy to influence others in the department.









=

 

5

 

 

 

14

I prefer to use tried and tested methods to get the job done.



=







2

 

 

 

 

15

I have ideas that would significantly improve the way the job is done.







=



 

4

 

 

 

16

I often contribute to changes in the way the department works.







=



 

 

4

 

 

17

I like to tackle one problem at a time.





=





 

3

 

 

 

18

I sometimes get criticized for lacking discipline in m work methods.







=



 

 

 

 

2

19

I try to avoid getting caught up in problems that have no clear-cut answers.



=







 

4

 

 

 

20

I find it difficult to persuade others into the way of thinking.







=



 

 

2

 

 

21

I tackle the work methodically.

=









 

 

 

 

1

22

I try to adapt older methods of doing things rather than dream up totally new ideas.



=







2

 

 

 

 

23

I try to improve the way I do the job rather than try ways that are totally new.



=







2

 

 

 

 

24

I feel constrained by the work culture and the “way things are done around here”.







=



 

 

 

4

 

25

If I felt strongly about a proposal, I would take a stand against others.







=



 

 

4

 

 






STATEMENT



Strongly disagree

Disagree

Neither agree nor disagree

Agree

Strongly agree

Adaptation

Motivation to change

Social Desirability

Challenging Behaviour

Consistency of work style

26

I am consistent in the way I tackle work.


























27

I like to have frequent changes in the way I do the work.







=



 

4

 

 

 

28

Others would describe me as predictable in the way I do the work.



=







2

 

 

 

 

29

The peers describe me as a non-conformist.







=



 

 

 

4

 

30

I would always challenge a decision at work if I thought it was necessary.







=



 

 

 

4

 

31

It does not bother me if people around me at work disapprove the work methods.









=

 

 

 

5

 

32

I require a positive feedback from others to persist with a new idea.





=





 

3

 

 

 

33

I try to analyse new ideas carefully before using them for work.



=







 

 

 

 

2

34

I find it difficult to gain a fresh perspective on old problems at work.

=









 

 

 

 

1

35

I am better at thinking up new ways of doing things than actually carrying them out.







=



 

 

 

4

 

36

To make significant improvements I need to be creative in reaching solutions.







=



2

 

 

 

 

 

 TOTAL SCORES

 

 

 

 

 

14

36

21

35

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AD

MTC

SD

CB

CWS


As the scores for attributes Motivation to change and Challenging behaviour are 36 and 35 respectively, which are much higher than the scores for Adaptation, and Consistency of work styles (14 and 08 respectively) the conclusion is that person who has filled in this questionnaire has high innovation potential.
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