A historical Survey of Proposals to




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A Historical Survey of Proposals to

Transfer Arabs from Palestine

1895 - 1947

by Chaim SIMONS

"The Zionist Crime" Collection

Gengis Khan Publishers

Ulaan Baator

Internet 2004

Chaim SIMONS : Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine —————————————————————————————————————

A Historical Survey of Proposals to

Transfer Arabs from Palestine

1895 - 1947

by

Rabbi Dr. Chaim Simons P.O. Box 1775 Kiryat Arba Israel Tel: 02-9961252

,

Copyright 1998 Chaim Simons Latest Revision: 3 June 2003

First displayed on Internet by the Author in 1998.

Gengis Khan Publishers, for the ne varietur PDF Internet edition Ulaan Baator, February 2004.



CHAIM SIMONS was born in London in 1942. At the age of 20, he was awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science with First Class Honours in Chemistry and Physics from the University of London. Three years later he received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry from the same University. At a later date, he was awarded a Bachelor degree in Educational Technology. He also possesses a Rabbinical Diploma and is a qualified teacher with decades of experience in Education, which includes the setting and marking of Matriculation examinations. In addition to his books on Population Transfer, Rabbi Dr. Simons is also the author of a number of papers on Rabbinical subjects which have been published in scholarly journals, and has prepared pupils workbooks which link together religious and scientific knowledge.

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Who said the following?

1) I favour compulsory transfer (of Arabs). I see nothing unethical in it. 2) The Jews ... will help in getting Arabs out of Galilee.

3) Palestine should be for the Jews and no Arabs should be in it.

4) Western Palestine should be handed over completely to the Jews, clear of Arab population...

For the answers, read this book... you will get some surprises!!

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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

SECTION 1. PROPOSALS BY INDIVIDUAL JEWS Theodor Herzl Herzl's Diaries Interpretations of Herzl's Diary Entry Herzl's True Thoughts Herzl's Letter to Al-Khalidi Herzl's Charter David Ben-Gurion Ben-Gurion's Transfer Proposals Enthusiastic Reaction to Transfer Proposal Ben-Gurion's Letters to his Son Amos Ben-Gurion's Plan to Transfer Arabs to Iraq The Early 1940s Ben-Gurion's Path to Pragmatism Chaim Weizmann Weizmann's First Transfer Proposal Weizmann and the British Colonial Secretary Weizmann's Letters Weizmann's Hints at Transfer Meeting with Leaders of the British Labour Party Meeting at New Court Attitude of Weizmann towards Transfer Nachman Syrkin Dr. Arthur Ruppin Leo Motzkin Akiva Ettinger Israel Zangwill Zangwill Perceives Arab Problem in Palestine Lecture to Fabian Society Zangwill's Conversation with Jabotinsky Zangwill's Article of May 1917 "Before the Peace Conference" Reactions to Zangwill's Article Editorial Comments in "The Jewish Chronicle" Lecture in Aid of War-Wounded "Zionism and the League of Nations" Zangwill's Address to Poale Zion Zangwill's Address to the American Jewish Congress Zangwill the "Most Consistent Advocate" Vladimir Jabotinsky Baron Edmond de Rothschild Felix Warburg Menachem Ussishkin

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Chaim SIMONS : Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine —————————————————————————————————————

Moshe Shertok (Sharett) Abraham Sharon (Schwadron) Berl Katznelson Yitzchak Tabenkin Dr. Jacob Thon Edward Norman Introduction

Three Successive Versions of Norman's Plan Early Meetings Meetings with American Government Officials Bell's Second Visit to Iraq Unsolicited and Unwanted Help Norman and Rutenberg Attempts at a Pilot Plan Meeting with the British Colonial Secretary Further Contacts with American Officials Contacts with Bell Request by Bell for Permit to Travel to Iraq Change in Attitude of American Government Further Developments Remuneration to Bell Contacts with the American Government Resettlement Plan for Arab Refugees The Saltiel Proposal Emanuel Neumann Joseph Weitz Israel Sieff Ernst Frankenstein Victor Gollancz Eliahu Ben-Horin Israel Ben-Shem

SECTION 2. PROPOSALS BY INDIVIDUAL NON-JEWS President Franklin D. Roosevelt Ex-President Herbert Hoover Hoover's Initial Proposal for Transfer Hoover's Statement to "World-Telegram" American Zionists' Reaction to Hoover Plan Iraqi Reactions Correspondence in "The New York Times" Meetings and Proposals on the Hoover Plan President Eduard Benes Mojli Amin, an Arab Ambassador William Bullitt High Commissioner Sir Arthur Wauchope Leopold Amery Sir Norman Angell Edwyn Bevan Ely Culbertson John Gunther Walter Clay Lowdermilk Colonel Richard Meinertzhagen Rev. Dr. James Parkes Reinhold Niebuhr Senator Claude Pepper

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Chaim SIMONS : Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine —————————————————————————————————————

Bertrand Russell . Harry St. John Philby The Plan and Initial Contacts Zionist Efforts Philby in Saudi Arabia Discussions with British Officials

Discussions by the Jewish Agency Executive Colonel Hoskins' Visit to Saudi Arabia Further Discussions by the Jewish Agency Executive Real Attitude of Ibn Saud towards the "Philby Plan" The Namier-Baffy Plan

SECTION 3. THE PEEL COMMISSION REPORT The Report Jewish Agency Discusses Transfer Reactions of American Jewish Press British Government Reactions to the Peel Report Bonne's Memorandum Mapai Central Committee Council of "World Unity" British Parliamentary Debates Permanent Mandates Commission League of Nations Twentieth Zionist Congress Jewish Agency Council Jewish Agency Committee for Transfer of Arabs Jewish Agency Executive Material Submitted to Woodhead Commission Retraction of Peel Commission Recommendations

SECTION 4. THE RESOLUTION OF THE BRITISH LABOUR PARTY The Resolution How the Palestine Paragraph was Formulated The Attitude of Clement Attlee to Transfer Reactions to the Resolution Zionist Reactions The Correspondence Columns in the "Tribune" Editorial Reactions in the Jewish Press Labour Party Conference 1944 Change in Labour Party Policy The Resolution of the British Common Wealth Party

SECTION 5. PROPOSALS BY THE REVISIONISTS American Resettlement Committee Lohamei Herut Israel (Lehi)

SECTION 6. PLAN TO TRANSFER DRUZE FROM PALESTINE

CONCLUSION

NOTES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Abbreviations

BGA Ben-Gurion Archives CZA Central Zionist Archives

HH Herbert Hoover Presidential Library ISA Israel State Archives LSE London School of Economics Archives Mapai Labour Party (Mapai) Archives NA National Archives Washington PRO Public Record Office London SU Sydney University Archives WA Weizmann Archives

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I N T R O D U C T I O N

What do Theodor Herzl, David Ben-Gurion and Chaim Weizmann, all outstanding Zionist leaders, have in common with such diverse personalities as U.S. Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Herbert Hoover and British anti-Zionist Harry St. John Philby. All these statesmen - and many others - have advanced proposals for the transfer of Arabs from Palestine. These proposals are the subject of this book.

One is sure to ask, how and when did I become interested in such a subject? It was during the 1970s when I was Director of Jewish Studies at a Jewish High School in the North of England. This was the period when Arab students at the various British Universities began to utilise the campuses to propagate anti-Israel propaganda. The Jewish students at the Universities were the first line of Israel's defense, but at the time they had not been briefed on how to answer the Arab students. I therefore brought out a booklet entitled "How to Answer Anti-Israel Propaganda" and this booklet was used with some success on the campuses.

Whilst researching this booklet, I came across an anti-Zionist book which devoted a couple of pages to show that there had been various proposals in the past to transfer Arabs from Palestine. I must admit, that at the time, this came as quite a surprise to me, and I decided that when I had some time available I would look more deeply into the question. I assumed that there were just a few stray statements on this subject and that after I had researched them, I would publish an article on the topic.

However, after I began research in 1984, I soon discovered that it was not just "a few stray statements" but that the transfer of Arabs from Palestine was definite policy not only of the Zionist leaders, but also of many leading individual non-Jews (including some who were pro-Arab!), non-Jewish organisations and even some Arabs.

The material I uncovered during my research was sufficient for a book and in 1988 my book "International Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine, 1895-1947, A Historical Survey" was published.

There is no end to research! I therefore continued to research this subject and discovered additional information. This was especially so in the case of Edward Norman's transfer plan, and therefore at the beginning of 1991, I published an expanded version of this section of my book under the title "Edward Norman's Plan to Transfer Arabs from Palestine to Iraq." Further research merited the bringing out a supplement to my book (of 1988) and this was published in January 1993.

In May 1994, I combined and integrated all the material appearing in my various books on this subject, and together with the latest material which I had researched until that time, brought out a book which I called "HERZL TO EDEN".

In September 1997 I brought out "Supplement Number 1" to "Herzl to Eden".

I have now integrated this supplement into my book which I am now putting on the INTERNET. As I uncover new material, I add it at the appropriate place in the book.

This study examines the transfer proposals put forward from 1895 to 1947. Chronologically the earliest proposal appearing in my book was made by Theodor Herzl and the latest by Anthony Eden - hence the title "HERZL TO EDEN". Contemporary arguments both for and against the various plans are discussed, and historical background material is

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included, with brief biographies of prominent personalities.

The study is based almost entirely on primary sources, including hitherto unpublished documents obtained from archives in Israel, the United States, Great Britain and Australia. Diaries, memoirs, historical works, and newspaper files complement the archival material.

The issue of population transfer is a very delicate subject. For this reason, many proposers confined the exposition of their ideas to diaries, private correspondence and closed meetings. In public they either ignored the subject of transfer or spoke against it. Even those who did propose various schemes were often reluctant to specifically suggest compulsory transfer. They relied on various euphemistic expressions to convey their intentions regarding compulsion.

I have therefore made it an important aim of this work to ascertain the private views of the proposers on this subject. The wording of their proposals has also been carefully analysed to determine whether the transfer of the Arabs from Palestine was intended to be compulsory or voluntary.

One of the striking things to come to light during this research is the attempt to rewrite history and pretend that the Zionist leaders were completely opposed to the transfer of Arabs, even to the extent of censoring portions of official minutes and amending of documents! This rewriting is reminiscent of the Russian Encyclopaedia. After Beria's execution, the publishers of this encyclopaedia wrote to its subscribers, suggesting they cut out the pages dealing with "Beria" and in their place insert the enclosed pages on the "Bering straits" -which had the same alphabetical sequence! - (BERIa, BERIng).

The reader of this book will notice that its format is closer to that of an encyclopaedia than a work set in an integrated historical framework. When I wrote my first book on this subject, I carefully weighed up these two alternative formats, and came to the conclusion that to keep the various transfer plans distinct, the encyclopaedic format was preferable. My continued research on this subject has in fact reinforced my opinion on this point. However, there are in fact link ups between some of the proposals which were made and these are pointed out in the text.

Finally, I will be more than happy to receive comments, observations, corrections and further information on this subject from my readers.

Chaim Simons P.O.B. 1775 Kiryat Arba Israel Tel: 02-9961252

May 1998

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A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S

A work of this nature can only be achieved with the co-operation and assistance of librarians and archivists. They were almost invariably found to be most co-operative and helpful.

Acknowledgments are due to the staff of the:

American Jewish Archives, Cincinnati, Ohio

American Jewish Historical Society, Waltham, Massachusetts Ben-Gurion Archives, Sede Boker Bet Lehi Archives, Tel-Aviv Bnei Brith, Washington D.C.

Braham Mark (Private papers), Rose Bay, New South Wales British Council Library, Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv British Labour Party Archives, Manchester British Library of Political and Economic Science, London British Newspaper Library, London Central Zionist Archives and Library, Jerusalem Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge Columbia University, New York Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, New York Haifa Municipal Archives Hebrew University Library, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem Herbert Hoover Library, Iowa Institute for Researching the Labour Movement Library, Tel-Aviv Israel State Archives, Jerusalem Jabotinsky Archives, Tel-Aviv Jewish National and University Library, Jerusalem Kibbutz ha-Me'uhad Archives, Yad Tabenkin, Efal Kiryat Arba Municipal Library Kiryat Arba Religious School Library Labour Party, London Labour Party (Mapai) Archives, Bet Berl, Kfar Saba Lehi Archives, Tel-Aviv Library of Congress, Washington D.C.

Liverpool Trades Council Archives Marks and Spencer Archives, London National Archives, Washington D.C. Nuffield College, Oxford Princeton University Library, New Jersey Public Record Office, London Sydney University Library Tel-Aviv University Library Temple, Cleveland, Ohio Weizmann Archives, Rehovot Zionist Archives, New York

*******

Throughout this book the term "Palestine" has been used for Eretz-Israel. No ideological or political significance should be inferred from this.

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A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

The era of "Modern Zionism" can be said to have begun towards the end of the 19th century with the "Hovevei Zion", the "First Aliyah", and Theodor Herzl.

In one of the first entries in his private diary dated June 1895, (even before he had decided on the final location of the Jewish State), Herzl wrote that it would be necessary to remove the non-Jews from such a state. Herzl apparently realised that it would not be prudent to publicise such an idea, since there is not a hint of it in his famous book "The Jewish State", which was published just a few months later.

In contrast, Nachman Syrkin, who was one of the founders of "Socialist Zionism", had no inhibitions about making public the possibility of transfer of Arabs from Palestine, and such a proposal appears in his booklet published in 1898.

In the same year, Herzl visited Palestine and saw the country at first hand. A few years later in his unpublished "Draft Charter" for Palestine he wrote that the Jews would have the right to transfer Arabs to other parts of the Ottoman Empire. Another person to visit Palestine at that period was the Anglo-Jewish writer Israel Zangwill, who, after a few years reflection, proposed such transfer in lectures which he gave in the U.S.A. and Britain in 1904 and 1905. One should note that the public pronouncements on this question by both Syrkin and Zangwill did not give rise to any adverse comments.

At this period, the Zionist movement was still in its infancy and proposals for transfer were made by only a few individuals, particularly Zangwill. Following the rejection of Uganda as the location for a Jewish Homeland in 1905, Zangwill left the Zionist movement, and it seems that no further proposals for Arab transfer were put forward for a number of years.

It was in the early 1910s that two leading Zionists, Arthur Ruppin and Leo Motzkin put forward transfer proposals, the former in a private letter and the latter in the course of a lecture to a Conference of German Zionists which was subsequently published in a German Jewish newspaper. However, the main proposer of transfer at this period was Zangwill, who, after he had returned to the Zionist fold, wrote a number of articles and delivered a number of lectures on this subject.

At the end of 1918, following one of Zangwill'sarticles, a public condemnation of his proposals by several prominent Anglo-Jews, appeared for the first time in the British-Jewish press. One should remember, however, that this was the period of the Balfour Declaration. A number of prominent Anglo-Jews from families who were well-established in Britain, were vigorously opposed to the establishment of a Jewish National Home in Palestine and as a result of their efforts, the final text of the Balfour Declaration was less favourable to the Zionist aspirations. The Anglo-Jews publicly opposing Zangwill's transfer proposals largely came from these well-established families. To their great credit, the press did not prevent Zangwill from using their columns to propagate his ideas on Arab transfer - "freedom of expression" was sacred at that period!

Following the termination of the First World War, Fridtjof Nansen, proposed a compulsory transfer of population between Greece and Turkey involving nearly two million people and this proposal was subsequently implemented by the League of Nations. The success

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of this population exchange and the resultant friendly relations between Greece and Turkey, gave a "boost" to the solution of population exchange to solve regional problems and this example was later to be used in proposing Arab transfer from Palestine.

Apart from some further proposals (one of them quite drastic!) by Zangwill in the early 1920s, no further proposals seem to have been made until about 1930.

In 1929, there were serious Arab pogroms in many places in Palestine, resulting in the murder of well over a hundred Jews and this made the transfer of Arabs from Palestine more attractive to the Jewish and even non-Jewish public.

The original Mandate for Palestine had included the area of Transjordan. However, in order to solve inter-Arab feuding, the provisions of the Mandate over the area of Transjordan were suspended and Zionist colonisation was forbidden there. These factors led in 1930 to a number of proposals being made to transfer Arabs, to Transjordan. These included proposals by bodies such as the Jewish National Fund (J.N.F.), by individuals such as Weizmann and Ben-Gurion, and by non-Jews, such as Drummond Shiels who was then British Assistant Colonial Secretary. Such transfer was particularly suggested for those Arabs in Western Palestine who were living on land being purchased by the Zionists. In fact, even before this time such Arabs were often transferred. Many Kibbutzim of "Hashomer Hazair", an extreme left-wing movement, who would publicly vehemently condemn Arab transfer, were established on land from which Arabs had been transferred!

One person connected with Arab transfer, who until quite recently had hardly been heard of, was an American Jew named Edward Norman. Norman made a very strong principle of not letting his name be publicised in connection with his transfer proposal. Only when Weizmann's letters and Ben-Gurion's memoirs began to bepublished, did people see the name of Edward Norman and his transfer proposal. Norman worked on his plan to transfer Arabs from Palestine to Iraq, from 1933 onwards for about 15 years. Without doubt, there is more archival material on Norman's plan thanon any other transfer plan on the subject. In the course of his endeavours Norman regularly met or corresponded with the high echelons in both the British and U.S. administrations and also with the top Zionist leaders.

In 1936, a campaign of Arab terrorism began, considerably disrupting life in Palestine. This resulted in the British Government'ssetting up of a Royal Commission comprising six highly respected gentlemen under the chairmanship of Lord Peel. After visiting Palestine and taking evidence from over one hundred witnesses, they returned to England to produce their Report, which was unanimous and consisted of over 400 pages. Amongst their recommendations was the transfer of Arabs from the proposed Jewish State. For the Arabs living in the Plains of Palestine, such transfer could be compulsory.

The British Government found themselves in general agreement with the recommendations of this Commission and they made no objections whatsoever to the compulsory transfer proposal.

The Peel Commission recommendations were thoroughly debated in a number of forums both Jewish and non-Jewish. Some of the Zionist leaders also confided their secret thoughts on the subject to their private diaries and in confidential correspondence and closed meetings. Their comments on compulsory transfer were interesting:

Ben-Gurion's observations in his private diaryon compulsory transfer were extremely enthusiastic and he stressed the importance of Arab transfer from the Jewish State. Weizmann in his letters and meetings of that period displayed a similar enthusiasm on this subject. At the 20th Zionist Congress which took place about a month after the publication of this Report, many of the participants spoke in favour of transfer, although when the "official" minutes were published, many of their comments on transfer were omitted! Berl Katznelson, who was known as the "conscience" of the Jewish Labour Party, spoke up strongly in favour of transfer at a meeting of the "Council of World Unity" (the amalgamated Zionist Socialist parties) held a few weeks before the 20th Zionist Congress. In contrast, Jabotinsky, leader of the Revisionist movement came out very strongly against transfer. This in fact had been his stand for decades.

When debated in the British Parliament, several members of Parliament, who were members of the pro-Arab lobby, came out in favour of, and even exceeded, the

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recommendations of the Commission on the question of Arab transfer. They realised that an Arab presence in a Jewish State would be undesirable and cause friction in the future.

In November 1937, the Jewish Agency set up a Committee for Transfer of Arabs and during the course of the following seven months this Committee regularly met, and assembled information and statistical data, in order to work out a programme for the compulsory transfer of Arabs from Palestine.

In the summer of 1937, the Arabs in Palestine resumed and even intensified their acts of terror and assassinations and the British Government began a policy "to extricate themselves" from the recommendations of the Peel Commission. They began by stating in a "Despatch" dated December 1937 that they had in no way accepted the recommendation of the Peel Commission on compulsory transfer! This was a complete revision of history, and furthermore, early drafts of this very same "Despatch" did not contain this "disclaimer" on compulsory transfer!!

One should note that even after the British Government had retracted from the acceptance of compulsory transfer, the Jewish Agency Committee on Transfer continued to prepare plans for compulsory transfer

To complete their retraction from the Peel Commission recommendations, the British Government set up a new Commission under Sir John Woodhead - wags called it the "Re-Peal" Commission!! This Commission's resultant Report was followed by a White Paper very severely limiting Jewish immigration to Palestine.

Although at this period, the British Government became vehemently anti-transfer of Arabs, the U.S. Government was moving in the opposite direction. This can be illustrated by the reactions of officials of the U.S. government who were doing all they could to help Edward Norman advance his transfer plan, whilst at the same time British officials were doing all they could to squelch it. However, in all fairness, one must remember that whereas the British Government was the Mandatory Power with the responsibility to maintain order, the American Government could stand on the sidelines and watch! Even the American President, Franklin D. Roosevelt at that period came out strongly in favour of Arab transfer.

Although the British Government were then strongly opposed to transfer, it is interesting to note that Sir Harold MacMichael, who was the British High Commissioner for Palestine, and could thus see the situation at first hand, was in favour of Arab transfer.

Another interesting phenomenon of the late 1930s and early 1940s was the conviction of some pro-Arabists that the transfer of Arabs from Palestine was the only solution to the Arab-Jewish conflict. The classic example is that of the pro-Arabist Harry St. John Philby, who worked for several years on his plan (enthusiastically supported by top members of the Zionist leadership) to transfer almost all the Arabs from Palestine. Philby had several meetings with King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia to try to persuade him to accept such a plan. Some historians suggest that at the beginning of the Second World War, the King was in favour of this plan. Even an Arab, Mojli Amin who was a member of the Arab Defense Committee for Palestine, put forward his own memorandum advocating Arab transfer.

Towards the end of the 1930s, Iraq completed an irrigation system but was sadly lacking in population. It thus became a popular destination for potential Arab transferees from Palestine. Amongst those proposing Iraq, was Ben-Gurion, who in 1938-39 often put forward the idea of Arab transfer to that country. Support for this plan of Ben-Gurion's came from, amongst others, the Hadassah Executive of America.

Another plan worked on in 1939 and discussed in earnest by the Zionist leadership and the Druze was the transfer of the Druze from Palestine to the area Jebel Druse in Syria.

Towards the end of 1939, the Second World War began, and already at the beginning of 1942, reports of the mass murder of European Jewry began to reach the West. Possibly due to this fact, many non-Jews began to speak out in public or publish articles in favour of the transfer of Arabs from Palestine. Prominent Jews also came out in favour, although generally they would only do so in closed forums! Even some members of "Brit Shalom" who outwardly advocated a Bi-National (Jewish-Arab) State in Palestine proposed voluntary Arab transfer from Palestine.

At the beginning of the Second World War, there was a split in the Revisionist

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movement with the formation of Lehi. The views of Lehi regarding transfer did not follow the line of the main-stream Revisionists, and they included in their "Principles of Renaissance" one which advocated the transfer of the "stranger" from Palestine.

However, even the main-stream Revisionists, who until this time had followed Jabotinsky'sstrong opposition to transfer (although some historians now suggest that in private he supported transfer) began to change their views on this subject. A committee known as the "American Resettlement Committee" was established (at the same address as the American Revisionists Headquarters!) and in 1943 they placed a whole-page advertisement in the "New York Times" proposing the transfer of Arabs from Palestine. Furthermore, during the 1940s, the Revisionists endorsed the principle of Arab transfer, certainly on a voluntary basis.

Although a number of prominent Jews and non-Jews were publicly coming out in favour of Arab transfer during the Second World War, at this period, the positive attitude of the U.S. administration to this question underwent a change. Edward Norman found that the enthusiasm of the U.S. Government towards transfer in the late 1930s had completely evaporated by 1942. Possibly the oil factor of the Middle East which was rapidly becoming more significant during the course of the Second World War was a reason for this. However, one should mention that throughout this period President Roosevelt would periodically make statements to his senior officials which were very strongly in favour of compulsory Arab transfer from Palestine.

Also during the latter part of the war, former U.S. President Herbert Hoover (encouraged privately by leading American Zionists) began to propose the transfer of Arabs. Towards the end of 1945, in a bout of enthusiasm, he prepared a statement on this question which was sent to hundreds of American newspapers. However, to his annoyance very few indeed deigned to publish it, and those who did were mainly the New York Yiddish press.

On the other side of the Atlantic, about a year and a half before the end of the Second World War, the British Labour Party commissioned one of its members, Hugh Dalton, to prepare a document on "Labour and the International Post-War Settlement". In this document, Dalton included a section on Palestine which included a paragraph "encouraging" Arabs to leave Palestine. This document was examined by the various committees and sub-committees of the Party and was finally passed at the Annual Party Conference of 1944 with almost no opposition. Encouraging Arabs to leave Palestine thus became part of the Party'spolicy and it remained as such until after the general election of 1945, when the Labour Party was elected to power in a landslide victory. In commenting on this Labour Party resolution in public, the Zionist leaders said that transfer of Arabs was "inconsistent with the Zionist programme". However, from a study of their private opinions which are now open to historians, one can see that they were quite happy with this transfer proposal! The Jewish Press in Britain and in the U.S. were on the whole favourable to the paragraph advocating Arab transfer.

Following the Labour Party victory in 1945, Ernest Bevin was appointed Foreign Secretary. The senior civil servants in the Foreign Office who had a long tradition of anti-Zionism, succeeded in persuading Bevin to continue with the policy of the White Paper, rather than implementing the terms of this Resolution.

The years following the Second World War saw a deterioration in the situation in Palestine. Finally the matter was turned over to the United Nations who sent an international committee to Palestine and on 29 November 1947 the U.N. voted on the establishment of a Jewish State in Palestine.

From this period until the establishment of the State of Israel in May 1948 and also during the months that followed, about half a million Arabs left, some by their own free-will, others being driven out by the Jews. Until this day, debates and arguments continue on allowing these Arabs to return.

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