Open Educational Resources (oer): The Coming of Age of ict in Education?




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e-Learning Korea 2012
Seoul, 12 September 2012


Open Educational Resources (OER): The Coming of Age of ICT in Education?


Sir John Daniel & Stamenka Uvalić-Trumbić
Education Masters, DeTao Masters Academy, China


Abstract


So far, the introduction of ICT into teaching and learning has had disappointing results in most countries at all levels of education. The main reasons are an excessive focus on technology and insufficient attention to policy and planning, to the training of teachers and to the development of ICT-based learning materials of quality. The training problem is gradually solving itself as a new generation of ICT-savvy teachers takes over. Open Educational Resources have the potential to address the problem of materials, since OER are materials that are freely available for sharing, distribution, modification and re-use. The paper describes the history of OER and how what began as a movement inspired by idealism is proving to be a powerful means for making teaching and learning both more effective and more efficient. The paper then focuses on a recent joint project of the Commonwealth of Learning and UNESCO aimed at fostering governmental support for OER internationally. It involved a survey of all the world’s governments about their intentions and policies with regard to OER, the holding of regional policy forums all over the world, the organization of the World OER Congress at UNESCO in June 2012, and the drafting of the Paris Declaration on OER that the Congress adopted by acclamation. The results of the survey of governments will be described, along with exploratory research on the business case for OER and an account of the regional policy forums. The paper concludes that OER will help to bring ICT fully into the mainstream of education at all levels.

Introduction

There is no doubt that, in principle, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has the potential to widen access to education while at the same time improving its quality and lowering its cost. Equally, there is little doubt in the minds of most disinterested observers (i.e. those without a vested interest in the sale of ICT hardware and software) that the current impact of ICTs in education falls far short of this potential.

We shall first explore why ICTs have greater potential for achieving a better combination of access, quality and cost than all previous educational technologies. Second, we shall look briefly at the generally disappointing record of the introduction of ICTs in both basic and higher education and offer a diagnosis of why they are not achieving their potential. This diagnosis suggests weaknesses on several dimensions but in the subsequent sections of the paper we shall focus on the lack of good eLearning materials and argue that Open Educational Resources are a very promising development in this regard.

Why do ICT have the potential to transform education?

What is so special about information and communications technologies that they inspire dreams of transforming education? Educators and academics realise, almost instinctively, that the combination of digitally-based information and communication technologies gives much more powerful possibilities for extending and improving learning and teaching than all previous educational technologies from the blackboard to television.

The fundamental reason for this instinctive – and accurate – assessment of ICT is that much of teaching and learning is about the manipulation of symbols, whether those symbols are words, numbers, formulae or images. ICT are qualitatively different from previous teaching or learning ‘aids’ in their power to help manipulate symbols. Instead of being an aid on the side, ICT connect directly to the mental processes that define education and the academic discourse.

In launching the term ‘knowledge media’ Eisenstadt (1995) noted that: ‘Knowledge is an emergent property which transcends the fixed size-and-space concepts of media and information, just as it transcends the notion that you can impart it to students by filling them up from the teacher’s ‘vessel’… knowledge is a dynamic process, a vibrant, living thing, resting on shared assumptions, beliefs, complex perceptions, sophisticated yet sometimes crazy logic and the ability to go beyond the information given’. This recalls an earlier remark by Lincoln (1989) that ‘science is less a statement of truth than a running argument’ (Daniel, 1996).

In this context ICT should not only be a tremendous asset to education, but an asset that is becoming ever more powerful and useful as the capacity for interactivity and data linking continues to increase.

Furthermore, in addition to these advantages of principle, ICT is also a great facilitator of the practice of learning and teaching because the Internet is an extraordinary vehicle for the wide distribution of information, knowledge and educational material generally at low cost. More recently, as the Internet has also become a vehicle for interaction, its significance for teaching and learning has become even greater. Korea was one of the first nations to appreciate these qualities of ICT and you are world leaders in their application.

Why is the potential of ICT in education as yet unrealised?

It is easy to say that ICT have the potential, both in principle and in practice, to transform education. However, not only technology cynics but also many objective analysts observe that ICT has yet to fulfil this potential.

For example, after reviewing many projects Toyama (2011) concludes that the history of electronic technologies in schools is fraught with failures. He adds: ‘there are no technology shortcuts to good education. For primary and secondary schools that are underperforming or limited in resources, efforts to improve education should focus almost exclusively on better teachers and stronger administrations. Technology has a huge opportunity cost (compared to) more effective non-technology interventions.’

Daniel (2010) analyses a concrete example of the disappointing impact of introducing computers in schools in his account of the high-profile ‘One Laptop Per Child’ programme. His assessment is echoed in a more recent article in The Economist (2012).

In higher education the situation is different but also discouraging. In his analysis of the state of online learning in North American Bates (2011) found that, despite strong student interest, public sector higher education does not have ambitious goals for online learning. The intelligent use of ICT could help higher education to accommodate more students, improve learning outcomes, provide more flexible access and do all this at lower cost. Instead, he found that costs are rising because investment in technology and staff is increasing without replacing other activities. There is little evidence of improved learning outcomes and often a failure to meet best quality standards for online learning.

A combination of factors explains why ICT are underperforming and also suggests how to improve matters. Politicians and institutional leaders are too often dazzled by the headlights of oncoming technology and launch ICT projects without taking three vital preliminary steps.

First, the objectives of introducing ICT are too often unclear. Few projects have the luxury of starting with tabula rasa, so ICT is almost always introduced into an already functioning educational system. How is the use of ICT meant to improve that system: by improving learning outcomes, by widening access, or by cutting costs? These or other objectives will not be achieved withoutj purposeful policy and planning. Tools developed over many years by UNESCO in Bangkok provide invaluable assistance in this process (UNESCO, 2012a).

Second, since teachers are the central element in existing educational systems the addition of ICT to a system will achieve little unless teachers are fully involved in the process. This means inviting them to help mould the aims of the project, as well as training them in the use of ICT – not merely computer literacy but also how to use computers to enhance student learning. Here again governments and institutions can draw on the careful work of UNESCO and its partners. They have created a complete ICT Competency Framework for Teachers (CFT) (UNESCO, 2012b), which starts with computer literacy but goes far beyond it, including all elements that teachers need to master in order to use computers confidently in the classroom to teach subjects wider than computing. The CFT is a curriculum framework, but the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) has created courses based on this CFT within a Commonwealth Certificate for Teacher ICT Integration programme that is freely available on COL’s website (Commonwealth of Learning, 2012a).

Third, although some programming languages such as Logo, developed back in 1967 (Wikipedia, 2012), facilitate cognitive development directly, most ICT applications require software that presents content in a manner that exploits the power of ICT, using them as true ‘knowledge media’. Accessing such content software through Open Educational Resources is the main focus of this paper.

Where do you find good eLearning materials?

From the early days of open universities in the 1970s their leaders enthused about the possibility of cutting costs and improving quality by sharing materials between institutions. In the late 1980s COL funded an International Centre for Distance Learning (Eldis, 2012) to facilitate this process by collecting course material from around the world.

Sadly, however, the initiative was premature. Even where there was a will to share course material, the way to achieve it was strewn with obstacles. First, since courseware can rarely cross national frontiers without some legitimate adaptation to the local context, sharing required the re-keying of text and the replacement of illustrations: a tedious process before materials were produced in digital formats. Second, institutions rarely cleared the copyright for the third-party material in their courseware with sharing in mind, so that process had to be gone through again.

Happily, developments since the late 1990s are removing both these obstacles. Once materials are in digital formats adapting them becomes a simple matter and the more significant obstacle of copyright is now yielding to the spread of Open Educational Resources (OER).

Open Educational Resources: early history

Open Educational Resources are part of a wider trend towards greater openness and sharing that has been gathering momentum for over twenty years. It is helpful to divide its manifestations in education into three inter-related elements.

First, Open Source Software has a long history. Second, the term ‘Open Access’ usually refers to open access to research results, especially where the research has been supported by public funds. The open access movement is thriving although still controversial, particularly with the publishers of scientific journals.

Third, Open Educational Resources are defined as educational materials that may be freely accessed, reused, modified and shared. This includes materials in all formats because, while nearly all OER are generated through digital technology, they are often used in print formats. This is the case, for example, in what is probably the largest international OER project, Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa, or TESSA, where OER are used by hundreds of thousands of teachers annually in at least 12 African countries (TESSA, 2012). Senior secondary school OER produced through a collaboration among six small countries in Africa and the Caribbean will likely also be mostly used in print formats, at least in the next year or so (Commonwealth of Learning, 2012b; Daniel, 2010)

The term Open Educational Resources, or OER, was coined at a forum held at UNESCO exactly a decade ago. The topic was the Impact of Open Courseware for Higher Education in Developing Countries and reflected the growing movement, launched a little earlier by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), to make educational materials freely available for adaptation and reuse. Participants at the Forum declared “their wish to develop together a universal educational resource for the whole of humanity, to be referred to henceforth as Open Educational Resources”.

The Open Educational Resources movement has gathered accelerating momentum since that 2002 Forum thanks to the commitment of educational institutions, NGOs and some governments to making educational material freely available for reuse, notably where that material was created with public funds.

Earlier this year a World OER Congress was held in Paris, partly as a celebration of the tenth anniversary of that important UNESCO 2002 Forum, which created a global movement for the open licensing of educational and creative works. Educators and institutions are beginning to appreciate the great breakthrough it represents.

For example, in 2009 the UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education brought together 2,000 participants representing higher education worldwide. The Conference urged governments to give more attention to the roles of ICT and OER and later that year UNESCO’s General Conference, urged the organisation to promote OER more actively to governments and educational leaders. UNESCO and the Commonwealth of Learning then teamed up to work on awareness raising and advocacy, beginning in 2010-2011 with workshops for educational leaders in Africa and Asia. These workshops reached hundreds of decision makers from many countries, most of whom previously had only a vague idea of OER and their potential.

Following the advice from those meetings UNESCO and COL produced two basic documents that are available for download: A Basic Guide to OER (UNESCO/COL, 2011a) and Guidelines for OER in Higher Education (UNESCO/COL, 2011b).

OER: advocacy with governments

This year the focus of our advocacy of OER moved to governments. Governments’ attitudes to OER are crucial for three reasons. They make policies for education; they are major purchasers of textbooks; and they – or the institutions that they support – produce a range of educational material.

Survey

A first step was to discover more about governments’ expectations for OER and whether they were developing policies for their use. We conducted a questionnaire survey of all governments and received responses from 100 countries. These were analysed in South Africa by Sarah Hoosen and the report is available for download (Commonwealth of Learning/UNESCO, 2012a)

We shall comment on two general issues raised by the survey.

To quote from Sarah Hoosen’s report:

There appears to be great interest in OER across all regions of the world, with several countries embarking on notable OER initiatives. Indeed, the survey itself raised interest and awareness of OER in countries that may not have had much prior exposure to the concept.

The Business Case for OER

Why should governments and institutions have this great interest in OER?

When the OER movement began it was motivated primarily by the ideal that knowledge is the common wealth of humankind and should be freely shared. Most institutions that decided to implement the ideal by creating OER relied on donor funding. But as the OER movement developed, questions about its sustainability became increasingly pressing. It could not rely indefinitely on donor funding, so institutions and governments began to review the economics of OER in order to determine whether there was a business case for investing in them.

Our COL/UNESCO project commissioned a report by Neil Butcher and Sarah Hoosen on Exploring the Business Case for Open Educational Resources (COL/UNESCO. 2012b)

The authors situate the contribution of OER in the wider context of the challenges facing education at all levels in this era of economic stringency. They argue that greater reliance on resource-based learning, rather than large-group teaching, will be essential for wider access to quality education.

The authors give compelling evidence that using OER can reduce the cost of creating learning resources substantially. They also present some revealing analyses of the economics of textbook production, which again show that systematic processes of investing in OER can create considerable savings for governments and students. The commercial publishing industry can play a part in this process.

Our second quotation from the report raises other important issues:

there appears to be some confusion regarding understanding of the concept and potential of OER. Many projects are geared to allowing online access to digitized educational content, but the materials themselves do not appear to be explicitly stated as OER. Where licences are open, the Creative Commons framework appears to be the most widely used licensing framework, but licensing options varies between countries.

Open licensing of educational materials

It was not the purpose of our project to propose particular approaches to the open licensing of educational materials but governments and institutions should give attention to this issue. It is not enough to place materials on a website and say that anyone can use them.

Producers should understand that open licensing takes place within the framework of copyright legislation, not outside it. Users need the assurance they can use the material and be made aware of any restrictions that apply. We found no consensus on the restrictions that should be applied to open licensing. A majority of countries are relaxed about the commercial use of OER but a minority is opposed. That is why the phrase ‘with such restrictions as they judge necessary’ figures in the recommendation on open licensing in the Paris Declaration.

Regional Policy Forums on OER

While our questionnaire survey produced useful results, we judged it important to hold regional policy forums in all parts of the world for three reasons. First, we wanted to stimulate dialogue between government policy-makers and OER practitioners. Second, we wanted to heighten interest in the World OER Congress and encourage governments to be represented there. Third, we were developing a Declaration on OER to present to the Congress and it was important to consult widely on the text and revise it in the light of comments from the regions. We judge that these regional policy forums were successful on all counts. They provided a complement to the information obtained through the survey, allowed us to learn about the state of play with regard to OER around the world and to refine the draft Declaration in a highly iterative and consultative way.

An International Advisory and Liaison Group was created for the project consisting of representatives from each of UNESCO’s regional electoral groups and of a number NGOs and IGOs. A first draft of the Declaration was produced after the first meeting of this group, following three general principles.

First, the Declaration is at the level of principles and aims rather than the detail of their implementation, which will vary widely by country. Second, it is focussed tightly on OER rather than including the other aspects of openness, notably open source software and open access to research literature. Third, the Declaration avoids technical language.

Let us give you the flavour of the Regional Forums, which were very stimulating events. We held them in Barbados for the Anglophone Caribbean, Pretoria for Africa, Rio de Janeiro for Latin America, Cambridge, U.K. for Europe and North America, Bangkok for Asia-Pacific and finally Muscat for the Arab States. We are very proud of the thoroughness with which this project has been documented. Full reports of the forums and much else can be found on the COL website (Commonwealth of Learning, 2012c)

Caribbean

The first Regional Forum was held for the Anglophone Caribbean in conjunction with an ICT in Education Leadership Forum based on UNESCO’s Competency Framework for ICT for Teachers that we mentioned earlier. Most Caribbean countries are introducing computers into their schools and the lack of good learning materials for this purpose made them very receptive to the notion of Open Educational Resources. It was interesting to learn that the Cyril Potter Teachers Training College in Guyana had developed materials on ICT for teachers by using existing OER from around the world. The faculty members involved had found this a rewarding experience.

Africa

The forum for Africa, took place in Pretoria at the University of South Africa (UNISA) and 17 African countries reported on the status of OER in their countries. Although none, with the exception of South Africa, have a distinct governmental policy on OER, the majority are active in the OER movement, mainly through institutions and individuals. In the minds of most respondents OER are closely associated with the introduction of ICT in education or with the development of open and distance learning, or both.

These results from Africa showed the progress that has been made since the 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. At that time UNISA was rather hostile to the notion of OER considering them to be potentially a form of neo-colonialism, with the north pushing its intellectual products at the south. But at the forum in Pretoria we found a vibrant culture of creation, re-use and re-purposing of OER in Africa and UNISA, our host, now has a proactive institutional strategy for OER. The flow of OER is now becoming truly global. For example, OER created at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Ghana are used at the University of Michigan.

African inputs to the Paris Declaration included emphasising issues of connectivity and electricity, the sharing of OER across languages, stressing research on OER and developing business models for OER that embrace a range of stakeholders, including industry.

Latin America

The Forum for Latin America took place in Rio de Janeiro. 10 countries reported on the status of OER with the majority saying that they had some governmental policy related to OER or intend to develop one. The Latin American meeting was particularly helpful in refining the draft Paris Declaration on OER. It linked it to various internationally agreed statements, from the Universal Declaration on Human Rights to the Convention on Diversity of Cultural expressions, clarified some terms and qualified open licences “with such restrictions as judged necessary”. In this region countries had different views on how open OER should be.

Europe

For the Europe region forum we went to the UK and the University of Cambridge. Austria, Finland, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland and Slovenia are the most active countries in taking advantage of OER in Europe. These governments have invested significant funds in the development of OER, often through higher education institutions, which then have an obligation to share their OER products. Europe added an action item to the Declaration about encouraging private and non-governmental organizations to contribute to OER.

Asia-Pacific

As you know well, the Asia-Pacific region is large and diverse. The forum was held in Bangkok. 19 countries had responded to our survey of which five reported that they have government policies on OER in place. Most of these refer explicitly to the open licensing of educational materials.

Korea, for example, replied that it has a governmental policy called the Korean Open Courseware Information Strategy Plan and an ISP for a National OER repository.

Australia places OER in the wider context of its policy of opening up public data and resources through the Government’s Open Access and Licensing Framework. In this context a number of Australian states reported on their different approaches to OER.

In China, the Ministry of Education has an OER policy, within which it has developed several OER action plans. Examples involving Chinese universities are the Video Open Courseware project and Open Digital Learning Resources for Continuing Education.

The discussion of the Declaration in Bangkok strengthened the references to capacity building and to incentives for teachers and institutions as well as respect for indigenous knowledge.

Arab States

Finally, just before the World OER Congress, Oman hosted our Forum for the Arab states in Muscat. 11 countries had reported on the status of OER and although none said they had explicit governmental policies on OER, five have strategies related to eEducation or eLearning that includes or could include OER. Morocco is particularly active. It has agreements with UNESCO and Korea to support this work. The discussion of the Paris Declaration stressed that governments should develop policies and strategies for OER.

We have described our world tour with the Paris Declaration in some detail because we want you to appreciate that there really is great interest in OER around the world.

It also became clear through these forums that it is important for governments to take an active role in promoting OER. In this respect the views of the Arab States are typical. First, education systems and institutions in most countries rely on government leadership. Second, governments can gain greatly from using OER by making their large investment in educational materials more cost effective.

The Paris Declaration

Having completed our world tour we took the draft Declaration, now in its 7th version, back to the International Advisory and Liaison Group, which added some extra touches to it. Most importantly it clarified the status of the World OER Congress, which was in UNESCO terms a Category IV meeting, at expert level. Such meetings usually include both experts and government representatives but are not governmental meetings.

During the Congress the International Advisory Group acted as a drafting committee but made very few changes to its earlier draft. Following that the Paris Declaration was accepted by acclamation at the World OER Congress with no further amendments. Copies of the Declaration are available in the room.

This was a very proud moment for my co-author, Stamenka Uvalić-Trumbić, and me. We had been living intensively with the Declaration for six months. Its enthusiastic acceptance by the Congress confirmed our hope that we had conducted a model process of global consultation and substantially increased the awareness of the significance of OER in countries rich and poor, large and small.

The process also confirmed the convening power of UNESCO and the value of partnerships, in this case between COL, a small intergovernmental agency based in Vancouver, and UNESCO. The Hewlett Foundation, which has an admirable record of supporting work on OER, awarded a grant to COL for the project, without which the regional policy forums could not have been held.

We are also proud that the Declaration is coherent and conceptually clear. Its ten clauses list the steps that need to be taken to bring OER fully into the mainstream of education for the benefit of students, institutions and governments. We will not take you through the Declaration in detail but simply note the ten headings (UNESCO, 2012c):

  1. Foster awareness and use of OER.

  2. Facilitate enabling environments for the use of ICT.

  3. Reinforce the development of policies and strategies on OER.

  4. Promote the understanding and use of open licensing frameworks.

  5. Support capacity building for the sustainable development of quality learning materials.

  6. Foster strategic alliances for OER.

  7. Encourage the development and adaptation of OER in a variety of languages and cultural contexts.

  8. Encourage research on OER.

  9. Facilitate finding, retrieving and sharing of OER.

  10. Encourage open licensing of educational materials produced with public funds.

Declarations from Category IV meetings like the OER Congress are not legally binding. Governments are free to follow up on them in whatever way they choose, either nationally or internationally. Nevertheless, experience with similar declarations in the past shows that governments often use them as guidance for their policy making at country level. We sense that this is already happening.

Conclusion

We end by recalling that the aim of this project was to encourage governments to promote OER and the use of open licences. We were pleased to find that Korea is a leader in this movement. The OER movement is developing fast but it needs government and institutional involvement to bring it fully into the mainstream of education. Moreover governments will be major beneficiaries of a stronger OER movement thanks to the potential of OER to improve the cost-effectiveness of their large investments in education. We believe that ten years after the term Open Educational Resources was first used, OER are now poised to make a major difference to the effectiveness of the use of ICT in education.

At the beginning of this paper we argued that many initiatives to introduce ICT in education fail for three reasons: inadequate policy and planning; limited teacher training and lack of good ICT-based courseware. As the pressure to use ICT effectively in education continues to grow, we anticipate that institutions and governments will give more attention to policy and planning. This will lead them to focus more closely on the training of teachers, which is not simply a matter of imparting ICT skills, but also encouraging teamwork instead of the ‘lone ranger’ approach to developing and offering eLearning. Teachers will also need training in locating appropriate courseware. The rapidly growing pool of OER is already a rich source of quality courseware relevant to all levels of education and the development of tools that make it quick and easy to find and retrieve appropriate OER is continuing apace (D’Aquin, 2012; Abeywardena, 2012).

References

Abeywardena, I. S. (2012). A report on the Re-use and Adaptation of Open Educational Resources (OER): An Exploration of Technologies Available. Vancouver, Commonwealth of Learning. http://www.col.org/resources/publications/Pages/detail.aspx?PID=411


Bates, A. W. (2011). 2011 Outlook for Online Learning and Distance Education, Contact North. http://www.contactnorth.ca/sites/default/files/pdf/trends-and-directions/2011_outlook.pdf

Bates, A.W. & Sangra, A. (2011). Managing Technology in Higher Education: Strategies for Transforming Teaching and Learning, New York, Wiley.


Commonwealth of Learning/UNESCO (2011b). A Basic Guide to Open Educational Resoursces, Vancouver/Paris http://www.col.org/resources/publications/Pages/results.aspx?lk=OER%20Basic%20Guide&CID=&lsort=rank&lstart=1

Commonwealth of Learning/UNESCO (2011a). Guidelines for Open Educational Resources in Higher Education, Vancouver/Paris http://www.col.org/PublicationDocuments/Guidelines_OER_HE.pdf

Commonwealth of Learning (2012a). Commonwealth Certificate for Teacher ICT Integration
http://www.col.org/PublicationDocuments/CCTI_brochure_WEB.pdf


Commonwealth of Learning (2012b). Open Educational Resources for Open Schooling. http://www.col.org/resources/crsMaterials/osoer/Pages/default.aspx

Commonwealth of Learning (2012c). Fostering Governmental Support for OER Internationally. http://www.col.org/resources/crsMaterials/Pages/oerCongress.aspx

Commonwealth of Learning/UNESCO (2012a). Survey on Governments’ Open Educational Resources (OER) Policies. Vancouver/Paris. http://www.col.org/resources/publications/Pages/detail.aspx?PID=408

Commonwealth of Learning/UNESCO (2012b). Exploring the Business Case for Open Educational Resources, http://www.col.org/resources/publications/Pages/detail.aspx?PID=421

Daniel, John (1996). Mega-Universities and Knowledge Media: Technology Strategies for Higher Education. London, Kogan Page

Daniel, John (2010). Mega-Schools, Technology and Teachers: Achieving Education for All. New York, Routledge

D’Aquin, Mathieu (2012). Linked Data for Open and Distance Learning, Vancouver, Commonwealth of Learning. http://www.col.org/resources/publications/Pages/detail.aspx?PID=420

Eisenstadt, M (1995). Overt strategies for global learning, Times Higher Educational Supplement, Multimedia Section, 7 April, vi-vii.

Eldis (2012). International Centre for Distance Learning. http://www.eldis.org/assets/Orgs/1627.html

Lincoln, Y.S. (1989). ‘Trouble in the land: the paradigm revolution in academic disciplines’, in Smart, J.D. (ed), Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Practice, Vol.V, New York, Agathon Press.

TESSA (2012). http://www.tessafrica.net/

The Economist (2012). Error Message: A disappointing return from an investment in computing. http://www.economist.com/node/21552202/

Toyama, Kentaro (2011). There are no Technology Shortcuts to Good Education. https://edutechdebate.org/ict-in-schools/there-are-no-technology-shortcuts-to-good-education/

UNESCO (2012a). Projects: ICT in Education - Policy http://www.unescobkk.org/?id=496

UNESCO (2012b). UNESCO ICT Competency Framework for Teachers http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/themes/icts/teacher-education/unesco-ict-competency-framework-for-teachers/

UNESCO (2012c). 2012 Paris OER Declaration. http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/Events/Paris%20OER%20Declaration_01.pdf

Wikipedia (2012). The Logo (programming language) http://el.media.mit.edu/logo-foundation/logo/programming.html


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