Materials of Art and Archaeology

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Materials of Art and Archaeology


Part IV. Instrumental Methods

Norbert S. Baer

Conservation Center

Institute of Fine Arts

New York University

September 2003


Part I. Inorganic Materials (2003).

Part II. Metals (1999).

Part III. Organic Materials (2003).

Part IV. Instrumental Methods (2003).

Part V. Environment (1999).

Part VI. Museology (2003).

Part VII. Dating and Provenance (2003).

Part VIII Library and Archive Materials (2003).

Part IX Stone (1999).

Part X. Dyes and Pigments (2003).

Cumulative Index

May be obtained from:

Conservation Center

Institute of Fine Arts

New York University

14 East 78th Street

New York, New York 10021

September 2003



Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 1

Chromatographic Methods 1

Chromatographic Methods: GC 2

Chromatographic Methods: Ion 2

Chromatographic Methods: Liquid 3

Chromatographic Methods: PyGC 3

Chromatographic Methods: PyGC: Amber 5

Electron Beam Microprobe Analysis 5

Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy 6

Electronics 6

Emission Spectroscopy 6

General Instrumental Analysis References 7

Image Processing 8

Image Processing: Paintings 11

Infrared Spectroscopy 14

Kinetics 16

Laboratory Design 16

Laboratory Safety 16

Light Microscopy 18

Mass Spectroscopy 18

Mössbauer Spectroscopy 19

NMR Spectroscopy 20

Nondestructive Testing 21

Nuclear Analytical Methods 21

Optical Minerology 22

Optics 22

PIXE Analysis 23

Raman Spectroscopy 23

Raman Spectroscopy: Pigments 26

Scanning Electron Microscopy 28

Spectroscopy: General References 28

Statistical Analysis and Experimental Design 28

Thermal Analysis 30

X-ray Diffraction 33

X-ray Fluorescence 34

X-ray Radiography 36

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

ASTM, Methods for Analytical Atomic Spectroscopy: Practices, Terminology, Guides, Standard Methods, Suggested Methods, Eighth Edition, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA (1987). xxiii + 1125pp.

P.W.J.M. Boumans, “Detection Limits and Spectral Interferences in Atomic Absorption Spectrometry,” Analytical Chemistry 66 No. 8 459A-467A (1994).

R.M. Dagnall and G.F. Kirkbright, Editors, Second International Atomic Absorption Spectroscropy Conference, Sheffield, England, Butterworths, London (1970). 143pp.

J.C. Davis, Jr., "Introduction to Spectroscopy: Part VI. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy," Chemistry 49 No.2 17-20 (1976).

S.S.M. Hassan, Organic Analysis Using Atomic Absoprtion Spectrometry, Halstead Press, NY (1984). 384pp.

S.J. Haswell, Editor, Atomic Absorption Spectormetry: Theory, Design and Applications, Elsevier, Amsterdam and New York (1991). xx + 529pp.

G.M. Hieftje and T.R. Copland, "Flame Emission, Atomic Absorption and Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry," Analytical Chemistry 50 No.5 300R-327R (1978).

G.F. Kirkbright and M. Sargent, Atomic Absorption and Fluorescene Spectroscopy, Academic Press, New York (1974) ix + 794pp.

L. Lajunen, Spectrochemical Analysis by Atomic Absorption and Emission, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, England (1992). xii + 241pp.

A. Mottana and R. Burragato, Editors, Absorption Spectroscopy in Mineralogy, Elsevier, Amsterdam and New York (1990). xix + 294pp.

Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Atomic Absorption Bibliography, Perkin-Elermer Corporation, Norwalk, CT (1977).

W.J. Price, Spectrochemical Analysis by Atomic Absorption, Heyden Press, Philadelphia (1979).

J.W. Robinson, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Second Edition, Dekker, New York (1975) ix + 183pp.

J.W. Robinson, “Atomic Absorption: A View of the Early Days,” Analytical Chemistry 66 No. 8 472A-477A (1994).

M. Slavin, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Second Edition, Wiley, New York (1978). xiii + 193pp.

J.C. Van Loon, Analytical Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Academic Press, New York (1980). xi + 337pp.

B. Welz, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Translated by C. Skegg, Second English Edition, Verlag Chemie, New York (1986). xiii + 506pp.

Chromatographic Methods

A. Basch. "Analyses of Oil from Two Roman Glass Bottles," Israel Exploration Journal 22 27 32 (1972).

C.W. Beck, "Aus der Bernstein Forschung," Die Naturwissenschaften 59 294 298 (1972).

J.C. Brown, "Chromatography," CIBA Reivew No.3 1 39 (1966).

J. Brown and R.A. Gould, "Column Chromatography and the Possibility of Carbon lens Migration," American Antiquity 29 No. 3 387 389 (1964).

J. Cazes and J. Carter, "Molecular Weight Distribution," Industrial Research 17 No.7 53 58 (1975).

F. Goppelsroeder, Capillaranalyse, Beruhend auf Capillaritäts und Adsorptionserscheinungen, Birkhauser, Basel (1901). x + 545pp.

E. Heftmann, Editor, Chromatography, A Laboratory Handbook of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods, Third Edition, Van Nostrand, New York (1975). xxx + 969pp.

E. Heftmann, Editor, Chromatography: Fundamentals and Applications of Chromatography and Related Differential Migration Methods, Fifth Edition, Elsevier, Amsterdam and New York (1992).

S. Keck and T. Peters, "Identification of Protein-Containing Paint Media by Quantitative Amino Acid Analysis," Studies in Conservation 14 75-82 (1969).

R. Kléber and F. Tricot Marckx, "Essai d'identification d'une colle animale utilisée par Rubens," Bull. Inst. Royal Patrimoine Artiste 6 57 62 (1963).

F. Kurzer, "An Early Application of Paper Chromatography,” Journal of Chemical Education 55 No.5 321 322 (1978).

M. Ludtke and B. Lerch, "Über die Aminosäuren der Hautsubstanz pflanzlicher Faserzellen," Holzforschung 22 No.1 1 8 (1968).

H.L. Macdonell, "Characterization of Fountain Pen Ink by Porous Glass Chromatography and Electrophoresis," Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science (Baltimore). 53 507 521 (1962).

H.L. Macdonell, "Porous Glass Chromatography," Nature 189 302 303 (1961).

H.L. Macdonell and J.P. Williams, "Porous Glass Chromatography Used for the Characterization of Water soluble Inks," Analytical Chemistry 33 1552 1554 (1961).

A. Oekonomidis, C. Pavlopulu Papakosta and A.A. Christomanos, "Vergleichende Untersuchungen über den Aminosäuregehalt menschlicher Knochen verschiedener Zeitalter sowie Fossiler Knochen und Mollusken, I.," Akademia Athenon, Praktika 43 No.A 454 460 (1968). Cited AATA 10 515 (1973).

R.P.W. Scott, "General Principles of Chromatography," In H.A. Strobel and W.R. Heineman, Editors, Chemical Instrumentation: A Systematic Approach, Third Edition, John Wiley, New York (1989).

R. Stock and C.B.F. Rice, Chromatographic Methods, Third Edition, Chapman and Hall, London (1974). viii + 383pp.

F.H. Stross and A.E. O'Donnell, "Laboratory Analysis of Organic Materials," Addison Wesley Modular Publications, Reading, Massachusetts (1972). 22pp.

Superelco Inc., "Separation of Hydrocarbons," Bulletin 743B, Superelco, Bellefonte, Pennsylvania (1974). 12pp.

J.C. Touchstone, Practice of Thin-Layer Chromatography Third Edition, Wiley, NJ (1992). 377pp.

See Also: Selected References, Polymer Analysis with Liquid Chromatography, February 1979, Perkin Elmer Order No. TDB 2, 8pp.

Chromatographic Methods: GC

F. Bruner, Gas Chromatographic Environmental Analysis, VCH Publishers, New York (1993). xii + 233pp.

L.S. Ettre and J.V. Hinshaw, Basic Relationships of Gas Chromotography, Advanstar, Cleveland, OH (1993). xi + 177pp.

D.L. Smith and E.H. Piepmeier, “Fingerprint Indentification of Organic Compounds Using an Oscillating Plasma Glow Discharge Detector for Gas Chromotography,” Analytical Chemistry 66 No. 8 1323-1329 (1994).

J.D. Walters, "Gas Chromatography," In H.A. Strobel and W.R. Heineman, Chemical Instrumentation: A Systematic Approach, Third Edition, John Wiley, New York (1989).

Chromatographic Methods: Ion

W.C. Bauman and J. Eichhorn, "Fundamental Properties of a Synthetic Cation Exchange Resin," Journal of the American Chemical Society 69 2830-2836 (1947).

S. Borman, "Eluent, Effluent, Eluate, Eluite," Analytical Chemistry 59 99A (1987).

Dionex Corporation, Ion Chromatography Cookbook, Dionex Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (1987).

A. Dyer, M.J. Hudson, and P.A. Williams, Ion Exchange Processes, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, England (1993) ix + 371pp.

J.S. Fritz and J.N. Story, "Chromatographic Separation of Metal Ions on Low Capacity Macroreticular Resins, Analytical Chemistry 46 825-829 (1974).

D.T. Gjerde and J.S. Fritz, Ion Chromatography, Second Edition, Huethig Publishing, Heidelberg and New York (1987). xi + 283pp.

D.T. Gjerde, J.S. Fritz and G. Schmuckler, "Anion Chromatography with Low-Conductivity Eluents," Journal of Chromatography, 186 509-519 (1979).

P.R. Haddad and P.E. Jackson, Ion Chromatography: Principles and Applicatons, Elsevier, New York (1990). xxi + 776pp.

P.B. Hamilton, "Ion Exchange Chromatography of Amino Acids. Study Effects of High Pressures and Fast Flow Rates," Analytical Chemistry 32 1779-1781 (1960).

P.B. Hamilton, "Ion Exchange Chromatography of Amino Acids - A Single Column, High Resolving, Fully Automatic Procedure," Analytical Chemistry 35 2055-2064 (1963).

E. Heftmann, Editor, Chromatography: Fundamentals and Applications of Chromatography and Related Differential Migration Methods, Fifth Edition, Elsevier, Amsterdam and New York (1992). 2 vols.

E.L. Johnson and K.K. Haak, "Anion Analysis by Ion Chromatography," In J.F. Lawrence, Editor, Liquid Chromatography in Environmental Analysis, Humana Press, Clifton, NJ (1983).

S.W. Mayer and E.R. Tompkins, "Ion Exchange as a Separations Method. IV. A Theoretical Analysis of the Column Separations Process," Journal of the American Chemical Society 69 2866-2874 (1947).

H.M. McNair and L.N. Polite, "Recent Advances in Ion Chromatography," American Laboratory 19 116-121 (1988).

R.K. Pinschmidt, "Ion Chromatographic Analysis of Weak Acid Ions," In J.D. Mulik and E. Sawicki, Editors, Ion Chromatographic Analysis of Environmental Pollutants, Volume 2, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, MI (1979).

W.R. Reiman and H.F. Walton, Ion Exchange in Analytical Chemistry, Pergamon Press, Oxford (1970). xiii + 295pp.

M. Richards, "Separation of Mono- and Dicarboxylic Acids by Liquid Chromatography," Journal of Chromatography 115 259-261 (1975).

R.D. Rocklin and E.L. Johnson, "Determination of Cyanide, Sulfide, Iodide and Bromide by Ion Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection," Analytical Chemistry 55 4-7 (1983).

E. Sawicki, J.D. Mulik and E. Wittgenstein, Ion Chromatographic Analysis of Environmental Pollutants, Volumes 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, MI (1978 and 1979).

H. Small, Ion Chromatography, Plenum Press, New York (1989). 276 pp.

H. Small, "Ion Chromatography in Trace Analysis," In J.F. Lawrence, Editor, Trace Analysis, Volume 1, Academic Press, New York (1981).

H. Small and J. Solc, "Ion Chromatography - Principles and Applications," in M. Streat, Editor, The Theory and Practice of Ion Exchange, Society of Chemical Industry, London, (1976).

F.C. Smith and R.C. Chang, The Practice of Ion Chromatography, Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, FL (1991). xiii + 218pp.

K. Tanaka and J.S. Fritz, "Determination of Bicarbonate by Ion-Exclusion Chromatography with Ion-Exchange Enhancement of Conductivity Detection," Analytical Chemistry 59 708-712 (1987).

H.F. Walton and R.D. Rocklin, Ion Exchange in Analytical Chemistry, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1990). 229pp.

P.A. Williams and M.J. Hudson, Editors, Recent Developments in Ion Exchange II, Elsevier Applied Science, New York (1990). x + 361pp.

Chromatographic Methods: Liquid

J. Cazes, Editor, Liquid Chromatography of Polymers and Related Materials, M. Dekker, NY (1977).

J. Cazes and X. Delamare, Editors, Liquid Chromatography of Polymers and Related Materials II, M. Dekker, NY (1980).

J. Cazes, Editor, Liquid Chromatography of Polymers and Related Materials III, M. Dekker, NY (1981).

J.R. Larson and C.D. Pfeiffer, "Determination of Organic Ionic Compounds by Liquid Chromatography and Indirect Photometric Detection," Analytical Chemistry 55 393-396 (1983).

Chromatographic Methods: PyGC

J.J. Boon, A.D. Pouwels and G.B. Eijkel, "Pyrolysis High-Resolution Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Studies on Beech Wood: Capillary High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry of a Beech Lignin Fraction," Biochemical Society Transactions 170-174 (1987).

R. Breek and W. Froentjes, "Application of Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography on Some of van Meegeren's Faked Vermeers and Pieter de Hooghs," Studies in Conservation 20 No.4 183-189 November (1975).

A.F. Byrne, "Conservation of Polychrome Wood Sculpture at the Australian War Memorial,” ICCM Bulletin 2 No.3 5-14 September (1976).

M. Carbini, S. Volpin, and P. Traldi, "Curie-Point Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry in the Identification of Paint Media,” OMS. Organic Mass Spectrometry 29 No.10 561-565 (1994).

J. Challinor, Pyrolysis Capillary Gas Chromatography of Alkyd Paints in Forensic Science, Government Chemical Laboratories, Perth, Australia (1984). 17pp.

P. Champe, Baldwin, M. McMacFarland, J. Nadolny, "The Examination and the Treatment of Four, Late 19th-Century, Papier-Mâché, Entomological Study Models Manufactured by la Maison Deyrolle of Paris,” In Papers presented at the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Association of Graduate Training Programs in Conservation, Washington, April 21-23, 1994, Conservation Analytical Laboratory Smithsonian Institution, Washington (1994). pp.1-7.

G. Chiavari, P. Bocchini, and G.C. Galletti, "Rapid Identification of Binding Media in Paintings using Simultaneous Pyrolysis Methylation Gas Chromatography,” Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage 1 153-158 (1992).

G. Chiavari, D. Fabbri, S. Prati, R. Mazzeo, D. Bikiaris, S. Daniilia, and Y. Chryssoulakis, "Analytical pyrolysis: Application to the Chemical Characterisation of Byzantine Paintings Layers," In Art 99: 6th International Conference on Non-Destructive Testing and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage, Rome, May 17-20, 1999,
Euroma, Roma (1999). pp.1145-1162.

G. Chiavari, G.C. Galletti, G. Lanterna, and R. Mazzeo, "The Potential of Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry in the Recognition of Ancient Painting Media," Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 24 No.3 227-242 (1993).

J.S. Crighton, Characterization Of Textile Materials By Thermal Degradation: A Critique Of Pyrolysis GC and Thermogravimetry, Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium of Analytical Pyrolysis, S.l.: S.N., n.d.

M.R. Derrick and D.C. Stulik, "Identification of Natural Gums in Works of Art using Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography," In ICOM Committee for Conservation, 9th Triennial Meeting, Dresden, German Democratic Republic, 26-31 August 1990. Preprints, K. Grimstad, Editor, ICOM Committee for Conservation, Paris (1990). pp.9-13.

S. Fleming, "An Evaluation of Physico-Chemical Approaches to Authentication,” In Authentication in the Visual Arts: A multi-Disciplinary Symposium. Amsterdam, 12th March 1977, B. M. Israel, Amsterdam (1979). pp.103-139.

K.L. Freeman, "Techniques used in the Analysis of Polymers,” ICCM Bulletin 5 No.2 12-27 June (1979).

W. Froentjes and R. Breek, "A New Study in the Identity of Van Meegeren's Binder," Chem. Weekblad Mag. 583, 585, 587, 589 (1977).

P.H. Greaves, "Fibre Content Testing," Wool Science Review 68 1-24 (1992).

L. Haber, Analysis of Sulfur Containing Amino Acids by Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography (1983). vi + 95pp.

D.J. Hanson, Differentiation of Enteric Bacteria by Pyrolysis-gas-liquid Chromatography (1978) ix + 78pp.

H. Hirano and A. Tanaka, "Analysis of Plastics by Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography," Kagaku Keisatsu Kenkyusho Hokoku 31 No.3 172 178 (1978).

W.J. Irwin, Analytical Pyrolysis: a Comprehensive Guide, Dekker, New York (1982). xii + 578pp.

G. Heck, "Analyse und Herkunftsbestimmung," Archäologie in Deutschland No.3 28-30 (1997).

G. Lanterna and M. Matteini, "Organic Binders in the Wall Paintings of Florence Cathedral: Characterization by Fingerprint-Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography," Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage 7 No.1 31-38 (1998).

T. Learner, "The Analysis of Synthetic Paints by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (PyGCMS)," Studies in Conservation 46 No.4 225-341 (2001).


S.A. Liebman and E.J. Levy, Editors, Pyrolysis and GC in Polymer Analysis, M. Dekker, New York (1984). x + 557pp.

W.N. Marmer, P. Magidman, and C.M.Carr, "Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography of Wool. Part 1. Detection and Quantitation of Commercially Applied Agents," Textile Research Journal 57 No.12 681-686 (December 1987).

M. Matteini, A. Moles, A. Masala, and V. Parrini, "Examination through Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography of Binders Used in Painting," In Scientific Methodologies Applied to Works of Art. Proceedings of the Symposium, Florence, Italy 2-5 May 1984, P.L. Parrini, Editor, Montedison Progetto Cultura, Milan (1986). pp.41-44, 230


R.W. May, E.R. Pearson, and D. Scothern, Pyrolysis - Gas Chromatography, Chemical Society, London (1977). vii + 109pp.

D.V.D. Meent, J.W. de Leeuw and P.A. Schenck, "Quantitative Analysis of Biopolymer Mixtures by Pyrolysis-Mass Spectrometry," Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 4 133-142 (1982).

H. Mestdagh, C. Rolando, M. Sablier, and J-P. Rioux, "Characterization of Ketone Resins by Pyrolysis/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry," Analytical Chemistry 64 No.19 2221-2226 (1992).

N. Niimura and T. Miyakoski, "Identifizierung fernöstlicher Lacküberzüge mittels Pyrolyse/Gaschromatographie/ Massenspektroskopie," In Japanische und Europäische Lackarbeiten: Rezeption, Adaption, Restaurierung, Karl M. Lipp, München (2000). pp.123-134

M. Nip, J.W. de Leeuw, and P.A. Schenk, "The Characterization of Eight Maceral Concentrates by Means of Curie Point Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography and Curie Point Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry," Geochimica et Cosmochimca Acta 52 637-648.

W. Noble, B.B. Wheals, and M.J. Whitehouse, "Characterization of Adhesives by Pyrolysis/Gas Chromatography and Infrared Spectroscopy," Forensic Science 3 163-174 (1974).

R. Pancella and Y. Indermühle-Früh, "Identification des Matières Organiques dans les Peintures et Objets d'Art par Chromatographie en Phase Gazeuse, Pyrolyse et Spectrométrie de Masse," In Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage: Proceedings of the 1995 LCP Congress, Montreux, 24-29 September 1995, Laboratoire de Conservation de la Pierre, Lausanne (1996). pp.521-545.

S. Paul, "Pyrolysis Gas Chromatographic Analysis (PGC) of Methyl Methacrylate (MMA)-Ethyl Acrylate (EA) Copolymers," Journal of Coatings Technology 52 No.661 47-55 (1980).

L. Puchinger, H. Stachelberger, and G. Banik, "Identifizierung organischer Materialien an Objekten der bildenden Kunst," Wiener Berichte über Naturwissenschaft in der Kunst 6/7/8 26-36 (1991).


A. Quye, "Historical Plastics Come of Age," Chemistry in Britain 31 No.8 617-620 (1995).


H.K. Raaschou Nielson, "Forensic Analysis of Coatings," JCT/Journal of Coatings Technology 56 No.718 November (1984). pp.21-32.

G.D. Rogers, "An Improved Pyrolytic Technique for the Quantitative Characterization of the Media of Works of Art," In Conservation and Restoration of Pictorial Art, N. Brommelle and P. Smith, Editors, Butterworths, London (1976). pp.93-100.

C.E. Roland Jones and C.A. Cramers, Analytical Pyrolysis: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Analytical Pyrolysis Held in Amersterdam, September 7-9, 1976, Elsevier, Amsterdam and New York (1977) ix + 424pp.

C. Saiz-Jimenez, "Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, A Microanalytical Method for Investigation of Organic Compounds in Building Stones and Monuments," In 3a Conferenza Internazionale sulle Prove Non Distruttive, Metodi Microanalitici e Indagini Ambientali per lo Studio e la Conservazione delle Opere D'arte: Viterbo 4-9 Ottobre 1992, M. Marabelli and P. Santopadre, Editors, Italian Society for Nondestructive Testing, Brescia, Italy (1992). pp.815-830

A.M. Shedrinsky and N.S. Baer, "The Application of Analytic Pyrolysis to the Study of Cultural Materials,” In T. Wampler, Editor Applied Pyrolysis Handbook Marcel Dekker, New York (1995). pp. 125-155.

A.M. Shedrinsky, R.E. Stone and N.S. Baer, "Pyrolysis Gas Chromatographic Studies on Egyptian Archaeological Specimens: Organic Patinas on the
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