Dedication




НазваниеDedication
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A Death in the Family: Holocaust against the Ahnishinahbæótjibway at Red Lake


A PROJECT

SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA

BY


Clara M. NiiSka-Ngiratregd


IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS

FOR THE DEGREE OF

MASTER OF LIBERAL STUDIES


December 2004





_________________________________________ ____________________

Director of Graduate Studies Date


Copyright Clara NiiSka © 2005





Dedication


To the Ahnishinahbæótjibway

and

to all Aboriginal Indigenous Peoples of Grandmother Earth

those who have been annihilated in 500 years of Holocaust

and those who survive


and to all our relations.


This is written in honor of Wub-e-ke-niew,

and in honor of his vision of, “making this a better world

for all human beings.”


“Our fathers gave us many laws which they had learned from their fathers. These laws were good.”

–Chief Joseph, ‘Nez Perce’

Table of Contents


Dedication 1

Acknowledgments 5

Introduction ix

Chapter 1 – The ‘South Boundary’ 9

Chapter 2 – May 26, 1998 15

“Race” and internalization of colonial identity 21

“Race” and legal status: American apartheid? 25

“Race” and eugenics 27

The American Anthropological Association and “Race” 28

“Race” and legal jurisdiction 29

Amendment IX 147

Amendment X 147

Chapter 4 - Apartheid at Red Lake 35

The I.R.A. and tribal courts 39

Indian court jurisdiction 44

Dead “Indians” 53

Wub-e-ke-niew and “race” 54

Chapter 5 – Exile 56

Narratives of exile 59

Chapter 6 – Context 66

Chapter 7 - Background 72

A bit of personal description 74

“The rez” 75

A statistical description: population 75

Several Vantages 86

Politics and land 89

Colonial transformations and genocide 95

Chapter 8 – Acknowledging reality 101

Archival research and B.I.A. documents 101

B.I.A. documents, 1972 102

National media and ‘hot’ documents 105

“Criminal possession” of information? 115

B.I.A. documents, mid 1980s 117

Research ‘on the rez’ 127

Chapter 9 – Red Lake retrospective 133

The ‘Red Lake genealogies’ 137

Compiling genealogical information 143

Genocide 147

Chapter 10 – The hidden Holocaust 152

Four million “Indians” 153

“Highly emotionally charged” … vigorous ‘denial’ 158

‘Hot’ documents 159

Who Are The “Indians”? 161

Chapter 11 - Indians are not the Ah­nish­i­nah­bæót­jib­way 164

History 164

Genealogy 176

Culture and Identity 186

Ecological Infrastructure 193

Patterns of Interaction with Western European Colonizers 197

Language 201

Religion 205

Chapter 12 – Colonial Structures and Western Hegemony 209

Indians and the Indian Mystique 214

Chapter 13 - Genocide 222

Academic advocacy for human rights? 226

Chapter 14 – An Outside Retrospective:
– “Journey to Red Lake” 229

“Journey to Red Lake” 231

I. Introduction 231

II. Wub-e-ke-niew’s and Clara’s Home 233

III. The “Sugar Bush” 234

IV. Their Ahnishinahbæótjibway strategy 242

V. “Indians” 248

VI. The timeliness of this work 249

A. Sovereignty 250

B. Cultural Preservation 259

VII. A longer-range strategy 263

Chapter 15 – Language from an Ahnishinahbæótjibway perspective 266

A workshop on language 267

Language from an Ah­nish­i­nah­bæót­jib­way perspective 268

Inconclusion 289

Appendix 40

Notes 145



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