Operating Systems and Networks




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Operating Systems and Networks

Summary of the course in spring 2010 by Gustavo Alonso and Timothy Roscoe




Stefan Heule

2010-06-06






Licence: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)





Table of Contents


1Network introduction 3

1.1Layering 3

1.2Performance 3

1.3Units 4

1.4Application requirements 4

2Application Layer Protocols 4

2.1Basics of application layer protocols 4

2.1.1Services needed by applications 4

2.2Client/server paradigm 4

2.3Domain name system 5

2.3.1Types of name servers 5

2.3.2Basic DNS query 5

2.3.3Caching 5

3Remote procedure calls 6

3.1Introduction and problem formulation 6

3.2Individual steps in RPC 7

3.3Call semantics 7

3.4Summary 8

3.5Distributed environments 8

3.6Transactional RPC 8

4Socket programming 10

4.1Introduction 10

4.2Comparison of Java and C API 10

4.3Java socket programming with TCP 11

4.4Java socket programming with UDP 12

4.5C socket programming with TCP 12

5Reliable data transfer 16

5.1Incremental development of reliable data transfer (RDT) 16

5.1.1RDT 1.0: reliable transfer over reliable channel 16

5.1.2RDT 2.0: channel with bit errors 16

5.1.3RDT 2.1 17

5.1.4RDT 2.2: NAK-free 17

5.1.5RDT 3.0: channels with errors and loss 17

5.2Pipelining 19

5.2.1Go-Back-N 19

5.2.2Selective repeat 20

6Queuing theory 21

6.1Notation 21

6.1.1Arrival rate distribution 21

6.1.2Service time per job 21

6.1.3Service discipline 21

6.1.4System capacity 21

6.1.5Number of servers 22

6.1.6Population 22

6.2Results 22

6.2.1Birth-death-process 23

6.2.2Steady state probability 23

6.2.3M/M/1 23

6.3Operational laws 24

6.3.1Job flow balance 24

6.3.2Derivations 24

7Transport layer 26

7.1User datagram protocol UDP 26

7.2TCP 27

7.2.1TCP segment layout 27

7.2.2Sequence numbers 27

7.2.3TCP connection management 27

7.2.4TCP reliability and flow control 28

7.2.5TCP round trip time and timeout 29

7.2.6Fast retransmit 29

7.2.7Congestion and congestion control 29

8Network layer 32

8.1Network layer services 32

8.2Internet protocol IP 33

8.2.1IP addresses 34

8.3Additional protocols dealing with network layer information 35

8.3.1Internet control message protocol ICMP 35

8.3.2Dynamic host configuration protocol DHCP 35

8.3.3Network address translation NAT 35

8.4Routing 36

8.4.1Distance vector protocols 37

8.4.2Link-state routing protocols 39

8.4.3Comparing routing algorithms 40

8.4.4Interdomain routing 41

8.4.5Routers 42

8.5IPv6 43

9Link layer 45

9.1End-to-end argument 45

9.2Encoding 45

9.2.1Non-return to zero NRZ 45

9.2.2Non-return to zero inverted 45

9.2.3Manchester encoding 46

9.2.44B/5B encoding 46

9.3Framing 46

9.3.1Point to point protocol PPP 46

9.3.2High-level data link control HDLC 47

9.3.3Synchronous optical network 47

9.4Error detection 47

9.4.1Parity checking 47

9.4.2Cyclic redundancy check CRC 48

9.5Media access control 48

9.5.1Turn-taking protocols (e.g. round robin) 48

9.5.2Random access protocols 48

9.5.3Slotted Aloha 48

9.5.4Pure (unslotted) aloha 49

9.5.5Demand assigned multiple access DAMA 49

9.5.6Carrier sense multiple access CSMA 49

9.5.7CSMA/CD (collision detect) 49

9.5.8Ethernet 50

10Packet switching 52

10.1Virtual circuit switching 52

10.1.1Asynchronous transfer mode ATM 52

10.2Datagram switching 52

10.2.1Address resolution protocol ARP 53

10.2.2Bridges and switches 53

10.2.3Virtual LANs 54

10.2.4Switches vs. Routers 54

11Naming 56

11.1Introduction 56

11.2Naming operations 56

11.3Naming policy alternatives 56

11.4Types of lookups 57

11.5Default and explicit contexts, qualified names 57

11.6Path names, naming networks, recursive resolution 58

11.7Multiple lookup 58

11.8Naming discovery 58

12Virtualization 59

12.1Examples 59

12.2The operation system as resource manager 61

12.3General operation system structure 62

13Processes and threads 63

13.1System calls 63

13.2Processes 63

13.2.1Process creation 64

13.3Kernel threads 65

13.3.1Kernel threads 65

13.3.2User-space threads 66

14Scheduling 70

14.1Introduction 70

14.1.1Batch workloads 70

14.1.2Interactive workloads 70

14.1.3Soft real-time workloads 70

14.1.4Hard real-time workloads 70

14.2Assumptions and definitions 71

14.3Batch-oriented scheduling 71

14.4Scheduling interactive loads 72

14.4.1Linux O(1) scheduler 73

14.4.2Linux “completely fair scheduler” 73

14.5Real-time scheduling 73

14.5.1Rate-monotonic scheduling RMS 74

14.5.2Earliest deadline first EDF 74

14.6Scheduling on multiprocessors 74

15Inter-process communication 75

15.1Hardware support for synchronization 75

15.1.1Spinning 75

15.2IPC with shared memory and interaction with scheduling 76

15.2.1Priority inversion 76

15.2.2Priority inheritance 76

15.3IPC without shared memory 76

15.3.1Unix pipes 77

15.3.2Local remote procedure calls 77

15.3.3Unix signals 77

16Memory management 79

16.1Memory management schemes 79

16.1.1Partitioned memory 79

16.1.2Segmentation 80

16.1.3Paging 81

17Demand paging 86

17.1Copy-on-write COW 86

17.2Demand-paging 86

17.2.1Page replacement 87

17.2.2Frame allocation 88

18I/O systems 89

18.1Interrupts 90

18.2Direct memory access 90

18.3Device drivers 91

18.3.1Example: network receive 91

18.4The I/O subsystem 92

19File system abstractions 93

19.1Introduction 93

19.2Filing system interface 93

19.2.1File naming 93

19.2.2File types 94

19.2.3Access control 94

19.3Concurrency 95

20File system implementation 96

20.1On-disk data structures 96

20.2Representing a file on disk 96

20.2.1Contiguous allocation 96

20.2.2Extent-based system 97

20.2.3Linked allocation 97

20.2.4Indexed allocation 97

20.3Directory implementation 98

20.4Free space management 98

20.5In-memory data structures 98

20.6Disks, partitions and logical volumes 99

20.6.1Partitions 99

20.6.2Logical volumes 99

21Networking stacks 100

21.1Networking stack 100



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