I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with




НазваниеI. Read the following text and say what geology deals with
страница1/12
Дата конвертации13.02.2013
Размер0.54 Mb.
ТипДокументы
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   12



Казанский государственный университет

Институт языка

Кафедра английского языка


THE MAGIC OF GEOLOGY


Казань - 2008


Печатается по решению
учебно-методической комиссии
кафедры английского языка КГУ


Составители:

старший преподаватель Капустина Э.В.

старший преподаватель Мельникова О.К.

преподаватель Иксанова Г.Р.


Под редакцией профессора Багаутдиновой Г.А.


Lesson 1

A ROMANTIC SCIENCE


I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with.

The Earth’s crust, the core and the mantle of the Earth. Gravitational action of heavenly bodies. Colossal blocks, immense faults, and movements of lithosphere platforms. Mantle flows and magma bursting onto the surface through volcanic necks.

The richest underground pantries of the planet with the mysterious and enigmatic caves, swift glacial streams, unique exotic crystals and precious metals, mountain ways, dangerous stone-falls, crafty rivers, floods, mosquitoes, and heavy rucksacks, and – a moment of triumph – rare finding, joy of discovery! All this is geology, the most attractive and romantic of the Earth sciences!


Notes:

core [kɔ:] - ядро

fault [fɔ:lt] - разлом

pantry [´pæntrı] - кладовая

cave [keıv] - пещера

mysterious [mıstıәrıəs] – таинственный

enigmatic [,enıg’mætıc] - загадочный

glacial [’gleısjəl] – ледниковый

precious [’pre∫əs] - драгоценный

crafty [’kræftı] - коварный

rare [rεə] - редкий

immense [ı’mens] - огромный

colossal [kə’lɔsl] - громадный


II. Match an adjective from column A with a noun in column B.

A

1) gravitational

2) dangerous

3) heavy

4) mysterious

5) colossal

6) unique

7) precious

8) immense

9) crafty

10) glacial

B

a) faults

b) blocks

c) streams

d) caves

e) action

f) rucksacks

g) crystals

h) stone-falls

i) rivers

j) metals



Vocabulary I

III. Be careful to pronounce correctly.

a) ocean [’әu∫n]

Interpret [ın’tə:prıt]

material [mə’tıərıəl]

processes [’prəusesız]

surface [’sə:fıs]

speciality [,spe∫ı’ælətı]

sciences [’saıənsız]

sequence [’sı:kwəns]

interior [ın’tıərıə]

relevance [’reləvəns]

knowledge [’nɔlıʤ]

industrialized [ın’dΛstrıəlaızd]

society [sə’saıətı]

renewable [rı’nju:əbl]

depleted [dıp’lı:tıd]

although [ɔ:l’ðəu]

expertise [,ekspə:’tı:z]

monitoring [’mɔnıtərıŋ]

contingency [kən’tindʒənsı]

survey [sə:veı]

occur [əkə:]

limited [’lımıtıd]

pursuit [pəs’ju:t]

b) mine’ralogy, pet’rology, stra’tigrafy, geo’physics, paleon’tology, geo’chemistry, geomor’phology, geochro’nology, environ’mental ge’ology.

IV. Study the following words.

sequence (n) - последовательность

successive (adj) - последующий, следующий один за другим

application (n) - применение

fossil(n) - окаменелость

relevance (n) – релевантность, уместность

renewable (adj) - возобновляемый

deplete (v) – исчерпывать, истощать

sophisticated (adj) – сложный, изощренный

expertise (n) – специальные знания, компетентность

ground-water – грунтовая вода

dam (n) - дамба

power plant - электростанция

contingency (n) – непредвиденное обстоятельство

pursuit (n) – поиск, занятие

substitute (n) - заменитель

waste disposal – уничтожение отходов


V. Translate into Russian.

power plants, earthquake-resistance buildings, waste disposal sites, contingency plans, a wide variety of pursuits, limited resources, underground water pollution, short-range predictions, long-range predictions, natural disasters, volcanic eruptions, nonrenewable resources, suitable substitutes, basic principles.


VI. Read the following text and answer the questions.

You will learn about:

Branches of geology and its relation to other sciences, what geologists are involved in, renewable and non-renewable resources, natural disasters and contingency plans.


The science of Geology

Geology, from the Greek geo and logos, is defined as “the study of the Earth”. It is generally divided into two broad areas – historical geology and physical geology. Historical geology examines the origin and evolution of the Earth, its continents, oceans, atmosphere, and life. However, before one can interpret the Earth’s past, an understanding of physical geology is needed. This involves the study of Earth materials, such as minerals and rocks, as well as the processes operating within the Earth and upon its surface.


  1. What does historical geology deal with?

  2. What is physical geology concerned with?


The discipline of geology is so broad that it is subdivided into many different fields or specialties. It is related to physics, astronomy, chemistry, and biology. Some of the specialities of geology are mineralogy, the study of minerals; petrology, the study of rocks; stratigraphy, the study of the sequence of geologic events as recorded in successive layers of rock; structural geology, the study of the deformation of the Earth’s crust; geophysics, the application of physical laws and principles to the study of the Earth, particularly its interior; paleontology, the study of fossils; and paleogeography, the study of the Earth’s past geographical features.


  1. What does stratigraphy study?

  2. Which subdivisions of geology are related to biology?

  3. What speciality of geology studies rocks?

  4. What’s the English for: географические особенности, физические законы, геологические события, структурная геология?

Nearly every aspect of geology has some economic or environmental relevance, so it is not surprising that many geologists are involved in exploration for mineral and energy resources. Geologists use their specialized knowledge to locate the natural resources on which our industrialized society is based. Such mineral resources as coal, sand, petroleum, metal, and gravel are non-renewable, and once known deposits of them are depleted, new deposits or suitable substitutes must be found. As the world demand for these non-renewable resources increases, geologists are applying the basic principles of geology in increasingly sophisticated ways in the search for mineral and energy resources.


  1. What resources are called non-renewable?


Although locating mineral and energy resources is extremely important, geologists are also asked to use their expertise to help solve many of our environmental problems. Some geologists are involved in finding ground-water for the needs of communities and industries or in monitoring surface and underground water pollution and suggesting ways to clean it up. Geological engineering is used to find safe locations for dams, waste disposal sites, and power plants, as well as to help design earthquake-resistant buildings. Geologists are also involved in making short and long-range predictions about earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and the potential destruction that may result. In addition, they are working with civil defense planners to help draw up contingency plans should such natural disasters occur.


  1. What environmental problems do geologists help solve?

  2. What predictions can geologists make?


As this brief survey illustrates, geologists are employed in a wide variety of pursuits. As the world’s population increases and greater demands are made on the Earth’s limited resources, the need for geologists and their expertise will become even greater.


VII. Fill in the chart of the subdivisions of geology. There is one extra word which you do not need to use.

economic geology, environmental geology, geophysics, geomorphology, oceanography, structural geology, stratigraphy, petrology, paleontology, seismology, geochemistry, mineralogy, paleography, glacial geology, geochronology



VIII. Give the summary of the text. Use the following phrases:

The text deals with…

It’s well known that…

According to the text…

It is pointed out that…

Broadly speaking…

Basically…

The next point is that…

To sum it up…

Finally…





Lesson 2

DOING GEOLOGY


Vocabulary I

I. Read the following words:

a) degree [dı’grı:]

career [kә’rıә]

provide [prә’vaıd]

unique [ju’nı:k]

submit [sәb’mıt]

research [rı’sз:t∫]

concerned [kәn’sә:nd]

disciple [dı’saıpl]

geodesy [ʤı’ɔdısı]

resources [rı’sɔ:sız]

laboratory [lә’bɔrәtrı]

chemistry [’kemıstrı]

regional [’rı:ʤәnl]

graduate [’græʤuәt]

taught [tɔ:t]

marketing [’ma:kәtıη]

foreign [’fɔrın]

earthquake [’ә:θkweık]

empties [’emptıtız]

company [’kΛmpәnı]

candidate [’kændıdәt]

b) contribution, contamination, mineralogy, opportunities, eruption, observatory, landslides, promising


II. Read the words and determine the parts of speech. Mind the stress.

1. contribution - contribute

2. mineralogy – mineralogical - mineralogist

3. philosophy – philosopher - philosophical

4. graduate – undergraduate - postgraduate

5. chemistry – chemical - chemist

6. geophysics – geophysical - geophysicist

7. geology – geological - geologist


III. Read the text and complete the chart.





The Faculty of Geology

Geology has been studied at Kazan State University nearly since the date of its foundation. The first lectures on mineralogy were read by professor K. F. Fuchs in 1805. A great contribution to the geological science was made by professor N.A. Golovkinsky (the founder of the facies theory) and his disciples A.A. Shtukenberg, P.T. Krotov, A.V. Cherdintsev.

At present the Faculty of Geology has several departments, i.e. The Department of General Geology and Hydrogeology, The Department of Mineralogy and Petrography, The Department of Regional Geology, The Department of Historical Geology and Paleontology, The Department of Mineral Resources and Prospecting, The Department Geophysical methods of Prospecting for Natural Resources and the Department of Oil and Gas.

The Faculty has a number of up-to-date research and educational laboratories, a magnetic observatory and a unique geological and mineralogical museum.

All students study full time. The course lasts for five years. Students are taught general geology, geodesy, paleontology, mineralogy, structural geology, higher mathematics, physics, chemistry as well as philosophy, business and marketing, law, information systems and foreign languages. One can study English, German or French.

After each semester students take examinations. They also write their project work.

As field-work is important in geological training; undergraduates take regular field-study courses, both in the Volga Region and other parts of the country and submit a report based on their own work.

Research at the Faculty is devoted to the study of earthquakes, landslides, floods and volcanic eruptions. The research school is also concerned with physics of minerals, contemporary methods of prospecting, carst empties and ground water contamination.

There are promising career opportunities for geologists. While some graduates work for oil or mining companies, others work in geological parties and geological administrations. The Faculty provides a few post-graduate courses. Post-graduate students do research towards a Candidate of Science Degree.


IV. Answer the questions.

  1. When was the Geological Faculty founded?

  2. What famous scientists worked at the Faculty?

  3. What departments can you name?

  4. How is the study process organized?

  5. How is field-work organized?

  6. In what areas can the graduates find a job?

  7. What can you say about research at the Faculty?

  8. Are geology students offered courses in foreign languages?


V. Translate into English.

научная работа, физика минералов, загрязнение грунтовых вод, извержения вулканов, оползни, землетрясение, карстовые пустоты, современные методы разведки, многообещающие возможности, работать в нефтяной компании, аспирантура, представить отчёт, научно-исследовательская лаборатория, уникальный геолого-минералогический музей, учиться на дневном отделении, большой вклад, ученик.


VI. Translate into Russian.

  1. Minerals and rocks are studied with the use of the most up-to-date equipment and the latest methods of contemporary physics.

  2. Students are offered lectures and workshops on basics of environmental geology.

  3. The Department has several educational and research laboratories, e.g. lithological, x-ray, optional spectroscopy, radio spectroscopy (EPR, NMR), etc.

  4. Research is devoted to the study of crystallogenesis, lithology and mineralogy of oil-bearing rocks.

  5. Majors are offered in Geology and Geochemistry of fossil fuels.

  6. Lectures are delivered on geochemistry of oil and gas, exploration of oil and gas fields, methods of prospecting for oil and gas deposits and computer modeling of oil and geological systems.

  7. Basic areas of research are the study of petrography of the Permian bitumen deposits, migration of oil, investigation of the Devonian and Carboniferous geological periods.

  8. The staff and undergraduates are involved in intensive research.

  9. The staff contributed greatly to the study of the new oil deposits.

  10. All kinds of research, from fundamental to applied are being fulfilled at the department, with the emphasis on magnetic stratigraphy, paleomagnetism, electrical and seismic methods in oil wells and physical properties of sedimentary rocks.

  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   12

Добавить в свой блог или на сайт

Похожие:

I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with icon1. Read the text once more, complete the questions and answer them

I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with iconRead and translate the following text. Write down unknown words

I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with iconThis Learning Packet has two parts: (1) text to read and (2) questions to answer

I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with iconRead and annotate a chapter from the Bill Bryson text, “a short History of Nearly Everything”, demonstrating reading comprehension and writing goals as set by

I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with iconYou can choose which advantage modules to read in the 1AC, making sure you read pg. 2 and 29-31

I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with iconIn our busy lives, it is hard to carve out time to read. Yet, if you are able to invest the time to read about the region where you travel, it pays off by

I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with iconFor m/m sex, m/f sex, violence and language, so if such things offend you or it's illegal for you to read this where you live, please don't read it! For those

I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with icon2. a) Skim through the text and say what the message of the text is.  5 min.) ' assets активы

I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with iconThis is where the teens Three Rivers can write reviews of books they have read and find out about new books they would want to read

I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with iconSection 1: citing sources in your text (in-text citations)


Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
lib.convdocs.org


База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.convdocs.org 2012
обратиться к администрации
lib.convdocs.org
Главная страница