I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with




НазваниеI. Read the following text and say what geology deals with
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VII. Answer the questions. Use the following words and phrases. Use underlined phrases from the previous exercise.

(I’m a second-year student of the Faculty of Geology, I’m in my second year, Professor, associate professor, a number of up-to-date researches and educational laboratories, I’m going to take a post-graduate course, I would like to work for an international oil company, I would like to start my own business, I would like to become a research professor, my research deals with, I’m interested in, I’m going to do my master’s degree)


  1. Where do you study?

  2. What department do you belong to?

  3. Who is the head of your department?

  4. Who is the Dean of the Faculty?

  5. What subjects do you study? What subjects are mandatory? What subjects are optional?

  6. What exams are you going to take at the end of the semester?

  7. Does your department organise field-works for second-year students? Does it organise industrial practice?

  8. Is the Faculty well-equipped?

  9. What are basic trends of research on your department?

  10. Are you interested in research? Are you doing a project? What’s the object of your research? What’s the subject of your research? Do you use English for your research?

  11. What are your plans for the long-term future?


Vocabulary II

I. Be careful to pronounce correctly.

a) facies [’feısız]

exhibit [ıg’zıbıt]

evoke [ı’vouk]

variety [və’raıətı]

diversity [daı’və:sıtı]

rasity [’rεərətı]

druse [dru:z]

gem [ʤəm]

admiration [‚ædmə’reı∫n]

acquisition [‚ækwı’zı∫n]

valuable [’væljuəbl]

meteorite [’mı:tıəraıt]

exhibition [‚eksı’bı∫n]

b) fluoraite [’fluəraıt]

spinel [spı’nel]

ruby [’ru:bı]

malachite [’mæləkaıt]

emerald [’emərәld]

diamond [’daıəmənd]

sapphire [’sæfaıə]

agate [’ægət]

marble [ma:bl]

alexandrite [‚ælıg’zændraıt]




II. Study the following words.

acquisition (n) - приобретение

acquire (v) - приобретать

facies (n) - фации

exhibit (n)- экспонат

exhibit (v) - показывать, экспонировать, выставлять

exhibition (n) - выставка

diversity (n) - разнообразие, многообразие

diverse (adj)- различный, разный

variety (n) - разнообразие

various (adj) - различный

rarity (n) - редкий экспонат, раритет

druse (n) - друза

fluorite (n) = fluor spar - плавиковый шпат

spinel ruby - шпинелевый рубин

gem (n) - драгоценный камень, самоцвет.


III. Say the following words in English. Mind the pronunciation.

рубин, малахит, мрамор, агат, александрит, сапфир, алмаз, изумруд


IV. Read the text and complete the following sentences.

  1. The museum of Geology and mineralogy of Kazan State University is one of the __________________________________________.

  2. It dates back to ___________________________.

  3. The first acquisition was ____________________________.

  4. Nowadays, the museum has _____ sections, such as___________________.

  5. Mineralogy section _____________________________________________.

  6. There are a lot of _________________________________ among minerals.

  7. _____________ is quite a rarity nowadays, because ___________________.

  8. The Gem Collection displays ____________________________________.

  9. The museum _____________ the copy of the biggest diamond in the world.

  10. There is also a display of ______________________________________.

  11. A big ‘hill’ formed by gem stones _______________________________.


The Stukenberg museum of Geology and mineralogy of Kazan State University is one of the oldest richest natural science museums in the Russian Federation. It was founded in 1804, when the University Charter was signed. The first acquisition was the collection of minerals of Prince Potyomkin-Tavrichesky.

The contemporary store of the museum implies six main sections, such as ores, minerals and petrography; paleontology; dynamic geology and facies; monographic collections; mineral products of Tatarstan; the history of the museum.

The set of meteorite fragments exhibited in the Mineralogy section is especially valuable. The collection began with Okhan meteorite, which had fallen in Perm province on August 30, 1887.

The mineral collections represent all the diversity and variety of chemical compounds. There are a lot of rarities among the minerals, such as fluorite druse from Cumberland deposit (Great Britain) or iron spinel crystal of 21 kg weight from the mines of the Urals. The collection of the Urals malachites is quite a rarity nowadays as the minerals were extracted in the XIX century in deposits, which have been completely worked out.

The Gem Collection demonstrates all groups of industrial raw materials, including diamonds. emeralds, sapphires, rubies, alexandrites, etc. The museum exhibits the copy of the biggest diamond in the world “Culinan” as well as the glass imitations of such big diamonds as “Shakh”, “Orlov” and others. There is also a display of boxes, vases and bowls made of malachite, agate and marble. A big “hill” formed by more than one hundred gem stones from the Urals evokes great admiration of the visitors.


V. Prepare a guide presentation for the museum. Use the phrases below.

We are now standing outside the main entrance to; we are going to visit; the museum was opened in; the museum houses exhibits of; there are also displays devoted to; entrance to the museum is free (costs …); please note that photography is not allowed; the museum closes at; does anyone have any questions?


Lesson 3

IDENTIFICATION OF A MINERAL




I. Practice saying these words.

a) luster [’lΛstә]

hardness [’ha:dnәs]

tarnish [’ta:nı∫]

rough [rΛf]

sulfide [’sulfaıd]

substance [’sΛbstәns]

hackly [’hæklı]

ratio [’reı∫ıәu]

microscope [’maıkrәskәup]

accurately [’ækjurәtlı]

fairly [’fεәlı]

gravity [’grævıtı]

smooth [smu:θ]

surface [’sә:fıs]

curved [kә:vd]

definite [’defınıt]

crystal [’krıstl]

cleavage [’klı:vıʤ]

relative [’relәtıv]

measure [’meʒә]

symmetry [’sımәtrı]

oxide [’ɔksaıd]

crystalline [’krıstәlaın]

b) resistance [rә’zıstәns]

conchoidal [kɔŋ’kɔıdl]

distinct [dıs’tınkt]

unaltered [Λn’ɔ:ltıd]

impurity [ım’pju:rıtı]

transparent [træns’pærәnt]

diagnostic [‚daıә’gnɔstık]

fluorescence [‚flɔ:’resns]

determine [dı’tә:mın]

estimations [‚estı’meı∫nz]

identification [aı‚dentıfı’keı∫n]

irregularities [ı‚regju’lærıtız]


II. Practice saying the following minerals.

talc [tælk]

gypsum [’ʤıpsәm]

calcite [’kælsaıt]

fluorite [’fluәraıt]

apatite [’æpәtaıt]

orthoclase [’ɔ:θәkleıs]

quarts [kwɔ:ts]

feldspar [’feldspa:]




III. Study the following words.

luster (n) – блеск

hardness (n) - твердость

cleavage (n) – слоистость, спайность, кливаж

cleavage plane – плоскость кливажа

specific gravity – удельный вес

solubility (n) - растворимость

fracture (n) - разлом

crystal faces – кристаллические решетки

hackly (adj) – шероховатый, зазубренный

transparent (adj) - прозрачный

tarnish (v) - тускнеть

opaque (adj) – непрозрачный, матовый, без блеска

scale (n) - шкала

effervescence (n) – выделение пузырьков газа, шипение

flint (n) – кремень


IV. Read the following text and answer the questions.Write down the types of:

cleavage 1)____________ 2) _____________3) ____________4)_____________

fracture 1)____________ 2) _____________3) ____________4)_____________

luster 1)____________ 2) _____________3) ____________4)_____________

Write the translation of underlined words.


General Physical Properties

The physical properties include such things as colors, luster, hardness, weight (specific gravity), crystal form, taste, fluorescence, solubility, cleavage, magnetism, radioactivity and many more.

Hardness

Hardness of a mineral is its resistance to scratching. It is measured by Mohs’ scale which consists of 10 minerals: 1. Talc (the softest mineral) 2. Gypsum. 3. Calcite. 4. Fluorite. 5. Apatite. 6. Orthoclase. 7. Quarts. 8. Topaz. 9. Corundum. 10. Diamond (the hardness mineral). The steps are reasonably equal except that the step between corundum and diamond is very large. Hardness is an important property of a mineral and is of great value in identification.

Cleavage

Many minerals split easily in certain regular directions and yield smooth plane surfaces called cleavage planes. These directions are parallel to definite crystal faces. Perfect, good, distinct and imperfect are terms used to describe cleavage. Mica, for example, has a perfect cleavage and can be split into thin planes. Feldspars have two sets of good cleavage planes.

Fracture

Any irregular break is termed as fracture. It is independent of cleavage. Fresh facture shows the true colour of a mineral. Fracture is described as conchoidal, when the mineral breaks with a curved surface, e.g. in quarts and flint; as even when it is nearly flat; as uneven when it is rough; and as hackly when the surface carries small sharp irregularities. Most minerals show uneven fracture.


  1. What properties of minerals do you know?

  2. What is cleavage?

  3. What can you say about hardness?

  4. What is fracture?


Lustre

Lustre is the way a mineral reflects light, the two main types of lustre are metallic and non-metallic. A few minerals fall in between and are sometimes called submetallic. Metallic luster is the luster of metals, most sulphides and some oxides, all of which are opaque. Non-metallic luster is the lustre of minerals that are transparent on their thin edges and in general of light colour.


Colour

Colour is one of the most important properties of minerals. Strictly speaking, colour is the colour of a fresh, unaltered surface, although in some cases, the tarnished colour may help in identification. For some minerals colour is diagnostic, but many, such as quarts, may have almost any colour due to slight impurities.

Specific gravity

Specific gravity is a measure of the relative weight of substance. It is the ratio of the mass of substance to the mass of an equal volume of water. It is measured by weighing the substance in air and in water.

Specific gravity = weighting air

weighting – weighting water

Estimations of specific gravity can be made fairly accurately. It is of help in identification, especially with the very heavy minerals. The density of a substance is its mass per unit volume; when expressed in grams per cubic centimeter, density is numerically equal to specific gravity.



  1. Give the definition of luster.

  2. Can the tarnished colour help in identification of a mineral?

  3. What is specific gravity? Can it be measured accurately?

  4. What is density?


Crystal forms

All crystalline substances crystallize in one of six crystal systems. If the mineral grows in unrestricted space if develops the external shape of its crystal form. If it cannot grow its external shape, its crystalline nature can be determined only under the microscope or by x-ray analysis. The system can be determined by the symmetry of the crystals.

Taste and solubility

Taste and solubility can be determined by touching the specimen with a tongue. A solvable mineral will have the feel of a lump of sugar, and an insolvable mineral may full like glass. Reaction with dilute hydrochloric and is another solubility test. Calcite will react, producing effervescence. Dolomite must be powdered to increase the surface area before effervescence occurs. Dolomite will also react with hot dilute acid or with strong acid, both of which also increase the rate of chemical reaction. Other physical properties may require specific equipment to test. Examples are: radioactivity (Geige counter); magnetism (magnet); fluorescence (ultraviolet lights).


  1. How can we determine the crystalline nature of a mineral?

  2. How can we determine solubility of a mineral?

  3. Which physical properties of a mineral require specific equipment to test?


V. Form derivatives with the following prefixes: im, un, ir, non.

regular –

regularity –

purity –

restricted –

altered –

accurately –

metallic –

equal -

soluble –

distinct –

perfect –

definite –

even –

important –

reasonable –


VI. Choose the correct word.

1. Hardness is an (important/unimportant) property of a mineral.

2. Many minerals split easily in certain (regular/irregular) directions.

3. Feldspar has two sets of (perfect/good) cleavage.

4. Mica has (a perfect/an imperfect) cleavage.

5. Any (regular/irregular) break is termed fracture.

6. Fracture is described as (even/uneven) when it is rough.

7. Most sulphides have (metallic/non-metallic) luster.

8. Fracture is described as (even/uneven) when it is nearly flat.

9. The colour of (altered/unaltered) surface is most important in identification of a mineral.

10. (A soluble/an insoluble) mineral feels like glass.

11. If a mineral grows in (restricted/unrestricted) space, it develops the external shape of its crystal form.

12. (A soluble/an insoluble) mineral feels like a lump of sugar.

13. Density is numerically (equal/unequal) to specific gravity.

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