I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with




НазваниеI. Read the following text and say what geology deals with
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VII. Translate the following groups of words into English.

плотность породы, обломок породы, свойства пород, поверхность минерала, различия в цвете, в плотности, в спайности, иметь тенденцию, состоит из, сопротивление, самый твердый минерал, важное свойство минерала, кристаллическая решетка, не прозрачный, плоскость кливажа, удельный вес, блеск, растворимость, отражает свет, строго говоря, вследствие, благодаря, равный объем, взвешивать, довольно точно, определять, ограниченное пространство, образец, кусок сахара, нерастворимый.


VIII. Translate into Russian.

1. earth crust density examination

2. the present day geology development

3. the earth interior temperature encase

4. the geological data application

5. mineral cleavage


IX. Say these sentences in English.

1. Земная кора сложена разнообразными породами.

2. Эти породы отличаются цветом, спайностью, плотностью и другими особенностями.

3. Отдельные частицы пород являются однородными (homogeneous) веществами, характеризующимися определенными физическими и химическими свойствами.

4. Они могут быть твердыми, прозрачными или тусклыми.

5. Если мы знаем наиболее важные физические свойства минералов, мы легко можем их распознать.

6. Такими свойствами являются: твердость, спайность, излом, цвет, блеск, удельный вес и другие.


X. Make a mind map of the text and speak about the most important qualities of minerals. Use the following phases:

The subject of the text is …

The text deals with …

It is pointed out that …

Basically …

It should be stressed that …

Finally…


Vocabulary II

I. Practice saying these words.

a)

Aries [’εәrı:z]

Taurus [’tɔ:rәs]

Gemini [’ʤemınaı]

Cancer [’kænsә]

Leo [’lıәu]

Virgo [’vә:gәu]

Libra [’lı:brә]

Scorpio [’skɔ:pıәu]

Capricorn [’kæprıkɔ:n]

Aquarius [ә’kwεәrıәs]

Sagittarius [‚sæʤı’tεәrıәs]

Fishes [’fı∫ı:z] (Pisces [’paısı:z])

b)

Mars [ma:z]

Venus [’vı:nәs]

Moon [mu:n]

Mercury [’mә:kjәrı]

Saturn [’sætә:n]

Jupiter [’ʤu:pıtә]

c)

agate [’ægәt]

amethyst [’æmıθıst]

jasper [’ʤæspә]

malachite [’mælәkaıt]

chalcedony [kæl’sedәnı]

nephrite [’nefraıt]

hematite [’hemәtaıt]

emerald [’emәrәld]

sapphire [’sæfaıә]

ruby [’ru:bı]

alexandrite [‚ælıg’zændraıt]

aquamarine [‚ækwәmә’rı:n]

pearls [’pә:lz]

topaz [’tәupæz]

chrysoprase [’krısәpreız]

amazonite [’æmәznaıt]

turquoise [’tә:kwa:z]

onyx [’ɔnıks]

obsidian [’әbsıdıәn]

carnelian [kә’nı:ljәn]


II. Study the following words.

Sings of Zodiac - знаки зодиака

Aries – Овен

Taurus - Телец

Gemini - Близнецы

Cancer - Рак

Leo - Лев

Virgo - Дева

Libra - Весы

Scorpio - Скорпион

Sagittarius - Стрелец

Capricorn - Козерог

Aquarius - Водолей

Fishes (Pisces) – Рыбы


Gem-stones – драгоценные камни

jasper - яшма

chalcedony - халцедон

hematite – красный железняк

chrysoprase - хризопраз

carnelian - сердолик

nephrite - нефрит

turquoise - бирюза

obsidian – обсидиан (вулканическое стекло)

pearls - жемчуг

onyx - оникс

constellation - созвездие

inaccessible - недоступный

curative - лечебный


III. Answer the following questions. Use some of these phrases.

As far as I know; I’ve no doubt that; honestly; Not really; basically; my feeling is that; As I see it; as far as I remember; Frankly speaking


  1. When were you born?

  2. What is your sign of Zodiac?

  3. What is your best friend’s sign of Zodiac?

  4. Do you believe that our personal qualities depend on the month of birth?

  5. What are your favourite gems-stones?

  6. Do you believe in astral or curative properties of minerals?

  7. What precious stones are displayed in the Geology museum of your University?


IV. Read the text and make up the title.


Since ancient times people considered gems as magic and dynamic substances, which can protect from evil, gain somebody’s favour, serve as amulets and talismans. Thus, gem-stones are connected with signs of Zodiac. Here you can see one of the tables where gems correspond to Zodiac constellations and planets.

Aries (mars) – agate, amethyst, lazurite, mountain, crystal, jasper.

Taurus (Venus) – agate, turquoise, carnelian, rose quarts.

Gemini (Mercury) – tiger’s eye, malachite, chalcedony.

Cancer (Moon) – aventurine, chrysoprase, chalcedony.

Leo (Sun) – mountain crystal, hematite, rodonite.

Libra (Venus) – topaz, amazonite, carnelian.

Scorpion (Mars) – turquoise, malachite aquamarine, coral.

Capricorn (Saturn) – onyx, cat’s eye, obsidian, mountain crystal.

Sagittarius (Jupiter) – amethyst, topaz.

In general one can understand our ancestors. Without knowledge and right remedies for illnesses they had to hope for a lucky chance, talisman and protecting amulets. Precious stones were considered to be magic because they were inaccessible for poor people. However, even Biruni was definitely opposed to any connections between heavenly bodies and stones, ironically speaking about belief in astral or curative properties of minerals.

V. Write down the gems for the following signs of Zodiac.

Водолей (Сатурн) – аметист, бирюза, яшма.

Рыбы (Юпитер) – аметист, жемчуг, сердолик, лазурит.


VI. Make one word from these letters.

e.g., n, y, x, o – onyx


p, a, r, j, e, s –

e, a, p, l, r –

t, l, r, c, s, a, y –

i, a, n, d, m, o, d –

n, r, a, c, l, I, e, n, a –

r, o, u, e, t, u, q, i, s –


VII. Give the summary of the text and express your opinion. Use the following words and phrases.

According to the text …

It’s pointed out that …

It’s well known that …

Many people said that …

It’s often said that …

As far as I am concerned …

Basically, …

Interestingly, …

Obviously, …

Presumably, …

Personally, I think …

As I see it …

I agree on the whole …

I disagree entirely …



Lesson 4

BLACK GOLD


I. Answer the questions.

1) What hydrocarbons do you know?

2) What do you know about oil?

3) How important is oil?


Vocabulary I

II. Practise saying these words.

upper [’Λpә]

stratum [’stra:tәm]

strata (pl) [’stra:tә]

area [’eәriә]

hydrocarbons [‚haıdrә’ka:bәnz]

series [’sıәrı:z]

fuel [’fju:әl]

gasoline [’gæsәlı:n]

solvent [’sɔlvәnt]

fertilizer [’fз:tılaızә]

pesticide [’pestısaıd]

process [’prәuses]

deposit [dı’pɔzıt]

reserve [rı’zз:v]

convert [kәn’vз:t]

petroleum [pә’trәuliәm]

flammable [’flæmәbl]


III. Translate into Russian without a dictionary.

mixture, chemical products, plastic, resources, black gold, complex mixture of hydrocarbons, alkane series, oil field, naturally, microscopic plankton organism, leading producers, principle methods, petroleum prospect


IV. a) Complete the table.

verb

noun

adjective







processed




appearance




produce







compose










deposition




occur









b) Define the part of speech of the words below. Write the words they are derived from.

incompletely –

naturally –

relatively –

largely –

colloquially –

mostly –

usually –

principally –

initially –

finally –

conclusively –


c) Make up adverbs from these adjectives.

scientific –

relative –

increasing –

main –

basic –

final –

different –

new –

national –

technological –

exact –

chief –


V. Read the names of the countries below. Which of them are oil producers?

Make up adjectives from these geographical names using the table below.


Russia, Tatarstan, China, Iran, Norway, Mexico, Germany, France, Venezuela, Iraq, Nigeria, Ukraine, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, USA, India, Japan, Cuba, Gabon, Lebanon, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, England, Korea, Japan, Greece, Denmark, Egypt, Sweden, Switzerland, Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Thailand, Turkey

- ish

- an / -ian / - ican

- ese

other

British



American

Chinese

French


VI. Study the following word combinations. Make up sentences about oil using some of them.

crude oil, vary in appearance and composition, layers of rock, upper strata, raw material, fine-grained sediments, source rock, decayed plant and animal remains, petroleum running out, non-renewable resource, convert into, extract and process, leading producers


VII. Read the text. Reorder these questions according to the text and answer them.

  1. Why is petroleum often called ‘black gold’?

  2. Where does petroleum naturally occur?

  3. Which countries are considered the chief petroleum producers?

  4. What are the main characteristics of petroleum?

  5. In which spheres is petroleum mostly used?

  6. What are the theories of the oil origin?

  7. What does the word ‘petroleum’ mean?


Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold, is a thick, oily, flammable, dark brown or greenish liquid that occurs naturally in deposits, usually beneath the surface of the earth. Petroleum exists in the upper strata of some areas of the Earth's crust. It consists of a complex mixture of various hydrocarbons, largely of the alkane series, with traces of various nitrogenous and sulfurous compounds, but may vary much in appearance and composition. Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for producing fuel oil and gasoline (petrol), both important "primary energy" sources. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics. 88% of all petroleum extracted is processed as fuel; the other 12% is converted into other materials such as plastic. Since petroleum is a non-renewable resource, many people are worried about it running out.

Origin and Natural Occurrence. During the past 600 million years incompletely decayed plant and animal remains have become buried under thick layers of rock. It is believed that petroleum consists of the remains of these organisms but it is the small microscopic plankton organism remains that are largely responsible for the relatively high organic carbon content of fine-grained sediments which are the principle source rocks for petroleum. Among the leading producers of petroleum are Saudi Arabia, Russia, the United States (chiefly Texas, California, Louisiana, Alaska, Oklahoma, and Kansas), Iran, China, Norway, Mexico, Venezuela, Iraq, Great Britain, the United Arab Emirates, Nigeria, and Kuwait. The largest known reserves are in the Middle East.

VIII. Read the text again and answer the questions above. Use the following phrases.

According to the text…

As far as I understand…

If I’m not mistaken…

It’s well-known that…

Interestingly,…

Obviously,…

IX. Find the odd word in each line.

  1. oily / dark brown/ black / greenish

  2. fertilizers / solvents / pesticides / energy sources / plastics

  3. crude oil / raw material / processed petroleum / fossil fuel

  4. reserves / deposits / remains / strata / resources

  5. organism / origin / composition / properties / appearance

  6. Russia / Alaska / Norway / Saudi Arabia / Mexico


X. Complete the sentences.

Oil is a natural substance…

Petroleum consists of …

Oil is mainly extracted…

Petroleum products are used…


Vocabulary II
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