I. Read the following text and say what geology deals with

НазваниеI. Read the following text and say what geology deals with
Дата конвертации13.02.2013
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I. Answer the questions.

  1. Where do hydrocarbon deposits usually occur?

  2. How are oil fields found?

  3. Who looks for oil and gas?

II. Practise saying the words.

crude [kru:d]

scientific [‚saıәn’tıfık]

reduce [rı’dju:s]

gravimeter [’grævı‚mı:tә]

magnetometer [‚mægnı’tɔmıtә]

seismic [’saızmık]


fluid [’flu:ıd]

offshore [‚ɔf’∫ɔ:]

inject [ın’ʤekt]

migration [maı’greı∫n]

particular [pә’tıkjulә]

subsurface [sΛb’sз:fıs]

survey [’sз:veı]

reservoir [’rezәvwa:]

overpressure [’әuvәpre∫ә]

criterion [kraı’tıәrıәn] (criteria (pl) [kraı’tıәrıә])

shale [∫eıl]

III. Match the English words in A with their Russian equivalents in B.


  1. accumulate in traps

  2. basic evidence

  3. be subjected to high pressure

  4. drill an exploration well

  5. extended period of time

  6. highly sophisticated technology

  7. oil seeps

  8. onshore deposits

  9. promising site

  10. pump oil out

  11. pumpjack

  12. reflected sound waves

  13. varying densities

  14. visible surface features


    1. бурить поисковую скважину

    2. просачивание нефти

    3. отраженные звуковые волны

    4. основное доказательство

    5. длительный период времени

    6. различная плотность

    7. береговые залежи

    8. видимые особенности поверхности

    9. перспективное месторождение

    10. сложная технология

    11. накапливаться в ловушках

    12. выкачивать нефть

    13. нефтяная вышка

    14. подвергаться высокому давлению

IV. a) Match the halves of the complex adjectives from A and B.


density- high- organic- non- sub- newly- large-


matured porous related rich risk scale surface

b) Which of the words above do these words match to make complex adjectives?





























V. Make up derivatives from the verbs below.

  1. subject –

  2. accumulate –

  3. explore –

  4. seep –

  5. drill –

  6. vary –

  7. determine –

  8. relate –

  9. detect –

VI. Read the text and choose the best title.

a) Search for hydrocarbons in remote areas.

b) Drilling of oil wells.

c) Oil exploration methods.

d) Exploration geophysics.

Hydrocarbon exploration is the search for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and gas, by petroleum geologists. Oil and gas exploration are grouped under the science of petroleum geology.

According to modern biogenic theory, hydrocarbons form when organic-rich rock such as oil shale is subjected to high pressure and temperature over an extended period of time. The theory of abiogenic petroleum origin holds that natural petroleum was formed from deep carbon deposits, perhaps dating to the formation of the Earth. Hydrocarbons are expelled from source rock by density-related mechanisms: the newly-matured hydrocarbons are less dense than their precursors, which causes overpressure; the hydrocarbons are lighter medium, and so migrate upwards due to buoyancy.

Most hydrocarbons seep to the surface, but particular formations of non-porous rock known as traps (e.g. anticline, fault block) may allow them to accumulate. Such accumulation is known as a reservoir. This is a porous sandstone or limestone. The oil collects in the pores within the rock. The reservoir must also be permeable so that the hydrocarbons will flow to surface during production. The objective of oil exploration is to find such reservoirs.

Visible surface features, such as oil seeps and natural gas seeps, provide basic evidence of reservoirs (be it shallow or deep in the Earth). However, most exploration depends on highly sophisticated technology to detect and determine the extent of these deposits.

Because of the subterranean origin of petroleum it must be extracted by means of wells. Until an exploratory well, or wildcat, has been dug, there is no sure way of knowing whether or not petroleum lies under a particular site. Areas thought to contain hydrocarbons are initially subjected to a gravity survey or magnetic survey to detect large scale features of the subsurface geology. Features of interest (known as leads or prospects) are subjected to more detailed seismic surveys which work on the principle of the time it takes for reflected sound waves to travel through matter (rock) of varying densities to create a profile of the substructure. In order to reduce the number of exploratory wells drilled, scientific methods are used to pick the most promising sites. Sensitive instruments, such as the gravimeter, the magnetometer, and the seismograph, may be used to find subsurface rock formations that can hold crude oil.

Finally, when a prospect has been identified and evaluated and passes the oil company's selection criteria, an exploration well is drilled to conclusively determine the presence or absence of oil or gas. Drilling is a fairly complex and often risky process. Some wells must be dug several miles deep before petroleum deposits are reached. Many are now drilled offshore from platforms standing in the ocean bed. Usually the petroleum from a new well will come to the surface under its own pressure. Later the crude oil must be pumped out or forced to the surface by injecting water, gas, or air into the deposits.

All in all, oil exploration is an expensive, high-risk operation. Offshore and remote area exploration is generally only undertaken by very large corporations or national governments. Typical shallow shelf oil wells (e.g. North sea) cost $10 - 30 million, while deep water wells can cost up to USD $100 million plus. Hundreds of smaller companies search for onshore hydrocarbon deposits worldwide, with some wells costing as little as $500,000 USD.

VII. Answer the questions.

  1. What is hydrocarbon exploration?

  2. Who searches for oil and gas deposits?

  3. How do hydrocarbons form?

  4. What makes them seep to the surface?

  5. Where are traps formed?

  6. Where is oil accumulated?

  7. What are the three ways to find crude oil deposits?

  8. What is the basic principle of seismic survey?

  9. What is the objective of all the surveys carried out in a promising site?

  10. What risks do oil exploration companies run?

VIII. Match the words in A with the words in B. More than one combination is possible.


oil, natural, source, porous, nonporous, basic, detailed, gravity, magnetic, onshore, offshore, mineral, hydrocarbon, physical, subsurface, high, historical


shale, field, properties, risk, temperature, pressure, geology, deposit, exploration, survey, evidence, elements, rock, resources, seeps
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