Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy




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Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam




31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each

3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length)


Introduction to Philosophy

  • What is philosophy?

  • The Three Main Subjects of Philosophy

  • Metaphysics

  • Epistemology

  • Ethics

Argument

  • Argument: For philosophers refers to a set of statements that claims that one or more of those statements, called the premises, support another of them, called the conclusion

  • Eg. All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal

Religion and Medicine Before the 20th Century

  • Historically there has been a strong connection between religion and medicine prior to the 20th century

  • Hospitals were religiously sponsored

  • Nursing grew out of Catholic Religious Orders (eg. Grey Nuns) and later Protestant lay organizations (Florence Nightingale)

  • Traditional healers in most societies were also religious leaders (eg. Shamans)



Holisitic Care

  • An approach to medicine that sees wellness as a state of harmony between body, mind, emotions, and spirit in an ever-changing environment

  • Care of the whole person, including the mind and spirit was seen as a professional nursing responsibility

  • A characteristic outlook in most religions (egs. Christian “cure of souls”, Buddhist enlightenment and mindfulness, Taoist balance of chi, Hindu Chakras)



Religion and Medicine in the 20th Century

  • Widely perceived divide between religion and science over what constituted the truth

  • Eg. Conflict between literal interpretations of the Bible and Darwin’s theory evolution (Scopes Trial in the 1930s)

  • This perceived antagonism influence the delivery of health care

  • Profession of nursing abandoned its traditional ties to religions



Spirituality and Religion in Nursing Theory

  • As nursing sought to establish itself as a profession with a legitimate knowledge base, the concern with human spirituality was downplayed and even consciously ignored until the early 1980s (eg. psychological counseling replaced chaplaincy referrals, some hospitals did away with chaplain services altogether)

  • However, to avoid falling into a mentality of treating patients merely as objects, nursing theorists Betty Newman & Jean Watson began in the 80s to advocate that nurses cultivate an awareness of their client’s beliefs



Hospital Chaplains

  • Part of the Health Care Team (But all caregivers can provide “spiritual” care)

  • Their trained (many hours) and have a professional association (Canadian Association for Pastoral and Chaplaincy Services)—(Discussions are underway to change “Pastoral” to “Spiritual”)

  • Trained and experienced with dealing with cross-cultural issues

  • Unlike other members of the health care team their emphasis is on being “listeners” rather “doers

  • Chaplains come from a wide diversity of backgrounds including members of a diverse array of religious groups and non-believers, non-theists, etc. (their role is never to proselytize or “convert” people to a way of thinking, but to support people in their own life “journey” or “life story”)

  • Respond to calls and make rounds

  • Help with things like:

    • Liaisons with faith communities

    • Discussion of mortality, guilt, sources of hope, fear

    • Intermediary in cross-cultural debates/conflicts about medical care issues

    • Arrangements for prayer, meditation, and other spiritual needs

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