Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy




Скачать 171.54 Kb.
НазваниеPhil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy
страница11/11
Дата конвертации14.02.2013
Размер171.54 Kb.
ТипДокументы
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

Quantum Theory or simple synchronicity can make extraordinary events possible

  • The real problem with miracles is not with science but is a theological problem of miracle—”Christian God of steadfast faithfulness” vs. interventionist god who practices favoritism (Christine Overall)

  • Perhaps miracles must be so rare b/c God is “self-limited by his respect of the freedom of his creation”



    Larmer

    • Perhaps God can act within the laws of physics

    • If God simply creates matter “out of nothing” and adds it to the otherwise rule-bound universe, or perhaps takes advantage of the “looseness” implied by quantum mechanics to “nudge” physical processes in certain directions, then such a God would be able to act in a world without breaking any “laws of nature” (such as the laws of thermodynamics)



    Christine Overall

    • Problem of Evil: Why does an all-powerful, all-knowing and loving God not act more often to help alleviate suffering? Why are only some individuals blessed with divine interventions?

    • Overall: “If miracles of the sort that Larmer offers were to occur, they would constitute very good evidence against the existence of a God who is omnipotent (all powerful) omniscient (all -knowing) and all-good.”



    Multiculturalism Pluralism and Tolerance

    Our Multicultural Society

    • http://www.mapleleafsikh.com/2010/03/fraser-health-authority-shaves-another.html

    • http://www.capebretonpost.com/index.cfm?sid=277948&sc=595

    “Multicultural” &
    “Multiculturalism”

    • Multicultural: A term of description applied to societies composed of diverse cultural & religious groups

    • Cross-cultural, intercultural: A term of description for situations involving multiple cultures

    • Multiculturalism: A political philosophy or specific political policy or approach aimed at addressing problems raised in multicultural states (usually by supporting and/or promoting pluralism, tolerance, and integration, eg. In Canada we have The Multiculturalism Act (1987)



    “Pluralism”

    • Pluralism: The philosophical belief that it is good for societies to be diverse in the ethical, religious and metaphysical views held by people in those societies

    • A “pluralistic” society is a society in which members of minority groups are able, or even encouraged, to maintain independent traditions

    • Opposite of pluralism is a belief that one’s society ought to aim for cultural unity through the assimilation of minority cultures



    “Assimilation” and “Integration”

    • Assimilation: Any process that attempts to eliminate cultural differences (eg. The banning of the “potlatch” ceremony of West Coast First Nations, residential schools and the rules against native language use, etc.)

    • Integration: Any process that attempts to facilitate effective cooperation and interaction between different cultural groups



    “Tolerance”

    • Tolerance: An ethical/political attitude that has been considered a virtue in many societies that involves the expression of a willingness to accommodate, within some defined limits, differences in cultural, ethical or religious practice

    • Such accommodation requires a willingness to learn about and maintain awareness of different cultures (aka: Multi-cultural awareness, cultural sensitivity, cosmopolitanism)

    • The practice of this virtue is encouraged by certain rights enshrined in the Canadian Charter of Rights (freedom of conscience, religion, association, expression and non-discrimination)



    What is Culture?

    • Way of life (food, clothing, what you do, how one worships)

    • Way of viewing things (what one believes in, values, stories about the meaning and purpose of life death and suffering)

    • Way of communicating (language, physical contact, stories, turns of phrase, body language)



    The Canada Health Act (1984)

    • Clearly states that all Canadians have a right to equitable, accessible, comprehensive and culturally and racially sensitive and appropriate health care



    “Culturally-Sensitive Care”

    • Refers to health care that is customized to fit with the client’s cultural values, beliefs & traditions (RNA of NS)

    • International Council of Nurses has declared that “culturally congruent health care … is a basic human right, not a privilege” (ICN, Code for Nurses, 1973)



    Jehovah’s Witnesses

    • A protestant group

    • Believe that certain scriptural references indicate that blood is a sacred element

    • Therefore, prohibit blood transfusions



    Attitudes Towards Privacy and Family involvement

    • Many Muslims pray five times daily at set times, so in Islamic countries prayers take place in public and in some countries little notice is given to those praying

    • A Muslim in hospital in Canada reported that nursing staff would stay away from his room completely during his prayers, which made him feel like they were afraid of him

    • Nursing staff reported that they were actually just trying to guard his privacy



    Traditional healing practices

    • Members of First Nations participate in spiritual ceremonies such as the sweat ceremony, smudging, meditation and the talking circle

    • A First Nations person reported that, while being discharged from hospital, she mentioned her intention of participating in such a ceremony and was warned that she should perhaps focus on resting instead

    • The patient was aware of this and had taken it into account

    • She wished that the staff person had inquired about the details of her plan before passing a judgment on it



    Ways of Communicating

    • In many protestant churches spiritual leaders are called ministers or pastors

    • A protestant patient under palliative care in a Canadian hospital reported that staff often referred to his spiritual advisor as a “priest,” which made him feel odd and unwelcome

    • Staff worked out a solution of referring to “religious advisors” or “clergy”

    Any Limits To Tolerance?

    • Is culturally sensitive care really as simple as is indicated by a comment of one nurse in reference to Culturally sensitive care: “We have to consider their (the patient’s) preferences and carry it out”?

    • RNA of NS: “Nurses need to examine the existing differences between nurses’ and the clients’ expectations to understand how differences can be reconciled” (p. 14)—the are ethical and legal limits to sensitivity and tolerance (will be discussed in next class)

    • Cultural Sensitivity is a two-way street—nurses have their own cultures too



    The Foundations of Pluralism and Tolerance

    Professional Boundaries

    • Professional Boundaries: The defining lines which separate therapeutic behavior of a registered nurse from behavior which, well intentioned or not, could reduce the benefit of nursing care to patients, clients, families, and communities

    • Straightforward in some instances, but a review of literature reveals that determining such boundaries is a very complex issue (College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia, Professional Boundaries and Expectations for Nurse-Client Relationships, 2002)



    Can Nurses Discuss Religion & Spirituality with Patients?

    • “Nurses must be sensitive to their position of relative power in professional relationships with persons”

    • “Nurses must also identify and minimize (and discuss with the health team) sources of possible coercion”

    • Proselytizing to a sick person is certainly out, but does this mean all discussion of one’s spiritual views is out? (why the use of the word “minimize” above?)



    Can Nurses Avoid Discussing their Own Spiritual/ Religious Views?

    • “Nurses build trustworthy relationships as the foundation of meaningful communication, recognizing that building these relationships involves conscious effort. Such relationships are critical to understanding people’s needs and concerns” (CNA Code of Ethics 2008, 8)

    • “Nurses do not engage in any form of lying…” (CNA Code of Ethics 2008, 17)



    Can Nurses Avoid Discussing their Own Spiritual/ Religious Views?

    • “In health-care decision-making, in treatment and in care, nurses work with persons receiving care including families, groups, populations and communities, to take into account their unique values, customs and spiritual beliefs, as well as their social and economic circumstances.” (CAN Code of Ethics 2008, 13)



    Can Nurses Avoid Discussing their Own Spiritual/ Religious Views?

    • “Determinants of Health: these include income and social status, social support, education and literacy, employment and working conditions, physical and social environments, biology, genetic endowment, personal health practices and coping skills, healthy child development, health services, gender and culture” (23)

    • “Health: a state of complete physical, mental (spiritual) and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease” (25)



    When in Doubt--Ask

    • The diversity of cultures and individual beliefs means it is never going to be possible for nurses to know exactly what someone they are treating might think (eg. Even if you know someone is a Catholic, why assume that they must be against contraception—significant percentages of Canadian Catholics use birth control measures despite the condemnation of most such measures in the doctrines of their Church)

    • Traditional notion that “people shouldn’t talk about religion in polite company” cannot be practiced in medical settings



    Self-Disclosure

    • Self-Disclosure: The sharing of personal information to improve understanding between persons (CRNNS, Prof. Boundaries and Expectations for Nurse-Client Relationships, 2002)

    • A nurse may choose to use it when he or she determines that the information will be therapeutically benefit the client

    • Must always be provided only for the client’s welfare



    Two Main Views on the Theoretical Foundations of Tolerance and Pluralism

    • Cultural Relativists believe we must be sensitive to the values and choices of other people b/c there is no ultimate way to judge the values or spiritual beliefs of cultures different from ones own

    • Moral Objectivists believe we must be sensitive to the values, beliefs and choices of other people b/c there are absolute moral standards (eg. human rights & golden rule) that transcend different cultures



    Cultural Differences Argument

    (Main Premise) Different Cultures have different moral codes and spiritual beliefs

    (Conclusion) Therefore, there is no objective “truth” in morality and spiritual matters, people’s beliefs about such questions are only matters of opinion and opinions vary from culture to culture (i.e. We should be accepting towards different culture’s beliefs because there are no “right” answers on these issues)


    This is an invalid argument because it moves from fact premise (there is diversity) to an evaluative conclusion (we shouldn’t criticize other cultures), which is not logical

    Cultural Relativism

    • Cultural Relativism: The theory that values are based in and cannot be separated from the beliefs and behaviors of particular cultures

    • Sees tolerance as necessary because no culture can claim the right to judge another since what is wrong in one culture may not be so in another

    • There are serious philosophical problems with this view (What about the Nazis? What about Human Rights? Cultural Diff’s Argument fails, etc)



    Moral Objectivism

    • Moral Objectivism: The belief that moral values can be objectively true independent of individual, subjective feelings or societal norms

    • Teachings of most major religious traditions and philosophical theories of ethics are variations of objectivism

    • Major objection: But what about all the differences between cultures?

    • Response: There are many (often overlooked) areas of agreement (eg. Golden Rule)

  • 1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

    Похожие:

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy icon“The unexamined life is not worth living”

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconExam: It will conduct on week 5 of the semester. The midterm exam will have 4 questions of approximately 20 minutes duration each. Test 2

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconIndicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconParagraph-length description of book, "blurb"

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconParagraph-length description of book, "blurb"

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconAs I sit to look at the work done so far, I want to be honest with myself and you; the effort is tremendously worth everything. Risks, threats and any other

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconChoice based credit semester scheme

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconDisability BenefitS and endogenous occupational choice

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconChoice Based Credit System Syllabus

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconMulticriteria Decision Aid and Economic Choice Theory


    Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
    lib.convdocs.org


    База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.convdocs.org 2012
    обратиться к администрации
    lib.convdocs.org
    Главная страница