Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy




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Organize and run support groups



Spirituality, Health and Care

  • Koenig, Mcullough, and Larson (2001) reviewed more than 1200 studies on religion and health, 2/3 of which showed a significant statistical relationship between religious activity, better physical health, and lower use of medical services

  • As a result, International Council of Nurses has declared that culturally congruent health care “is a basic human right, not a privilege” (ICN, Code for Nurses, 1973)

  • Professional obligation to learn to deal with the patient’s spiritual belief’s and one’s own beliefs regarding spirituality as these interact in the clinical setting



The Rise of “Spirituality”

  • Despite a significant decline of traditional forms of religious practice 52% of Canadians said yes to the question: “Do you have spiritual needs?” (2005)

  • More than 53 % describe “spirituality” in conventional terms (“God,” “prayer,” “religion,” and “a power beyond”); 47 %, meanwhile, expressed less conventional ideas (“inner self,” “oneness,” “force,” and “soul”)



Course Questions

    1. What are spirituality and religion?

    2. What is happening in spirituality and religion today in Canada?

    3. What is their impact on health?

    4. What views have prevented medical researchers and practitioners from showing interest in these impacts until only recently?

    5. What has led people to challenge this perceived antagonism between religion, spirituality and health?

    6. Can the supernatural really impact health?

    7. How and to what degree (if any) should one integrate spirituality into ones practice as a health-care professional?



Rough Spots in Life

  • Nurses have the unique task of working with clients at all stages of life and often during the “rough parts of the trail”

  • Nursing profession and health-care legislation in most provinces are committed to treating and caring for the whole person (Holistic Care)

  • In many instances, this includes some kind of reference to a patient’s sense of a “spiritual core”



Course Questions

  • What are spirituality and religion?

  • What is happening in spirituality and religion today in Canada?

  • What is their impact on health?

  • What views have prevented medical researchers and practitioners from showing interest in these impacts until only recently?

  • What has led people to challenge this oversight?

  • Can the supernatural really impact health?

  • How and to what degree should one integrate spirituality into ones practice as a health-care professional?



The Health Benefits of Religion

Results

  • Research is still very preliminary, with many outstanding concerns regarding methods

  • Some aspects of religion negatively effect health, eg. attitudes to sexuality, limits on treatment

  • However, there is growing evidence from 1000s of studies that considered aggregately religious & spiritual practice is associated with lower mortality from all causes (i.e. it has a generally positive impact)

Longevity


Religious Challenges to Health Care

  • Two types: (1) religious beliefs that restrict the use of medical interventions, such as Jehovah’s witnesses disapproval of blood transfusion and (2) religious beliefs that bring psychological or physical harm, such as a view of disease as a result of sin and evidence of God’s wrath (Taylor, Highfield & Amenta, 1994)

  • “You will be healed” vs. “You may be healed” (Hufford 1993) illustrates how differences in religious teachings about disease can positively or negatively effect healing



4 Types of Influence Studied

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