Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy




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Allopathy is the main approach used in modern scientific or “regular” medicine (although it is also expressed in some traditional views)

  • Takes an “ontological view of disease” (disease is something fundamentally separate from individuals)



    Modern Use of Term “Homeopathic”

    • “Homeopathy” today sometimes used to refer to any medical approach other than the allopathic

    • Specifically it refers to a form of “Complementary and Alternative Medicine” (CAM) that involves the administration of highly dilute solutions

    • Like other forms of CAM, it does not emphasize radical interventions, but rather subtle changes in lifestyle and home-based treatments

    • CAM approaches typically take an “Ecological View of Disease



    Ecological View of Disease

    • Views illness as an expression of the individual

    • Disease is a result of an abnormal physiological states within the individual (eg. Imbalances)

    • Imbalances within individuals are the result of complex inter-connections between the individual (defined in terms of mind, body and spirit) and society and the environment



    Empiricism

    • Empiricism is a 17th philosophical movement that argued that knowledge can be established by the use of our senses

    • Proof should always, therefore, be able to be demonstrated publicly in a repeatable fashion (experiments)

    • Knowledge that does not come directly from senses (such as intuition, personal insight or other “subjective” sources) is to be mistrusted—e.g. bye, bye midwives

    • Empiricism is a basic pre-supposition of the scientific outlook



    Mechanistic Outlook

    • Influential philosopher Rene Descartes argued that people are dualistic in nature—body and a completely distinct soul (Dualism)

    • His view encouraged the scientific investigation of the body as a mechanism (Mechanistic Outlook)

    • This scientific approach is “reductionistic”—things can be fully understood by examining their “parts”

    • Knowledge of wholes is unnecessary



    Some Examples of the Success of Scientific Medicine in the Face of Tradition-Based Opposition

    • Modern medicine denies activity of spiritual or divine beings in origin or curing of disease

    • William Harvey overcame religious taboos about dissection and discovered the circulatory system

    • Pasteur rejected “vital spirits” and other mystical elements in his theory of infection

    Some Typical Characteristics Modern Scientific Medicine

    • Medicine is about the disease, not the patient

    • Regards the body as a machine

    • The “objective physician” mistrusts his or her own subjective judgments and tries to ignore the beliefs of the patient and relies instead on empirical testing and instruments

    • Patient is passive bystander to the healing process

    • Focus is on the individual patient, not society



    Bio-psycho-social Paradigm in Medicine

    • Health is not just a result of “fixing” the bodies of patients (bio), but is also affected by our minds (psycho) and by our lifestyle, which is strongly influenced by the type of society we live in (social) and its relation to the natural environment

    • Thus, things like thoughts, beliefs, practices and communities can all be important influences on health (i.e. things that are parts of spirituality and religion)



    Revenge of the Chronic

    • People surveyed in the 1990s described themselves as less healthy than they did in the 1970s, although most medical indicators have moved up slightly

    • Edward Tenner ”Revenge of the Chronic”—sometimes longer life has meant a sicker life

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