Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy




Скачать 171.54 Kb.
НазваниеPhil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy
страница9/11
Дата конвертации14.02.2013
Размер171.54 Kb.
ТипДокументы
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

Philosophical Materialists believe that there is only one kind of substance that makes up everything in the universe– matter/energy

  • Opposed to philosophical dualists (like Rene Descartes) who believe the universe contains matter and mind (as a distinct form of reality)



    Freud’s “Projection Theory” of Religion

    • One of the most common anti-theistic arguments

    • Part of Freud’s defence of naturalism and materialism

    • Freud (and others in the human sciences) argue that God is not real, but rather a psychological projection of our deep need for a protective authority figure

    • God is an “illusion”, “neuroses” and “pathology” of the human race



    Freud

    • Two Theories

    • 1st Religion is “wish fulfillment” or a “psychological crutch” the only purpose of which is to provide support, solace and hope

    • 2nd Religion provides the psychological underpinnings for a sense of guilt that is necessary for people to live together cooperatively



    Ludwig Feuerbach

    • 19th Cent. Philosopher who influenced Freud

    • God is just the personification of our highest human ideals

    • People are weak, finite, and morally imperfect

    • God is all-powerful, infinite and morally perfect

    • Influenced Karl Marx and his idea of religion as “the opiate of the people”



    Emile Durkheim

    • Early 20th Century Sociologist

    • Argued that religion simply provides the “moral glue” by which societies are held together

    • It is the repository of all the moral norms of a society, expressed in a form (myth) that gives these expectations compelling force in the minds of believers



    Dawkins

    • Interested in research into human tendency to project “intentional” characteristics onto the world

    • Other human beings our are worst enemies, so evolution created in us responses that “look” for possible human/intention-based threats in the world

    • Dawkin’s suggests that belief in the “God hypothesis” is just a result of this kind of psychological tendency (“Misfiring”) of our brains as they have been structured by evolution—it’s like a moth’s instinct to navigate by starlight, which often results in its death on lights and flames used by us today

    Objections to Freud

    • Idea that moral guilt is based in ancient remorse for an absent “father figure” overlooks the many religions that focus on female deities

    • Can it explain origins of female guilt?

    • What about ancient religions that believed in “a dismal, depleted, ghostly half-life in the darkness beneath the earth?”—Hick

    Objections to Durkheim

    • What about religions that challenge and condemn their societies?

    • Jewish prophets?

    • Christian resistance to Rome?

    • Mohammed’s complete restructuring of Arabian society?

    • Buddhism’s challenge to Hinduism in India?

    • Hindu ascetics who reject society?



    Objection to Feuerbach

    • What about non-theistic religions, like Theravada Buddhism or Taoism?

    • Such religions lack a deity with any personal characteristics



    John Hick

    • Religious Studies Scholar who challenged Freud’s theories starting in the 1980s

    • Questioned whether Freud’s theories of religion were based in science (rather than being purely philosophical speculations)

    • Pointed out an apparent logical flaw in Freud’s reasoning



    Logical Flaw in Freud’s Argument?

    • Logically speaking how we come to out beliefs says nothing about the truth of those belief as such

    • “The mere fact that a religious message comes as good news does not entail that it is not true: this must be established on other grounds”—Hick

  • 1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

    Похожие:

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy icon“The unexamined life is not worth living”

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconExam: It will conduct on week 5 of the semester. The midterm exam will have 4 questions of approximately 20 minutes duration each. Test 2

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconIndicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconParagraph-length description of book, "blurb"

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconParagraph-length description of book, "blurb"

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconAs I sit to look at the work done so far, I want to be honest with myself and you; the effort is tremendously worth everything. Risks, threats and any other

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconChoice based credit semester scheme

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconDisability BenefitS and endogenous occupational choice

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconChoice Based Credit System Syllabus

    Phil265/Rels265 Final Exam 31 Multiple choice or True-False worth 1 mark each 3 Short Answer Questions from choice of 5 worth 3 marks each (paragraph or two in length) Introduction to Philosophy iconMulticriteria Decision Aid and Economic Choice Theory


    Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
    lib.convdocs.org


    База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.convdocs.org 2012
    обратиться к администрации
    lib.convdocs.org
    Главная страница