Comes from two Greek words philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), it means the love of wisdom or studying




НазваниеComes from two Greek words philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), it means the love of wisdom or studying
страница1/23
Дата конвертации14.02.2013
Размер0.89 Mb.
ТипДокументы
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   23




The word Philosophy;

comes from two Greek words philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), it means the love of wisdom or studying




purbeck science logo.jpeg


Contents page


Page Title


3.1 G571: AS Philosophy of Religion Syllabus

Ancient Greek influences on philosophy of religion

Candidates are expected to have a basic knowledge of the thinking of Plato and Aristotle; they will not be expected to have first-hand knowledge of the texts. They should be able to highlight the strengths and weaknesses in the thinking of Plato and Aristotle in the areas specified below.

Plato: the Analogy of the Cave

The Republic VII. 514A–521B

Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of what might be represented in the Analogy of the Cave by the following:

  1. the prisoners, the shadows, the cave itself, the outside world, the sun, the journey out of the cave and the return to the prisoners.


Candidates should be able to discuss critically the validity of the points being made in this analogy.

Plato: the concept of the Forms;

the Form of the Good

Candidates should understand what Plato meant by ‘Forms’ and be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  1. the relation between concepts and phenomena;

  2. the concept of ‘Ideals’;

  3. the relation between the Form of the Good and the other Forms.


Candidates should be able to discuss critically the validity of the above points.

Aristotle: ideas about cause and purpose in relation to God

Metaphysics Book 12

Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  1. Aristotle’s understanding of material, efficient, formal and final cause;

  2. Aristotle’s concept of the Prime Mover.


Candidates should be able to discuss critically the validity of the above points.




  • Judaeo-Christian influences on philosophy of religion

  • Candidates should be familiar with Biblical texts to exemplify the topics below. There are no prescribed texts.

  • The concept of God as Creator

  • Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • the way the Bible presents God as involved with his creation;

  • the imagery of God as a craftsman;

  • the concepts of omnipotence, omniscience and omnipresence;

  • the concept of ‘creatio ex nihilo’.




  • Candidates should be able to:

  • compare this view with Aristotle’s Prime Mover;

  • discuss whether, if God created the universe, God is therefore responsible for everything that happens in it.




  • Candidates should be able to discuss these areas in a critical manner.

  • The goodness of God

  • Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • the ways in which the God of the Bible is seen as morally perfect and the source of human ethics;

  • the concept of God as lawgiver and as judge.




  • Candidates should be able to:

  • consider whether, in a Biblical context, God commands things because they are good or whether things are good because God commands them.




  • Candidates should be able to discuss these areas in a critical manner.

  • Traditional arguments for the existence of God

  • The Ontological argument from Anselm and Descartes; challenges from Gaunilo and Kant

  • Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • the Ontological argument from Anselm and Descartes;

  • challenges to it from Gaunilo and Kant;

  • Anselm’s understanding of God – his understanding of the differences between contingent and necessary existence;

  • Descartes’ understanding of existence as a perfection which God cannot lack;

  • Gaunilo’s analogy of the island in On Behalf of the Fool.




  • Candidates should be able to discuss critically these views and their strengths and weaknesses.




  • The Cosmological argument from Aquinas and Copleston; challenges from Hume and Russell

  • Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • the Cosmological argument from Aquinas and Copleston;

  • the arguments put forward by Copleston in the 1948 radio debate with Russell and Russell’s counter arguments;

  • Hume’s criticisms of the cosmological argument.




  • Candidates should be able to discuss critically these views and their strengths and weaknesses.

  • The Teleological argument from Aquinas and Paley; challenges from Hume, Mill and Darwin

  • Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • the teleological argument from Aquinas and Paley;

  • the challenges to it from Hume, Mill and Darwinism.




  • Candidates should be able to discuss critically these views and their strengths and weaknesses.

  • The Moral argument from Kant:

  • psychological challenges from Freud

  • Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • the moral argument from Kant, including his concept of the ‘summum bonum’ and his inferences about innate moral awareness;

  • psychological challenges from Freud to the moral argument, his view that moral awareness comes from sources other than God.




  • Candidates should be able to discuss critically these views and their strengths and weaknesses.

  • Challenges to religious belief

  • The problem of evil

  • Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • the problem of evil: the classic theodicies of Augustine and Irenaeus;

  • the nature of the problem of evil and the possible differences between natural and moral evil;

  • how each theodicy understands the responsibility of God for the existence of evil in the world;

  • the origins of evil and the role of human free will.




  • Candidates should be able to discuss critically these approaches and their strengths and weaknesses.




  • Religion and science

  • Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • scientific and philosophical views on the creation of the universe; particularly the debate between Creationism and the Big Bang theory;

  • Darwinism and various developments of evolutionary theory;

  • ‘Intelligent Design’ and ‘Irreducible Complexity’;

  • Religious responses to challenges posed by scientific views.




  • Candidates should be able to discuss critically these views and their strengths and weaknesses.







What you need to know….

Plato: the Analogy of the Cave

The Republic VII. 514A–521B

Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of what might be represented in the Analogy of the Cave by the following:

  1. the prisoners, the shadows, the cave itself, the outside world, the sun, the journey out of the cave and the return to the prisoners.


Candidates should be able to discuss critically the validity of the points being made in this analogy.

Plato: the concept of the Forms; the Form of the Good

Candidates should understand what Plato meant by ‘Forms’ and be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  1. the relation between concepts and phenomena;

  2. the concept of ‘Ideals’;

  3. the relation between the Form of the Good and the other Forms.


Candidates should be able to discuss critically the validity of the above points.

What you need to know….

Plato: the Analogy of the Cave

The Republic VII. 514A–521B

Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of what might be represented in the Analogy of the Cave by the following:

  1. the prisoners, the shadows, the cave itself, the outside world, the sun, the journey out of the cave and the return to the prisoners.


Candidates should be able to discuss critically the validity of the points being made in this analogy.

Plato: the concept of the Forms; the Form of the Good

Candidates should understand what Plato meant by ‘Forms’ and be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  1. the relation between concepts and phenomena;

  2. the concept of ‘Ideals’;

  3. the relation between the Form of the Good and the other Forms.


Candidates should be able to discuss critically the validity of the above points.




‘All philosophy is simply footnotes’ to Plato.’ (A Whitehead)

http://tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:3ffyajtnqky5fm:http://www.hypatia-lovers.com/images/plato.gif

Key Info on Plato

Plato (428-347)

Earliest surviving Greek philosophical writings are Plato’s.

pupil of Socrates.

Born to an Aristocratic Athenian family, expected to become a politician but became influenced by Socrates.

He was an A priori (prior knowledge) and deductive philosopher who believed we had prior knowledge or intellect which was which we have known innately (knowledge born with always known), he believed our senses deceived us and the only thing we could rely on was our reasoning or innate knowledge as this was unchanging and necessary. He was a dualist who believed there were two parts to a human a body, and a soul. Our soul is necessary eternal and will always exist. out body is contingent and will die, cease to exist. He used the allegory of the cave and the place of the forms to explain his perception of life, there are two realms the eternal place of the forms and the contingent world or cave. He believed that our souls have come from the forms where we experience the eternal forms ,in the cave the philosophers who use their a priori innate knowledge to remember the forms become philosophers those who do not question remain prisoners and do not become enlightened. Plato’s argument is absolutist which means that it is fixed, unchanging. He believed that it is true for all people in all places and for all time in other words it is universal. The allegory of the cave and his other ideas look at the relationship between Phenomena (things known through senses) ie the cave, the puppets etc….. and the concepts Noumenon (things beyond our understanding) ie the forms.

Socrates Socrates was the teacher and inspiration to Plato, He was arrested for corrupting the young by his anti-democratic teaching.- He wanted to search for the truth rather than accept the traditional teachings of the day and the way that society was run. He was condemned to death by poison. None of Socrates ideas survive if they had been written down ‘all of Plato’s writings are footnotes of Socrates’

After Socrates death. Plato wrote Dialogues (conversations or plays that were written in the forms of discussions) the main character was Socrates. Socrates is presented with many moral, political and philosophical questions. At the beginning of the dialogue Socrates seems like an idiot, by the end of the dialogue Socrates is shown to be very knowledgeable, an educator a man who thought for himself and encouraged others to do so. In this way he was defending Socrates and keeping his ideas alive.

Plato was interested in Philosophy, ethics, politics, maths and physics he was hostile to the arts as they were representations and illusions. He believed that ‘The search for truth and reality should not be obscured by things which are only pretences, designed to appeal to the senses rather than reason.’ He believed that Mathematics was a higher form of knowledge then science and could be relied upon as we know the answers innately, these answers are reliable as they are unchanging. He believed anyone could do maths if they say they cant it may be because they are not being philosophers and are not thinking, their mind may be clouded by the ‘chains’ of ‘bodily needs’ like sleep or food.

Plato founded the Academy in Athens in 387 BCE; -the first European university? The curriculum was astronomy, politics, maths, biology and philosophy. A famous student of the Academy was Aristotle Plato’s pupil.

The allegory of the cave

In the Dialoque the Republic Plato talks about the allegory of the cave. The allegory of the cave and his other ideas look at the relationship between Phenomena (things known through senses) ie the cave, the puppets etc….. and the concepts Noumenon (things beyond our understanding) ie the forms.

You need to be able to explain the cave and what the different parts of the cave represent in life. In the allegory of the cave Plato is trying to open people’s eyes to stop accepting life, and see the truth. He criticises the government and said their structures are keeping people in their place and stopping people thinking or questioning. Remember Socrates was killed for corrupting the young by getting them to be philosophers and question, not accept things, there is more to life then just living and eating.

The republic is about the nature of Justice, the ideal society and who should rule it. He considers the kind of person who will be fit to rule and the kind of education that person would need in order to do the job properly. He describes this society in the allegory of the cave.. He believed that in society people who are good are intellectual people and his allegory is based around this.http://home.lbcc.cc.ca.us/~mlawrence/phil%206/platoscave%20copy.jpg

In Plato’s Republic , he illustrates his ideas about human knowledge in relation to reality and so explains the Theory of the Forms. He believes that there are two realms, the cave, and the place of the forms. The cave is the place of appearances not the real world, as far as Plato is concerned this place cannot be relied upon as it is contingent (comes in and out of existence) The place of the forms is the place which is known as the place of ideas, or truth. Plato believed that this place was necessary (unchanging/ has always existed.) within the place of the forms is the truth, forms, there are eternal ideas or concepts which are unchanging they are the perfect ideas of every form idea for example, these forms or ideas were the perfect idea of a table. These forms are unchanging and universal. . Plato is a dualist, he believes that everyone has two parts, a body and soul, the soul is eternal/ necessary and has come from the forms and knows these perfect ideas or forms, and whilst in the cave as a prisoner the soul needs to remember these forms using its reason and questioning the shadows on the wall.

Plato’s allegory of the Cave tells us to imagine a dark, large cave, connected to the outside world by a long passage. In the cave, with their backs to the entrance, is a row of prisoners, with their hands tied down by chains, unable to move. Their face is fixed to the wall looking at the shadows or imperfect forms. The shadows are of puppets controlled by the puppeteers (the government those people trying to keep people in their place and not question things)

Behind the prisoners is a bright fire. (artificial light artificial as it shows the puppets. Shadows which are imperfect reflections of the perfect forms outside the cave.) People move to and fro, behind them, all day, so that their shadows are projected onto the wall of the cave and voices are echoed. Plato says that all the prisoners ever perceive or experience in their reality are the shadows and their echoes (these shadows and echos and puppets are mere reflections of the perfect forms id the forms, they cannot be relied upon as they are contingent. It would seem reasonable for them to assume that the shadows and echoes constituted all of reality. BUT they are not real and according to Plato cannot be relied upon an are contingent and imperfect reflections of the perfect ideas. One day, a prisoner is released and he turns round. His movement is painful and the light of the fire dazzles his eyes. He finds himself confused and would want to turn back to the wall, to the reality that he understood.

If he goes out of the cave altogether to the realm of the forms, the sun light or true knowledge would blind him and he would be bewildered. Eventually, he would start to understand this upper world. If he were to return to the cave, he would again be blinded, this time by the darkness. Anything he said to the prisoners about his experiences outside the cave would be unintelligible to them, who only know of the shadows and echoes. In fact, the prisoners who had never seen the upper world would be hostile towards the returning prisoner, not understanding anything but the shadows. These people go back outside and reach their purpose in life by using their intellect to remember the forms. Some prisoners cannot ‘cope’ with the truth and return to being prisoners.

  • The Cave: The visible world, our universe. The cave creates a sense of being trapped in a different world, away from light and away from reality. It is physical, contingent and cannot be relied upon.

  • 'The shadows on the wall': What we perceive as our whole reality, i.e. all our empirical knowledge, but this is not real knowledge, the shadows are imperfect reflections of imperfect puppets of imperfect imitations of the forms.

  • The Prisoners: The rest of humanity, who are unable to understand the words of men who are enlightened. They do not question things just accept what is around them as the truth. The chains represent the bodily needs, this stops the mind thinking and the soul remembering the forms.

  • People outside the cave: The Philosophers These people represent real life or reality. Plato understands reality as the eternal and immutable world (true reality) of Ideas, which contain the perfect Forms.

  • the Journey Out: The struggle for knowledge and the battle against bodily desires. Through philosophical understanding, people are able to see the real world of concepts or Forms and draw conclusions from it, which are true. Some prisoners become philosophers, others return to the cave ‘dazzled by the light’ and cannot cope.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   23

Добавить в свой блог или на сайт

Похожие:

Comes from two Greek words philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), it means the love of wisdom or studying iconVincent J. Love, cpa, Kramer and Love Marilyn A. Pendergast, cpa, Urbach, Kahn & Werlin

Comes from two Greek words philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), it means the love of wisdom or studying iconОценка современных типов мужественности (на примере видеоклипа группы Kazaky «Love»)
В статье описываются результаты пилотажного исследования современных образов мужественности на примере видеоклипа группы Kazaky «Love»,...

Comes from two Greek words philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), it means the love of wisdom or studying iconThe wisdom of dorothy day

Comes from two Greek words philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), it means the love of wisdom or studying iconThe Scientific Approach to Wisdom

Comes from two Greek words philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), it means the love of wisdom or studying iconMary M. Rowland and Michael J. Wisdom

Comes from two Greek words philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), it means the love of wisdom or studying iconCan Wisdom trump the market as a basis for education?

Comes from two Greek words philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), it means the love of wisdom or studying iconFear (deep respect, awe) of the lord is the beginning of wisdom

Comes from two Greek words philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), it means the love of wisdom or studying iconChapter 1: The Conventional Wisdom on Political Polarization and the Culture Wars

Comes from two Greek words philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), it means the love of wisdom or studying iconEric Palmer, “The Wisdom in Wood Rot: God in Eighteenth Century Scientific Explanation,” in William H. Krieger, ed

Comes from two Greek words philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), it means the love of wisdom or studying iconIf you like this, you’ll love that!


Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
lib.convdocs.org


База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.convdocs.org 2012
обратиться к администрации
lib.convdocs.org
Главная страница