Requirements and prerequisites Course requirements will include a research paper, a final exam, and class participation. There is no prerequisite. Readings




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НазваниеRequirements and prerequisites Course requirements will include a research paper, a final exam, and class participation. There is no prerequisite. Readings
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GSD 7410

The Architect in History:

The Evolution of Practice from the Renaissance to the Present


GSD Architecture Department

Fall 2010


Jay Wickersham

Lecturer, Harvard Design School

Partner, Noble & Wickersham LLP


This course examines the history of architectural practice, focusing on the changing role and definition of the architect, with the goal of providing new perspectives on how we design and build today. The course begins with16th century Italy, moves through 17th – through 19th-century France and England, and finally traces the evolution of practice in the United States from 1800 to the present. Major themes include:

  • Changing models of architectural education, from the Beaux-Arts to modernism.

  • Relationships with clients: How are building needs defined? How have architects made (or lost) money? How has government regulated the built environment?

  • Relationship with the construction industry: Architects’ use of technologies through history; their role relative to builders, as collaborators or adversaries. How have architects conveyed their design intent to clients and builders through drawings and models?

  • Insiders and outsiders: Evolution of professional organizations and their gatekeeper role; the profession’s treatment of women and minorities.

  • Relationship of architecture to other design professions: Engineering, landscape architecture, city planning, and interior design.

  • Firms and individual creators: Professional myths and historical realities. The growth of big-firm practice, versus the branding and selling of the supposedly individual creator; the influence of critics and photographers on design.



Course format



The class meets twice a week, on Wednesdays and Fridays, 10 – 11:30 AM. Class size is limited to 20. Class format will be a combination of lecture and discussion. Several classes will feature guest speakers. Readings will include original source materials (both written and graphic), and secondary interpretations.

Requirements and prerequisites



Course requirements will include a research paper, a final exam, and class participation. There is no prerequisite.

Readings



Paperback copies of Kostof and Wright can be purchased at the Coop. All other readings will be available on the course website.



Syllabus



1) Introduction: The Myth of the Master Builder

Friday, September 3


  1. Overview of Course


Saint, Image, pp. 1 – 18 (on The Fountainhead)

Joan Wickersham, “Drills, Drooling Dolts, and Dominique,” Architecture Boston (July-August 2008) (The Fountainhead movie), at: www.joanwickersham.com/Site/Drills.html.

Magali Sarfatti Larson, “Patronage and Power,” in Saunders, Reflections on Architectural Practices in the Nineties, pp. 130 – 43.


  1. Architects in the Middle Ages



2) Renaissance Architects: Builders, Artists, and Professionals

Wednesday, September 8


A. From Masons’ Guilds to Artists


Wilkinson, “The New Professionalism in the Renaissance,” in Kostoff, pp. 124 – 160


B. Vasari on Brunelleschi: an architect and his biographer


Giorgio Vasari, “Filipo Brunelleschi,” trans. Adrienne DeAngelis, excerpts from his complete translation of Vasari’s Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors and Architects (2d ed. 1568), at; www.efn.org/~acd/vite/VasariLives.html.


C. Palladio and the synthesizing and marketing of practice


Palladio, “A Builder’s Progress,” excerpts from Four Books on Architecture, Robert Tavernor & Richard Schofield, trans. (Cambridge: MIT, 1997).


[Hand out research paper assignment]


3) Architecture in France: Practice under Centralized Government Control

Friday, September 10


  1. The Royal Building Works in France


Rosenfeld, “The Royal Building Administration in France from Charles V to Louis XIV,” in Kostoff, pp. 161 – 179


  1. Regulation of the Paris cityscape


Sutcliffe, Paris: An Architectural History, pp. 48 – 55, 64 – 66 (18th century); 83 – 104 (Haussmann)


  1. Education at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and the Ecole Polytechnique


Draper, “The Ecole des Beaux-Arts and the Architectural Profession in the United States: The Case of John Galen Howard,” in Kostof, pp. 209 – 237


4) Architecture in Britain: Practice in a Mercantile Society

Wednesday, September 15


A. The Royal Works and the advent of classicism


John Wilton-Ely, “The Rise of the Professional Architect in England,” in Kostoff, pp. 180 – 208


B. Competitive professionals in the 18th and 19th centuries: Training / Education / Registration


John Soane, from the introduction to Plans, Elevations, and Sections of Buildings (London: I. Taylor, 1788), p. 7.

Charles Dickens, from Martin Chuzzlewit (1844), in Saint, Image, pp. 51 – 54

Wickersham, “Learning Through Drawing: The Sketching Tours of G.E. Street”

Excerpts from Architecture: A Profession or an Art?, R. Norman Shaw & T.G. Jackson, eds. (London: John Murray, 1892).


[Hand out Robinson Hall assignment]


5) Early American Architects: Builders, Gentleman-amateurs, and Professionals

Friday, September 17


A. The colonial era: builders and gentleman-amateurs


Woods, pp. 9 – 26

Asher Benjamin, excerpt from The American Builder’s Companion (1806), in Roth, pp. 39 – 43


B. Latrobe, the first professional


Benjamin Latrobe, letter to Robert Mills (1806), in Roth, pp. 43 – 47.


C. Charles Bulfinch and the tenuous finances of practice


Wickersham, “The Financial Misadventures of Charles Bulfinch”


6) The Training of Architects in the 19th Century

Wednesday, September 22


[Second half of class to be held in Special Collections Room, Loeb Library]


A. Craft training and office training


B. The first American architecture schools


Woods, pp. 53 – 81


C. Architecture at Harvard, 1895 - 1930


Alofsin, pp. 16 - 51


[Robinson Hall assignment due]


7) Getting the Job, Getting Paid: Organizing the Profession in 19th century America

Friday, September 24


A. The first AIA (1836); the AIA takes root (1857)


Woods, pp. 27 – 52, 92 - 111


B. Architects and the law in the 19th century


Carl M. Sapers and Penny Pittman Merliss, “The Liability of Architects and Engineers in Nineteenth-Century America,” JAE (Winter 1988) (optional).


C. The formative roles of Hunt and Richardson


H.H. Richardson, standard form of contract, in Mariana Van Renssalaer, H.H. Richardson and His Works (New York: Dover, 1969, reprint of 1888 first edition), p. 147.

James F. O’Gorman, “The Making of a ‘Richardson Building,’ 1874 – 1886,” in Henry Hobson Richardson and His Office (Cambridge: Harvard, 1974), pp. 1 – 36.


[Research paper topic due]


Wednesday, September 29 – no class


8) Engineers, Contractors, and Industrial Construction

Friday, October 1


A. New buildings types for the new downtown: office buildings, department stores


Wright, pp. 19 – 29, 37 – 61

Willis, Form Follows Finance, pp. 19 – 33, 49 – 65


B. Architects, engineers, and contractors: designing and building the high rise


Woods, pp. 148 – 66 (builders and engineers)

John W. Root, “A Great Architectural Problem” (1890), in Roth, pp. 286 – 301


[Optional field trip to visit H.H. Richardson buildings in North Easton – either Saturday Oct. 2 or Saturday Oct. 9. Details to be announced.]


9) The Rise of the Modern Firm

Wednesday, October 6


A. The concept of the firm: the organization and specialization of labor


Woods, pp. 111 – 148

Elliott, pp. 100 – 108

Bernard M. Boyle, “Architectural Practice in America, 1865 – 1965 ­– Ideal and Reality,” (first half), in Kostoff, pp. 309 – 20

AIA, “Principles of Professional Practice and the Canon of Ethics” (1909)


B. Three models of firm practice -- Daniel Burnham & Co., Adler & Sullivan, and McKim, Mead & White


Articles on office practice, Engineering and Building Record, June 7, 1890 (Adler & Sullivan); Dec. 5, 1891 (McKim, Mead & White).

Charles McKim, “An Architect’s Service and Remuneration” (1903), in Leland Roth, McKim, Mead & White, Architects (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), pp. 363 – 69.

Wickersham, “Learning From Burnham: The Origins of Modern Architectural Practice,” Harvard Design Magazine (Spring / Summer 2010) (optional).


10) The Domestic Revolution

Friday, October 8


A. A.J. Downing: the house in the landscape


Woods, pp. 82 – 92 (pattern books)

A.J. Downing, from Cottage Residences (1842), in Roth, pp. 151 - 71


B. Catherine Beecher: the house as a workplace


Catherine Beecher, from The American Woman’s Home (1869), in Roth, pp. 57 – 67

“What is a Sears Modern Home?” at: www.searsarchives.com/homes/


C. F.L. Wright as domestic architect: mastery of design and image-making


Wright, 29 – 37, 61 – 77

David Van Zanten, “Frank Lloyd Wright’s Kindergarten,” in Berkeley, Architecture: A Place for Women, pp. 55 – 62.


11) The Hiving of the Professions: Landscape Architecture and City Planning

Wednesday, October 13


A. Landscape architecture as a new discipline: from Olmsted to the ASLA to Harvard


S.B. Sutton, Introduction to Civilizing American Cities (New York: Da Capo, 1997 reprint of 1971 edition), pp. 1 – 20.

Norman Newton, Design on the Land, pp. 385 – 92, 413 – 26.


B. Daniel Burnham and the City Beautiful


Daniel Burham and Edward Bennet, excerpt from The Plan of Chicago (1909), in Roth, pp. 439 - 45


C. The planned and regulated city: the City Planning conferences and the birth of zoning


Wickersham, “The City Planning conferences and the Birth of Zoning”


12) Large-scale modernism in the 1920: factories and mixed-use skyscrapers

Friday, October 15


A. Albert Kahn and the design / build factory


Saint, Architect and Engineer, pp. 242 – 49.


B. Hugh Ferris and the shaping of the New York zoning envelope


Willis, Form Follows Finance, pp. 67 – 107


C. Developing the mixed-use urban complex: Terminal Tower, Cleveland; Rockefeller Center


Wright, pp. 79 – 95 (pp. 95 – 131 optional)

Johnston, Drafting Culture, pp. 53 – 64, 74 – 89 (skim intervening pages).


13) Globalization and Architecture: 1850 - 1940

Wednesday, October 20


A) Definitions of globalization; localism and universalism in architecture


Wickersham, “Theories of Globalization” / Marx & Engels, from The Communist Manifesto (1848)


B) The architecture of empire: Western colonial systems


Robert G. Irving, “Bombay and Imperial Delhi: Cities as Symbols,” in Lutyens
Abroad
, Hopkins and Stamp, eds. (London: British School at Rome, 2002), pp. 169 – 80, 191 – 92.


C) Architecture and world trade before World War II


Jeffrey W. Cody, Exporting American Architecture 1870 – 2000, pp. 37 – 44, 59 – 72.


D) How international was the International Style?


Le Corbusier, “Toward a new architecture: guiding principles” (1920), in Programs and manifestoes on 20th-century architecture, Conrads, ed. (Cambridge: MIT, 1970)

Congres Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM), La Sarraz Declaration (1928), in Conrads.


Friday, October 22 – no class; rescheduled to Oct. 25


14) Outsiders in the Profession: Women and Minorities

Monday, October 25, 7 – 8:30 PM


A. Women architects in the profession


Gwendolyn Wright, “On the Fringe of the Profession: Women in American Architecture,” in Kostoff, pp. 280 – 308

Denise Scott Brown, “Room at the Top?” in Berkeley, Architecture: A Place for Women, pp. 237 – 46.


B. African-American architects in the profession


Stephen Kliment, “Untold Story: the Black Architect in America,” in 20 on 20/20 Vision: Perspectives on Diversity and Design, Linda Kiisk, ed. (Boston: AIA Diversity Committee and Boston Society of Architects, 2003), pp. 52 – 66, at: www.architects.org/emplibrary/20_on_2020_Vision.pdf

Whitney M. Young, Jr., speech to 1968 AIA National Convention.


C. Julia Morgan and William Randolph Hearst


Victoria Kastner, “Morgan and Associates: Julia Morgan’s Office Practice as Design Metaphor,” in 20 on 20/20 Vision, pp. 44 – 51


15) Modernism in the Academy: Hudnut and Gropius at the GSD

Wednesday, October 27


A. The Bauhaus ideal and its internal contradictions


Walter Gropius, “ My Conception of the Bauhaus Idea” and “Blueprint of an Architect’s Education,” in The Shape of Total Architecture (New York: Collier, 1962), pp. 19 – 29 and 44 – 58.


B. The Gropius and Hudnut years: 1937 – 52


Alofsin, pp. 119 – 54, 196 – 241


C. Gropius and TAC: putting collaboration into practice


Boyle, “Architectural Practice in America, 1865 – 1965 ­– Ideal and Reality,” (on Gropius and teamwork), in Kostoff, pp. 320 – 25.


D. Outside Harvard’s walls: women architecture students


Dorothy May Anderson, “The Cambridge School: An Extraordinary Professional Education,” in Berkeley, Architecture: A Place for Women, pp. 87 – 98.


16) Architects During the Post-War Boom: Corporate Clients and Skyscrapers

Friday, October 29


A. The new discipline of business management: its influence on clients and architects


Wright, pp. 151 – 67

Willis, Form Follows Finance, pp. 132 – 43

Elliott, The American Architect from the Colonial Era to the Present, pp. 153 - 161


B. Gordon Bunshaft and the emergence of SOM as the first mega-firm


Boyle, “Architectural Practice in America, 1865 – 1965 ­– Ideal and Reality,” (second half, on SOM and TAC), in Kostoff, pp. 325 - 44

Nicholas Adams, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill: SOM since 1936 (Milan: Electra Architecture, 2007), pp. 9 – 15, 19 – 53.


C. Eero Saarinen’s alternative model of firm practice


“Saarinen: the Office that Changed America,” Metropolis (Nov. 2008)

Pierluigi Serraino, “Modernism Beyond Reasonable Doubt: Model Making and Photography in Eero Saarinen & Associates,” in Richard Knight, Saarinen’s Quest: A Memoir (San Francisco: William Stout, 2008), pp. 151 – 59.


17) Architects During the Post-War Boom: Shopping Malls, and Subdivisions

Wednesday, November 3

[Note: The Class 17 materials in Volume 2 of the bound course reader refer to the session that is now scheduled as Class 19.]


A. Architecture in a Commercial World


Wright, pp. 167 – 93


B. All the world is a mall


Adam Gopnik, “The Terrazzo Jungle” (profile of Victor Gruen), The New Yorker (Mar. 15, 2004).


C. Levittown and the role of architects in mass-production houses


Rosalyn Baxandall & Elizabeth Ewen, Picture Windows: How the Suburbs Happened, pp. 117 – 39.


D. Mies and Edith Farnsworth – the house, the lawsuit


Alice T. Friedman, Women and the Making of the Modern House, pp. 126 – 47.


18) Systematizing Production: From Graphic Standards to BIM

Friday, November 5


A. Systematizing business relations: the evolution of AIA contract documents


B. Architectural Graphic Standards and the culture of the drafting room

Johnston, Drafting Culture, pp. 1 – 7, 143 – 76, 209 - 236.


C. The impact of CAD and BIM


Paolo Tombesi, “The Carriage in the Needle: Building design and flexible specialization systems,” JAE (Feb. 1999)


[Second half of class to be held in Special Collections Room, Loeb Library]


19) Hiving of the Professions: Interior Design and Furniture

Wednesday, November 10

[Note: These materials appear in Volume 2 of the bound course reader as Class 17.]


A. Corporate interiors and the emergence of the interior design profession


Inaki Abalos and Juan Herreros, Tower and Office, pp. 189 – 215.


B. The Office of Charles and Ray Eames


Filler, “Charles and Ray Eames,” pp. 103 - 117

Wickersham, “A Love Affair with Comfort and Form” (Charles and Ray Eames), at: www.legacy.com/ns/FullStory.aspx?StoryType=1&StoryID=11


C. Eliot Noyes and the IBM corporate design program


Gordon Bruce: Eliot Noyes (London: Phaidon, 2006), pp. 137 – 84.


[Guest lecture by Gordon Bruce and Fred Noyes]


20) Public Housing in Europe and America: Different Practice Models

Friday, November 12


A. Factory Workers’ Housing and Company Towns


Robert Stern, ed., The Anglo-American Suburb (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1981), pp. 7-9, 50, 52-54.


B. Building Codes and Model Tenements


Gwendolyn Wright, Building the Dream, pp. 113 - 134.


C. Government-Supported Housing from the New Deal through the 1960s


Wright, Building the Dream, pp. 220 - 239.

Bauer, Catherine, “The Dreary Deadlock of Public Housing,” in Democracy in Urban America (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1961), pp. 480 - 489.

[Wednesday, November 17 – no class]


21) Modern Architecture is Dead

Friday, November 19


A. The emergence of urban design as a discipline

Wright, pp. 195 – 233 (skim for overall argument)

“Extracts from the 1956 First Urban Design Conference at the GSD,” Harvard Design Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006), 4 – 9.


B. Historic preservation and design review


Ada Louise Huxtable, “Preservation or Perversion?,” in Goodbye History, Hello Hamburger, (Washington D.C.: The Preservation Press, 1986), pp. 46 - 57.


C. The three faces of Jane Jacobs


Wickersham, “Jane Jacobs and legal alternatives to Euclidean zoning”

Jane Jacobs, from The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), in Roth, pp. 535 – 44.


22) From Paper Architecture to Starchitects

Tuesday, November 23, 7 – 8:30 PM [note special date and time]


A. Architecture as fashion: the economics of branding and stardom


Wright, pp. 235 – 78 (skim for overall argument)

Robert Gutman, Architectural Practice: A Critical View, pp. 13 – 22, 31 – 42, 50 – 60.


B. Upheavals in the academy; Venturi’s critique of modernism


Alofsin, pp. 248 – 69

Robert Venturi, from Learning from Las Vegas (1972), in Roth, pp. 619 – 33.


C. The long, strange career of Philip Johnson


Martin Filler, “Philip Johnson,” pp. 133 - 48.

Philip Johnson, “The Seven Crutches of Modern Architecture” (1953), in Roth, pp. 581 – 85.


23) Sustainability and Architecture: Long Before LEED

Monday, November 29, 7 – 8:30 PM [note special date and time]


A) Patterns of fossil fuel use and air pollution


J. R. McNeill, Something New Under the Sun (New York: Norton, 2000), pp. 58 – 81.


B) Reducing energy demand – passive heating and cooling


Ken Butti and John Perlin, A Golden Thread, pp. 180 – 95.

Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis, “The Suppression and Rethinking of Regionalism and Tropicalism after 1945,” in Tropical Architecture, Tzonis, Lefaivre, and Bruno Stagno, eds. (London: Wiley, 2001), pp. 14 – 16, 30 - 54.


C) Active renewable energy systems in architecture


Butti and Perlin, A Golden Thread, pp. 142 – 55.


24) The Impact of Photography on Design

Wednesday, December 1


A. The role of magazines and architectural photography


Cervin Robinson and Joel Herschman, Architecture Transformed, pp. x - xiii, 58 – 67, 110 – 29, 143 – 65.


B. Getting “Stollerized”


Robert Campbell on Ezra Stoller, Boston Globe (2004), at: www.boston.com/news/globe/obituaries/articles/2004/11/03/ezra_stoller_89_his_photos_influenced_modern_designs/


[Guest lecture by Peter Vanderwarker]


25) Globalization in Architecture: After World War II

Friday, December 3


A) Building the Cold War


Wickersham, “Globalization, Free Trade, and Regionalism” / Conrad Hilton, from Be My Guest (New York: Prentice Hall, 1957)


B) The impact of free-trade ideology and the WTO


Cody, Exporting American Architecture 1870 – 2000, pp. 156 – 65.

Thomas Friedman, “The World is Flat”, New York Times Magazine (Apr. 2005)

Richard Florida, “The World is Spiky,” Atlantic Monthly (Oct. 2005).

Engineering News Record, “The Top 200 International Design Firms / The Top 150 Global Design Firms” (July 21, 2008).


C) The impact of offshore outsourcing


Paolo Tombesi, “A true south for design? The new international division of labor in architecture,” Architectural Research Quarterly (2001), pp. 171 – 180


D) Critical regionalism and international “starchitects”


Kenneth Frampton, “Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six Points Towards an Architecture of Resistance,” in Anti-Aesthetic, Hal Foster, ed.

Sutcliffe, Paris: An Architectural History, pp. 180 – 83, 190 – 96.

Ada L. Huxtable, “Americans Abroad,” in Architecture Anyone?


E) Arup Associates: An Alternative Practice Model


GSD 7410

Further Reading by Topic

* indicates books on reserve


General

*Andrew Saint, The Image of the Architect (New Haven: Yale, 1983).

*Mary N. Woods, From Craft to Profession (Berkeley: California, 1999).

*Cecil D. Elliott, The American Architect from the Colonial Era to the Present (Jefferson, NC: MacFarland, 2003).

*Leland Roth, ed., America Builds (New York: Harper & Row, 1983).

*Gwendolyn Wright, USA (London: Reaktion, 2008).

*Dell Upton, Architecture in the United States (New York: Oxford, 1998).

*Martin Filler, Makers of Modern Architecture (New York: New York Review Books, 2007)


Medieval Architects

Kostoff, “The Architect in the Middle Ages, East and West,” in Kostoff, pp. 59 – 95.

Lorna Price, The Plan of St. Gall in Brief (Berkeley: University of California, 1982).

David Macaulay, Cathedral (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973).


Renaissance Architects

M. Briggs, The Architect in History (Oxford: 1927).

Leopold D. Ettlinger, “The Emergence of the Italian Architect during the Fifteenth Century,” in Kostoff, pp. 96 – 123.

James Ackerman, “Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance,” in Renaissance Art, C. Gilbert, ed. (New York: 1970).

Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors and Architects (2d ed. 1568), trans. Adrienne DeAngelis, at; www.efn.org/~acd/vite/VasariLives.html.

James Ackerman, Palladio (New York: Penguin, 1974).

Palladio, Four Books on Architecture (New York: Dover, 1965 reprint of 1738 Isaac Ware translation).

Palladio, Four Books on Architecture, Robert Tavernor & Richard Schofield, trans. (Cambridge: MIT, 1997).


Architects in France

Arthur Drexler, ed., The Architecture of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (New York: Museum of Modern Art / Secker & Warburg, 1977).

Ulrich Pfammatter, The Making of the Modern Architect and Engineer (Basel: Birkhauser, 2000).

Antoine Picon, French Architects and Engineers in the Age of Enlightenment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).


Architects in Britain

Barrington Kaye, The Development of the Architectural Profession in Britain (London: Allen & Unwin, 1960)

Frank Jenkins, Architect and Patron (London: Oxford, 1960).

John Summerson, Georgian London (London: Barrie & Jenkins, rev. ed. 1988).


Engineering and Industrial Construction

*Andrew Saint, Architect and Engineer (New Haven: Yale, 2007).

Tom Peters, Building the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: MIT, 1996)

Sarah Wermiel, The Fireproof Building (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 2000).

Betsy Bradley, The Works (New York: Oxford, 1999).


19th Century American Architects

*Carol Willis, Form Follows Finance (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1995)

Talbot Hamlin, Benjamin Henry Latrobe (New York: Oxford University Press, 1955)

Alfred Chandler, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business (Cambridge: Harvard, 1993).

Thomas Hines, Burnham of Chicago (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2nd edition, 2008)

Donald Hoffman, The Architecture of John Wellborn Root (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1973)

Robert Twombly, Louis Sullivan (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1986)

Robert Bruegmann, The Architects and the City: Holabird & Roche of Chicago, 1880-1918 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1997)

Diana Balmori, “George B. Post: The Process of Design and the New American Architectural Office (1868 – 1913),” JSAH (Dec. 1987).


Architectural Education

*Anthony Alofsin, The Struggle for Modernism (New York: Norton, 2002).

Jill Pearlman, Inventing American Modernism: Joseph Hudnut, Walter Gropius, and the Bauhaus legacy at Harvard (Charlottesville: University of Virginia, 2007).


Landscape Architecture and City Planning, Civil War to 1930

*Norman Newton, Design on the Land (Cambridge: Harvard, 1971)

Mel Scott, American City Planning Since 1890 (Berkeley: University of California, 1969)

Peter Hall, Cities of Tomorrow (Oxford: Blackwell, rev. ed. 1996)

S.B. Sutton, Civilizing American Cities (New York: Da Capo, 1997 reprint of 1971 edition)

Carl Smith, The Plan of Chicago (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2006)

Robert M. Fogelson, Downtown: Its Rise and Fall, 1880 – 1950 (New Haven: Yale, 2003).


Large-scale modernism in the 1920: factories and mixed-use skyscrapers

William Jordy, American Buildings and their Architects, Volume 5: The Impact of European Modernism in the Mid-century (New York: Oxford, 1972).

Grant Hildebrand, Designing for Industry: The Architecture of Albert Kahn (Cambridge: MIT, 1974).

Federico Bucci, Albert Kahn: Architect of Ford (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002)

Daniel Okrent, Great Fortune: The Epic of Rockefeller Center (New York: Viking, 2003)


Outsiders in the Profession: Women and Minorities

*Ellen Berkeley, ed., Architecture: A Place for Women (Washington: Smithsonian, 1989)

Doris Cole, From Tipi to Skyscraper: A History of Women in Architecture (1973)

Susanna Torre, ed., Women in American Architecture: A Historic and Contemporary Perspective (1977)

Alice T. Friedman, Women and the Making of the Modern House (New York: Abrams, 1998)

Sarah Boutelle, Julia Morgan, Architect (New York: Abbeville, 1988).

Douglas Shand Tucci, Boston Bohemia, 1881 – 1900: Ralph Adams Cram, Life and Architecture


Post-World War II Architecture and Design

Inaki Abalos and Juan Herreros, Tower and Office (Cambridge: MIT, 2003).

Jayne Merkel, Eero Saarinen (New York: Phaidon, 2005)

Eeva-Liisa Pelkonen and Donald Albrecht, eds. Eero Saarinen: Shaping the Future (New Haven: Yale, 2006).

Carol Krinsky, Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (Cambridge: MIT, 1988).

Victoria Newhouse, Wallace K. Harrison, Architect (New York: Rizzoli, 1989).

Pat Kirkham, Charles and Ray Eames: Designers of the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: MIT, 1998)

Eames Demetrios, An Eames Primer (Universe, 2002)

The Films of Charles and Ray Eames

Gordon Bruce: Eliot Noyes (London: Phaidon, 2006)

John Berry and Eames Demetrios, Herman Miller: The Purpose of Design (New York: Rizzoli, rev. ed. 2009).

Eric Larabee and Massimo Vignelli, Knoll Design (New York: Abrams, 1981).


Suburban Architecture and Development

Kenneth Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier (New York: Oxford, 1985).

Robert Fishman, Bourgeois Utopias (New York: Basic Books, 1987).

Alex Wall, Victor Gruen: From Urban Shop to New City (Barcelona: Actar, 2005)

*Gwendolyn Wright, Building the Dream: A Social History of Housing in America (New York: Pantheon, 1981).

Barbara Mae Kelly, Expanding the American Dream: Building and Rebuilding Levittown (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993)


Urban Design and Urbanism after World War II

Eric Mumford, “The Emergence of Urban Design in the Breakup of CIAM,” Harvard Design Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006; also other article in this issue).

Lewis Mumford, “Mother Jacobs’s Home Remedies for Urban Cancer,” in The Lewis Mumford Reader, Donald Miller, ed. (New York: Pantheon, 1986, reprint of 1962 New Yorker “Skyline” article), pp. 184 – 200.

Jonathan Barnett, "In the public interest: Design guidelines," Architectural Record (July 1987), pp. 114 - 125.


The Changing Profession, 1970 – present

*William K. Saunders, ed., Reflections on Architectural Practices in the Nineties, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996)

Robert Gutman, Architectural Practice: A Critical View (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1988).

Tom Wolfe, From Bauhaus to Our House (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1981).


Design and Engineering for Comfort and Sustainability

*Reyner Banham, The Architecture of the Well-tempered Environment (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2nd ed. 1984).

Robert Bruegmann, “"Early Central Heating and Forced Ventilation and Architectural Design,"
JSAH (Oct. 1978)

Jack Quinan, Frank Lloyd Wright’s Larkin Building: Myth and Fact (Cambridge: MIT, 1987).

*Ken Butti and John Perlin, A Golden Thread (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980).


Methods of representation: drawings, photographs

*George B. Johnston, Drafting Culture (Cambridge: MIT, 2008)

*Cervin Robinson and Joel Herschman, Architecture Transformed: A History of the Photography of
Buildings from 1839 to the Present (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986)


Globalization

*Jeffrey W. Cody, Exporting American Architecture 1870 – 2000 (London: Routledge, 2003)

Jan Morris, Stones of Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983)

Robert Irving, Indian Summer: Lutyens, Baker and Imperial Delhi (New Haven: Yale, 1981).

Annabel J. Wharton, Building the Cold War (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2001).

Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre, eds., Critical Regionalism (Munich: Prestel, 2003).

International Union of Architects (UIA), Accord on Recommended International Standards of Professionalism in Architectural Practice (1999)



GSD 7410 syllabus 11/12/2010


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