The first idea of a periodic table

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John Dalton the first idea of a periodic table

Born: September 4, 1766

Died: July 27, 1844

Summary: Dalton made the first rationalized theory about atomic structure and periodic listing for elements. His work in chemistry paved the way for many advances that have been made today. Dalton research and thoughts expanded upon the theories made by Democritus, in that all things are made up of tiny invisible particles called atoms. What he proposed was that atoms have constant composition, elements consist of atoms, and no two elements have the same mass.

Joseph Black

Born: 16 April 1728

Died: 6 December 1799

Summary: Black is noted for his work with latent heat and for the discovery of carbon dioxide. He worked with magnesium carbonate to discover that when he worked with it it gave off “fixed air” or carbon dioxide. This discovery helped chemists better understand reactions and break down of molecules.

Hennery Cavendish 1731-1810

Born: October 10, 1731

Died: February 24, 1810

Summary: Cavendish is duly noted for his discovery of Hydrogen. In his words hydrogen was called “inflammable air”. The inflammable air was able to form water upon combustion. In the discovery of hydrogen later scientists could later use it in calculations and atomic mass counting as well as in form ing the periodic table


Jean-Baptist Dumas

Born: July 14, 1800

Died: April 10, 1884

Summary: noted for organic chemistry and atomic weights. Dumas determined atomic weight by measuring the density of the elements vapors. Dumas made the information possible for quick reference on the periodic table and for providing critical information on atomic weight. His work revealed thirty weights of elements


Eugen Goldstien

German Physicist

Credit: the discovery of the proton as well as the discovery of the anode rays.

Anode rays were observed in experiments by a German scientist, Eugen Goldstein, in 1886. Goldstein used a gas discharge tube which had a perforated cathode. A "ray" is produced in the holes (canals) in the cathode and travels in a direction opposite to the "cathode rays," which are streams of electrons. Goldstein called these positive rays "Kanalstrahlen" - canal rays because it looks like they are passing through a canal. In 1907 a study of how this "ray" was deflected in a magnetic field, revealed that the particles making up the ray were not all the same mass. The lightest, formed when there was a little hydrogen in the tube, was calculated to be 1837 times as massive as an electron. They were protons.

Richard Wilhelm Heinrich Abegg

Born: January 8,1869

German Chemist who is best known for his valance theory in electron configuration. Abegg made several pioneering discoveries as well as making advancements on pre-existing rules and theories. He made prior discoveries alluding to Lewis Octets rule on elemental bonding and oxidization. Through the rest of his life, Abegg, came up with the theory of freezing point depression

Dmitri Mendeleev Mendelejeff, Zeitscrift für Chemie 12, 405-406 (1869); translation by Carmen Giunta

By ordering the elements according to increasing atomic weight in vertical rows so that the horizontal rows contain analogous elements,[1] still ordered by increasing atomic weight, one obtains the following arrangement, from which a few general conclusions may be derived.



































































Born: February 8th 1834

Russian chemist out of toblsk, Siberia

Mendeleev is credited as being the person to form the first draft of the periodic table. He brought the idea of organizing elements by atomic weight and electron count.

Mendeleev is also credited with the working as the director of Weights and Measures as well as setting a state standard for Russia on Vodka.

1900-1915 Roentgen’s wife’s hand in front of the crooks tube

JJ Thompson

sir joseph john thomson (1856-1940). portrait by arthur hacker. Plum Pudding Model

Country: Britian

Science: Physics

Born: in Manchester, England on December 18, 1856.

Thompson is credited in expanding thinking on the structure of an atom and how its mass is distributed. His hypothesis concluded that the mass of an atom is evenly distributed throughout its area while sitting in a negatively charge substance like a plum pudding

Marie Curie

Born: November 7, 1867

A Russian Chemist born in Warsaw, Vistula country of the Russian Empire.

Curie is credited with the theory of Radio activity while trying to isolate isotopes of compounds in dirt. She is also is the discoverer of radium and polonium.

Pierre Curie


Pierre worked along side his wife in her research on radio activity.


Alfred Werner

a Swiss chemist who was a professor at the University of Zurich. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1913 for proposing the octahedral configuration of transition metal complexes. Or, basically, he simplified the form and thinking of how the electrons and isotopes in transition metals are. Werner developed the basis for modern coordination chemistry. He was the first inorganic chemist to win the Nobel prize, and the only one prior to 1973


Julius Robert Oppenheimer

robert oppenheimer (1904–1967),

Oppenheimer is known as the Father of the atomic bomb and one of the head scientists of the Manhattan Project.

Oppenheimer is credit with the work on bombarding an atom of hydrodgen with a free neutron creating a chain reaction and a vast explosion.

the mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of nagasaki, japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter.

After seeing his creation work he stated this Oppenheimer state the Bhagavad Gita. A section from the Hindu bible that reads "If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at once into the sky, that would be like the splendor of the mighty one. Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds."

Robert millikan effect

Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist, and Nobel laureate in physics for his measurement of the charge on the electron and for his work on the photoelectric effect. He served as president of Caltech from 1921 to 1945

Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr was born in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1885.

Bohr is a major contributor to quantum theory and quantum mechanics. He in essence destroyed the theory that Einstein had said that there was order to everything. His work along with several of his colleegues suggested that there were much smaller parts to an atom that made up the atom, furthermore, he stated that electrons orbit the positively charged center in a planetary fashion.

His work also suggested that the world at the atomic and sub atomic levels are in fact out of control. Electrons shift and move between atoms and defy most premises of natural behavior.

James Chadwich

Chadwick is known as the discoverer of the neutron within the nucleus of an atom.

Chadwick’s discovery made it possible to create elements heavier than uranium in the laboratory. His discovery particularly inspired Enrico Fermi, Italian physicist and Nobel laureate, to discover nuclear reactions brought by slowed neutrons, and led Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann, German radiochemists in Berlin, to the revolutionary discovery of “nuclear fission”.

Werner Heisenberg

5 December 1901 in Würzburg–1 February 1976 in Munich was a German theoretical physicist, best known for enunciating the uncertainty principle of quantum theory. He made important contributions to quantum mechanics, nuclear physics, quantum field theory, and particle physics

In quantum field theory (QFT) the forces between particles are mediated by other particles. For instance, the electromagnetic force between two electrons is caused by an exchange of photons. But quantum field theory applies to all fundamental forces. Intermediate vector bosons mediate the weak force, gluons mediate the strong force, and gravitons mediate the gravitational force. These force carrying particles are virtual particles and, by definition, cannot be detected while carrying the force, because such detection will imply that the force is not being carried. In QFT photons are not thought of as 'little billiard balls', they are considered to be field quanta - necessarily chunked ripples in a field that 'look like' particles. Fermions, like the electron, can also be described as ripples in a field, where each kind of fermion has its own field. In summary, the classical visualisation of "everything is particles and fields", in quantum field theory, resolves into "everything is particles", which then resolves into "everything is fields". In the end, particles are regarded as excited states of a field (field quanta).

Quantum field theory provides a theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of systems classically described by fields or of many-body systems. It is widely used in particle physics and condensed matter physics. Most theories in modern particle physics, including the Standard Model of elementary particles and their interactions, are formulated as relativistic quantum field theories. In condensed matter physics, quantum field theories are used in many circumstances, especially those where the number of particles is allowed to fluctuate—for example, in the BCS theory of superconductivity.

See work cited

Erwin Schrodinger

image:erwin schrödinger2.jpg

Austrian Physicist

worked on expanding theories on quantum mechanics.


Edward Witten

image:edward witten at harvard.jpg

born August 26, 1951

American theoretical physicist

Witten is a Physicist that united the several different theories of string theory through advanced mathematic equations. His theory also has a name. M-theory.

M-theory calls for elven dimentions for the so called strings to move and vibrate throughout.

The principle behind string theory is that there tiny “strings” that make up every atom. The way that they make up these atoms is that they vibrate in different ways that make atoms and so on.

richard feynman electron cloud theory idea behind the electron cloud is that the electrons that orbit around the nucleus of an atom move so fast that they form a haze or “cloud” around the nucleus

May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988 was an American physicist known for the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as work in particle physics (the parton model was proposed by him). For his contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman was a joint recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965, together with Julian Schwinger and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga.


Work cited page


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  • Bernstein, Jeremy Hitler’s Uranium Club: The Secret Recording’s at Farm Hall (Copernicus, 2001) ISBN 0-387-95089-3

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  • Bernstein, Jeremy Heisenberg in Poland, Am. J. Phys. Volume 72, Number 3, 300-304 (2004). See also Letters to the Editor by Klaus Gottstein and a reply by Jeremy Bernstein in Am. J. Phys. Volume 72, Number 9, 1143-1145 (2004).

  • Bernstein, Jeremy Max Born and the Quantum Theory, Am. J. Phys. 73 (11) 999-1008 (2005). Department of Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030. Received 14 April 2005; accepted 29 July 2005.

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  • Cassidy, David C. Uncertainty: The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg (Freeman, 1992)

  • Cassidy, David C. A Historical Perspective on Copenhagen, Physics Today Volume 53, Issue 7, 28 (2000). See also Heisenberg’s Message to Bohr: Who Knows, Physics Today Volume 54, Issue 4, 14ff (2001), individual letters by Klaus Gottstein, Harry J. Lipkin, Donald C. Sachs, and David C. Cassidy.

  • Eckert, Michael Werner Heisenberg: controversial scientist (2001)

  • Goudsmit, Samuel with an introduction by R. V. Jones Alsos (Toamsh, 1986)

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  • Heisenberg, Werner Nobel Prize Presentation Speech, (1933)

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  • Heisenberg, Werner, introduction by David Cassidy, translation by William Sweet A Lecture on Bomb Physics: February 1942, Physics Today Volume 48, Issue 8, Part I, 27-30 (1995)

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  • Hentschel, Klaus The Metal Aftermath: The Mentality of German Physicists 1945-1949 (Oxford, 2007)

  • Hoffmann, Dieter Between Autonomy and Accommodation: The German Physical Society during the Third Reich, Physics in Perspective 7(3) 293-329 (2005)

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  • Junk, Robert Brighter Than a Thousand Suns: A personal history of the atomic scientists (Harcourt, Brace, 1958)

  • Kant, Horst Werner Heisenberg and the German Uranium Project / Otto Hahn and the Declarations of Mainau and Göttingen, Preprint 203 (Max-Planck Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 2002)

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  • Mehra, Jagdish and Helmut Rechenberg The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. Volume 6. The Completion of Quantum Mechanics 1926-1941. Part 2. The Conceptual Completion and Extension of Quantum Mechanics 1932-1941. Epilogue: Aspects of the Further Development of Quantum Theory 1942-1999. (Springer, 2001) ISBN 978-0-387-95086-0

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  • Todorv, Ivan Werner Heisenberg (2003)

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