Materials of Art and Archaeology




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Materials of Art and Archaeology


Bibliography


Part II. Metals


Norbert S. Baer


Conservation Center

Institute of Fine Arts

New York University


September 1999



Introduction


Part I. Inorganic Materials (2003).


Part II. Metals (1999).


Part III. Organic Materials (2003).


Part IV. Instrumental Methods (2003).


Part V. Environment (1999).


Part VI. Museology (2003).


Part VII. Dating and Provenance (2003).


Part VIII Library and Archive Materials (2003).


Part IX Stone (1999).


Part X. Dyes and Pigments (2003).

Cumulative Index


May be obtained from:


Conservation Center

Institute of Fine Arts

New York University

14 East 78th Street

New York, New York 10021


September 1999

PART II: METALS



TABLE OF CONTENTS


Casting Technology 1


Coins: Analysis 2

Coins: General Studies 3

Coins: Minting 3


Copper and Copper Alloys: Analysis 3

Copper and Copper Alloys: Conservation 5

Copper and Copper Alloys: History and Technology 6


Copper-Benzotriazole Corrosion Inhibition 7


Corrosion 8


Electrochemistry 9


Gold and Electrum 10


Iron and Steel: Analysis 10

Iron and Steel: Damascene Steel 11

Iron and Steel: History and Technology 12

Iron and Steel: Metallurgy 14

Iron and Steel: Cast Iron 14

Iron and Steel Conservation: Corrosion and General Methods 15

Iron and Steel Conservation: Use of Tannins 15


Lead, Tin and Their Alloys: Alloys 16

Lead, Tin and Their Alloys: Lead 16

Lead, Tin and Their Alloys: Tin 16

Mercury 17

Mercury: General 17

Mercury: Gilding 17


Metallurgy: General 17


Microstructure 18


Outdoor Metal Sculpture: Conservation 19


Patinas 19


Silver: Analysis 20

Silver Coinage: Analysis 20

Silver: Conservation 20

Silver: General 20

Silver: Technology 20

Zinc 21

Casting Technology


L. Aitchison, A History of Metals, Interscience, New York (1960).


Anon., "Centrifugal Casting: A Versatile Tool for the Pewter Industry," Tin and its Uses No.110 10-12 (1976).


Anon., Secrets of Green-Sand Casting Reprinted from the 1906 Edition, Lindsay Publications, Bradley, IL (1983).


J. Baldwin, Contemporary Sculpture Techniques, Reinhold, New York (1967). pp.11-22, 102-106.


P.J. Baus, "Men, Beeswax and Molten Metal: The Art of Lost Wax Casting," Natural History 74 No. 7 19-24 (1965).


A. Beale, "A Technical Examination of the Sculpture of Honore Daumier," Daumier Sculpture (1969). pp.9-27.


M. Biddle, "Bell Casting at Winchester," Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgical Group 1 No.4 13pp. (January, 1965).


E.C. Bunker and J. Ternbach, "A Variation of the `Lost Wax' Process," Expedition 12 No.3 41-43 (1970).


S. Casson, The Techniques of Early Greek Sculpture, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1933). pp.148, 154-164.


J.A. Charles, "Heterogeneity in Metals," Archaeometry 15 (Part 1) 105-114 (1973).


S. Choate, Creative Casting, Crown, New York (1966).


C.D. Clarke, Metal Casting of Sculpture, Standard Arts Press, Butler, Maryland (1948). xi + 170pp.


H.H. Coghlan, Notes on Prehistoric and Early Iron in the Old World, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1956). pp.71-84.


H.H. Coghlan, "A Note on Prehistoric Casting Moulds," Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group 2 No.2 73 (1968).


D. DeMenil, Made of Iron, University of St. Thomas Art Department, Houston (1966). p. 38.


D.T. Easby, Jr., "Pre-Hispanic Metallurgy and Metal Working in the New World," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 109 No.2 89-98 (1965).


D.T. Easby, Jr., "Early Metallurgy in the New World," Scientific American 24 No.4 72-78, 81 (1966).


A. Emmerich, Sweat of the Sun and Tears of the Moon, University of Washington Press, Seattle (1965). pp.160-164.


A.C. Flemings, "The Solidification of Castings," Scientific American 231 No.6 88-95 (1974).


R.J. Forbes, "Man the Maker," In A History of Technology and Engineering, Abelard-Schuman, New York (1958).


R.J. Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, Volume IX, E.J. Brill, Leiden (1964).


R.J. Gettens, "Joining Methods in the Fabrication of Ancient Chinese Bronze Ceremonial Vessels," In W.J. Young, Editor, Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1965).


R.J. Gettens, The Freer Chinese Bronzes, Volume II, Smithsonian Institution, Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C pp.57-120, 159-170 (1967).


E.R. Glazener, Basic Metalwork, Steck, Austin, Texas (1962). pp.141, 145-147.


V.F. Hansen, J.H. Carlson, K.M. Papouchado and N.A. Nielsen, "The Liberty Bell: Composition of the Famous Failure," American Scientist 64 614-619 (1976).


H. Hodges, Technology in the Ancient World, Allen Lane The Penguin Press, London (1970). viii + 260pp. + illus., maps.


H. Hoffman and P.F. Davidson, Greek Gold, The Brooklyn Museum, New York (1965). pp.32-33.


W. Hume-Rothecy and G.V. Raynor, The Structure of Metals and Alloys, Fourth Edition, Institute of Metals, London (1962). 380pp.


D.J. Irving, Sculpture, Material and Process, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York (1970). pp.87-118.


H. Jackson, "Lost Wax Bronze Casting," National Sculpture Review XXII No.1 23-26; No.2 23-25 (1973).


J. Jensen, "A New Casting Medium for Use in Flexible and Rigid Molds," Curator 4 76-90 (1961).


R. Ketchum, "Bells and How They are Made," National Antiques Review III No.11 16-17 (1972).


K. Kluge and K.Lehmann, Die Antiken Grossbronzen, Volume 1, Berlin (1927). 250pp.


V. Kondic, Metallurgical Principles of Founding, American Elsevier, New York (1968). x + 286pp.


A.M. Korol'kov, Casting Properties of Metals and Alloys, Consultants Bureau, New York (1963). 146pp.


W. Lamb, Ancient Greek and Roman Bronzes, Argonant, Chicago (1969). xliii + 267pp.


K. Lamm, "The Manufacture of Jewellery During the Migration Period at Melgo in Sweden," Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group 7 No.2 1-7 (1973).


H. Lechtman, "Appendix to: Further Notes on the Shaft-axe from Khurab, Makran, by C.C. Lambert-Karlovsky," Iran 7 164-168 (1969).


H. Lechtman and A. Steinberg, "Bronze Joining: A Study in Ancient Technology," In S. Doeringer, D. Mitten and A. Steinberg, Editors, Art and Technology, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1970). pp.5-36.


D. Long, "`Cire Perdue' Copper Casting in Pre-Columbian Mexico: An Experimental Approach," American Antiquity 30 189-192 (1964).


H. Maycon, Metalwork and Enameling, Dover, New York (1971). xii + 335pp.


D.G. Mitten, "The Earliest Greek Sculptre in the Museum," Boston Museum Bulletin LXV No.339 4-18 (1967).


G.R. Morton, "Technical Aspects of the Early Iron Industry of Furness," Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group 3 No.1 6-11 (1969).


N.F. Mott and H. Jones, The Properties of Metals and Alloys,Dover, New York (1958), pp.152-174.


J.A. Mulholland, A History of Metals in Colonial America, University of Alabama Press, University, Alabama (1981). xiv + 215pp.


R.M. Organ, "Examination of the Ardagh Chalice - A Case History," In W.J. Young, Editor, Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1970). pp.238-271.


H.M. Percy, New Materials in Sculpture, Transatlantic Arts, New York (1966). viii + 152pp.


E.R. Petty, Physical Metallurgy of Engineering Materials, American Elsevier, New York (1968). xvi + 304pp.


R. Raven-Hart, "The Casting Technique of Certain Greek Bronzes," Journal of Hellenic Studies 78 87-91 (1958).


J.C. Rich, The Materials and Methods of Sculpture, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1947). xxi + 416pp.


G.M. Richter, "Ancient Plaster Casts of Greek Metalware," American Journal of Archaeology 62 369-377 (1958).


G.M. Richter, "An Aristogeiton from Baiae," American Journal of Archaeology 74 No.3 296-297 (1970).


B.S. Ridgeway, "The Lady from the Sea: A Greek Bronze in Turkey," American Journal of Archaeology 71 No.4 329-334 (1967).


B.A. Rogers, The Nature of Metals, Second Edition, American Society for Metals, Cleveland (1964). x + 324pp.


M. Sekino, "Repair of the Great Buddha Statue at Kamakura," Studies in Conservation 10 39-46 (1965).


M. E. Shapiro, Cast and Recast, the Sculpture of Fredrick Remington, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. (1981). 127pp.


D. Shirley, "The Metropolitan Bronze Horse Proves to be Ancient," New York Times, December 24, 1973.


C. Singer, E.J. Holmyer, A.R. Hall and T.I. Williams, A History of Technology, The Clarendon Press, Oxford (1957). Volumes I-III, V.


C.S. Smith, Sources for the History of the Science of Steel 1532-1786, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1968). pp.285-288.


A. Steinberg, "Techniques of Working Bronzes," In Master Bronzes from the Classical World, D.G. Mitten and S. F. Doeringer, Editors, P. von Zabern, Mainz on Rhine (1967). pp.9-11.


A. Steinberg, "Joining Methods on Large Bronze Statues: Some Experiments on Ancient Technolgy," In Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art, W.J. Young, Editor, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1970). pp.103-139.


A. Steinberg, "A Technical Note," In Art and Technology, S. Doeringer, D. Mitten and A. Steinberg, Editors, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1970). pp.107-108.


K. Strauss, Editor, Applied Science in the Casting of Metals, 1st Edition, Pergamon Press, Oxford (1970). viii + 532pp.


Coins: Analysis


R.H. Brill and W.R. Shields, "Lead Isotopes in Ancient Coins," In Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage, E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, Editors, Royal Numismatic Society, London (1972). pp.279-304.


J.A. Buckley, "An Analysis of Thirty-one Coins from the Hellenistic Period," Archaeometry 27 No.1 102-107 (1985).


G.F. Carter, "Chemical Compositions of Copper-based Roman Coins: Augustan Quadrantes, ca.9-4 B.C.," In Archaeological Chemistry II, G.F. Carter, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C, (1978). pp.347-377.


G.F. Carter, E.R. Calley, J.H. Carlson, G.W. Carriveau, M.J. Hughes, K. Rengan and C. Segebade, "Comparison of Eight Roman Orichthalcum Coin Fragments by Seven Methods," Archaeometry 25 No.2 201-213 (1983).


l. J. Cline Love, L. Soto and B.T. Reagor, “Surface Studies of Ancient Gold Coins by X-Ray Flourescence, Scanning Electron Miscroscopy and Scanning Auger Spectroscopy,” Applied Spectroscopy 34 No. 2 131-139 (1980).


J. Condamin and M. Picon, "Changes Suffered by Coins in the Course of Time and the Influence of These on the Results of Different Methods of Analysis," In Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage, E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, Editors, Royal Numismatic Society, London (1972). pp.49-66.


L.P. Goulpeau, P. Lanos and L. Langonet, "The Remanent Magnetization of Ancient Struck Coins," Archaeometry 29 (Part 2) 175-186 (1987).


E.T. Hall, "A Summing-up from the Point of View of the Scientist," In Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage, E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, Editors, Royal Numismatic Society, London (1972). pp.315-320.


K.T.M. Hodge, "Chemical Treatment, Preservation and Analytical Study of Pavnar Coins," Current Science 40 No.23 618-620 (1971).


G.S. Hoye, "Magnetic Properties of Ancient Coins," Journal of Archaeological Science 10 43-49 (1983).


J.M. Merrick and D.M. Metcalf, "Milliprobe Analyses of Some Problematic Burgundian and Other Gold Coins of the Early Middle Ages," Archaeometry 11 61-65 (1969).


D.M. Metcalf and J.M. Merrick, "Studies in the Composition of Early Medieval Coins," Numismatic Chronicle 7 167-181 (1967).


D.M. Metcalf and F. Schweizer, "Milliprobe Analysis of Some Visigothic, Sueric, and Other Gold Coins of the Middle Ages," Archaeometry 12 (Part 2) 173-188 (1970).


C. Morrisson, J.-N. Barrandon and C. Brenot, "Composition and Technology of Ancient and Medieval Coinages: A Reassessment of Analytical Results," Museum Notes 32 181-207 (1987).


H. Nicolet-Pierre, J.-N. Barrandon and J.-Y. Calvez, "Monnaies archaiques d'Athènes sous Pisistrate et les Pisistradites (ca.545-510): Recherches sur la composition métallique des Wappenmünzen," Revue numismatique 27 23-44 (1985).


W.A. Oddy, "The Analysis of Gold Coins: A Comparison of Results Obtained by Non-Destructive Methods," Archaeometry 14 (Part 1) 111-119 (1972).


F. Schweitzer, "Analysis of Ancient Coins Using a Point Source Linear X-Ray Spectrometer: A Critical Review," In Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage, E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, Editors, Royal Numismatic Society, London (1972). pp.153-169.


F. Schweizer and A.M. Friedman, "Comparison of Methods of Analysis of Silver and Gold in Silver Coins," Archaeometry 14 (Part 1) 105-109 (1972).


F.C. Thompson, "Sources of Metal Used for Ancient Coins," Cunobelin No.14 27-32 (1968).


P. Tyler, "Analyses of Mid-third-century Roman Antoniniani as Historical Evidence," In Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage, E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, Editors, Royal Numismatic Society, London (1972). pp.249-260.


See Also: Silver Coinage.


Coins: General Studies


A. Burnett, Coinage in the Roman World, Seaby, London (1987). 168pp.


I. Carradice and M. Price, Coinage in the Greek World, Seaby, London (1988). 154pp.


G.F. Carter, "Ancient Coins as Records of the Past," Chemistry 39 14-19 (1966).


P.G. Casey, Understanding Ancient Coins, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, and London (1986). 160pp.


M. Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1974). Two Volumes, xiv + 919pp.


G.F. Hill, Ancient Greek and Roman Coins, Argonaut Press, Chicago (1964, reprint of 1899). 302pp.


G.K. Jenkins, Ancient Greek Coins, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York (1972). 310pp.


D.D. Kosambi, "Scientific Numismatics," Scientific American 102-111 (1965).


C.M. Kraay, Archaic and Classical Greek Coins, Methuen, London (1976). xxvi + 390pp.


L.R. Laing, Coins and Archaeology, Schocken Books, New York (1969). xvi + 336pp.


W.A. Oddy, "Coin Forgers at Work," MASCA Journal 1 No.3 80-81 (1979).


K. Regling, Ancient Numismatics: The Coinage of Ancient Greece and Rome, Argonaut Inc. Publishers, Chicago (1969). 79pp.


M. Sazonov, "The Method of Counterfeiting Ancient Coins of the Bosporus by M. Sazonov as Told by Himself," (translation and commentary by K.V. Golenko) Museum Notes 20 25-28 (1975).


C. Seltman, Greek Coins: A History of Metallic Currency and Coinage Down to the Fall of the Hellenistic Kingdoms, Second Edition, Methuen, London (1955). xxvi + 311pp.


Coins: Minting


G.F. Carter, "A Simplified method for Calculating the Original Number of Dies from Die-Link Statistics," Museum Notes 28 195-206 (1988).


J.H. Healy, "The Establishment of Die-sequences in Greek `White Gold and Electrum Coin Series," Numismatic Chronicle 11 (7th Series) 31-36 (1971).


Copper and Copper Alloys: Analysis


T. Bastian, "Trace Element and Metallographic Studies of Prehistoric Copper Artifacts in North America: A Review," in J. B. Griffin, Editor, Lake Superior Copper and the Indians: Micellaneous Studies of Great Lakes Prehistory, Anthropology Papers No. 17, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michingan, Ann Arbor (1961). pp. 150-175.


R. Bowman, A.M. Friedman. J. Lerner and J. Milsted, "A Statistical Study of the Impurity Occurrences in Copper Ores and Their Relationship to Ore Types," Archaeometry 17 No.2 157-163 (1975).


C.W. Brewer, "Metallographic Examination of the Two Bronze Figures from Khmer," ICOM Committee for Conservation 4th Triennial Meeting, Preprints, ICOM, Paris (1975). pp.25/2/1-25/2/6.


E.R. Caley, "Chemical Examination of Metal Artifacts from Afghanistan," Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 62 (Part 4) 44-50 (1972).


E.R. Caley, I.S.M. Chang and N.P. Woods, "Gravimetric and Spectrographic Analysis of Some Ancient Chinese Copper Alloys," Ars Orientalis 11 183-194 (1979).


G.F. Carter and T.V. Buttrey, "Chemical Compositions of Copper-Based Roman Coins, II. Augustus and Tiberius," American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 22 49-65 (1977).


H.W. Catling and R.E. Jones, "Analyses of Copper and Bronze Artifacts from the Unexplored Mansion, Knossos," Archaeometry 19 (Part 1) 57-66 (1977).


P.T. Craddock, "The Composition of the Copper Alloys Used by the Greek, Etruscan and Roman Civilizations, 1. The Greeks Before the Archaic Period," Journal of Archaeological Science 3 93-113 (1976).


P.T. Craddock, "The Composition of the Copper Alloys Used by the Greek, Etruscan and Roman Civilizations, 2. The Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic Greeks," Journal of Archaeological Science 4 103-123 (1977).


P.T. Craddock, "The Composition of the Copper Alloys Used by the Greek, Etruscan and Roman Civilizations, 3. The Origins and Early Uses of Brass," Journal of Archaeological Science 5 No.1 1-16 (1978).


A.S. Darling and J.H. Healy, "Microprobe Analysis and the Study of Greek Gold-Silver-Copper Alloys," Nature 231 443-444 (1971).


T. Dono, "Discovery of Metals and Development of the Culture," Scientific Papers on Japanese Antiques and Arts Crafts No.19 9-14 (1975).


A.L. Fraikor, et al., "Metallurgical Analysis of a Hopewell Copper Earspool," American Antiquity 36 No.3 358-361 (1971).


L. Frank, "A Metallographic Study of Certain Pre-Columbian American Implements," American Antiquity 17 57-59 (1951).


H.M. Friede, "Composition of Pre-European Copper and Copper-Alloy Artifacts from the Transvaal," Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 75 No.5 185-191 (1975).


A.M. Friedman, et al., "Copper Artifacts: Correlation with Source Types of Copper Ores," Science 152 1504-1514 (1966).


S.I. Goad and J. Noakes, "Prehistoric Copper Artifacts in the Eastern United States," In Archaeological Chemistry II, G.F. Carter, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1978). pp.335-346.


C. Goedicke and J. Riederer, "Metallanalysen der Kupferobjekte," In D. Eisleb, Editor, Altpersanische Kulturen 138 (1975). pp.71-73.


J.F. Healy, "The Composition of Mytilenian Electrum," Congrès International de Numismatique Paris, 6-11 Juillet 1953 2 529-536 (1957).


R. Maddin, et al., "Distinguishing Artifacts Made of Native Copper," Journal of Archaeological Science 7 No.3 211-225 (1980).


D.M. Metcalf and J.M. Merrick, "Studies in the Composition of Early Medieval Coins," Numismatic Chronicle 7 167-181 (1967).


P.R.S. Moorey and F. Schweizer, "Copper and Copper Alloys in Ancient Iraq, Syria and Palestine: Some New Analyses," Archaeometry 14 (Part 2) 177-198 (1972).


E.J. Olsen, "Copper Artifact Analysis with the X-ray Spectrometer," American Antiquity 28 234-238 (1962).


C.C. Patterson, "Native Copper, Silver and Gold Accessible to Early Metallurgists," American Antiquity 36 No.3 186-321 (1971).


J. Riederer, "Metallanalysen römischer Sesterzen," Jahrbuch für Numismatik und Geldgeschichte 24 73-98 (1974). Offprint.


J. Riederer and E. Briese, "Metallanalysen römischer Gebrauchs­gegenstände," Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 83-88 (1972).


M. Sawada, "Non-Destructive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Ancient Bronze Mirrors Excavated in Japan," Ars Orientalis 11 195-213 (1979).


K.A. Schneider, "Results of Copper Analysis, Tunacunnhee Site, Dade County, Georgia," unpublished research report, Geochronology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia (1974).


D.L. Schroeder and K. Ruhl, "Metallurgical Characteristics of North American Prehistoric Copperwork," American Antiquity 33 162-169 (1968).


F. Schweizer and H. Durand, "Technologische Untersuchung und Restaurierung einer Griechischen Opferschale aus Bronze," Arbeitsblätter für Restauratoren 11 No.1 Gruppe 2 78-95 (1978).


A.O. Shepherd, "Metallographic Study of Copper Artifacts," American Antiquity 2 139-140 (1936).


T. Singh and R.B. Singh," Comparison of Copper Wires Through Their Trace Element Profile by NAA," Journal of the Indian Academy of Forensic Science 17 No.1 25-30 (1978). Cited CA 89: 191864e.


R.F. Tylecote, H.A. Ghaznavi and P.J. Boydell, "Partitioning of Trace Elements Between the Ores, Fluxes, Slags and Metal During the Smelting of Copper," Journal of Archaeological Science 4 No.4 305-333 (1977).


C.L. Wilson, "A Brief Metallographic Study of Primitive Copper Work," American Antiquity 1 109-112 (1935).


See Also: Coins: Analysis.


Copper and Copper Alloys: Conservation


Anon., "Incralac-Protective Coating System for Copper Metals in Exterior Service," International Copper Research Association. 5pp.


S.A. Balezin et al., "Mutual Influence of Stimulators and Inhibitors on the Corrosion of Copper in Water," Report No.BR 30426, Defense Research Information Center, Orpington, England (1973). 4pp. Translation of Uch Zap Mosk Gos Pedegog Inst, 210-213 (1969).


K. Barton, Protection Against Atmospheric Corrosion: Theories and Methods, Translated from the German by J.R. Duncan, John Wiley and Sons, London (1976). x + 194pp.


N.R. Bharucha, "Clear Polyurethane Lacquer for Copper and Copper Alloys," Paper Presented at the CDA-ASM Conference on Copper, Cleveland, Ohio (October 1972). 4pp.


N.R. Bharucha and M.T. Baker, "Clear Lacquers for Copper and Copper Alloys," Report on research carried out by British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association (July 1965). 40pp.


T. Biestek and M. Drys, "Corrosion Products Formed on Copper in Various Corrosive Environments," Powloki Ochronne 6 No.3 21-27 (1974).


J.C. Bolger, R.W. Hausslein and H.E. Movler, "A New Theory for Improving the Adhesion of Polymers to Copper," Final Report to INCRA, New York (August 1971). 28pp.


H. Brinch-Madsen, "Schwarze Flecken auf Bronzen," Arbeitsblätter für Restauratoren 11 No.1 Gruppe 2 96-102 (1978).


D.S. Byers, "The Restoration and Preservation of Some Objects from Etowah," American Antiquity 28 No.2 206-216 (1962).


E.J. Caule, "New Protective Inorganic Coatings for Copper Alloys," Paper presented at the CDA-ASM Conference on Copper, Cleveland, Ohio (October 1972). 10pp.


Chase Brass and Copper Company, "Development of Clear Coatings for Protection of Copper Base Alloys," Project report to the International Copper Research Association (1960-1965). 90pp.


CIBA-GEIGY, Reomet 38: Copper Corrosion Inhibitor and Passivator (undated).


CIBA-GEIGY, Reomet 41: Copper Corrosion Inhibitor and Passivator for Aqueous Media (undated).


J. Cronyn and K. Foley, "Numismatics and Conservation: The Conservator's View," Museum's Journal 79 No.1 2-3 (1979).


DeBell and Richardson, Inc., "The Development of Thermosetting Clear Coatings for Copper and Its Alloys," Final report to the International Copper Research Association (1965). 39pp.


D.L. Hamilton, Conservation of Metal Objects from Underwater Sites; A Study in Methods, Miscellaneous Papers No.4, Texas Memorial Museum, Austin, 1976. xi + 108pp.


K.S. Indira, S. Gowri and B.A. Shenoi, "Chemical Polishing of Copper," Metal Finishing 64 No.11 58-60,66 (1966).


H. Jedrzejewska, "A Corroded Egyptian Bronze: Cleaning and Discoveries," Studies in Conservation 21 No.3 101-114 (1976).


L. Johnston, "The New Way to Brighten Up Those Old Statues is a Blast," New York Times, April 26, 1978.


P.M. Kamath, S. Stregevsky and C.A. Sprang, "Development of Applications for Copper Plastics Combinations," Summary report to International Copper Research Association (1966). 51pp.


A.P. Karavaeva, I.K. Marshakov and S.M. Melnik, "Inhibitors of Dezincification of Brasses," Zaschita Metallov) Protection of Metals) 4 No.2 211-213 (1968).


H. Lane, "The Restoration of Thin Metal Vessels Using Glass-Fibre and Polyester Resin," Studies in Conservation 19 No.4 227-232 (1974).


H. Leidheiser, Jr., The Corrosion of Copper, Tin and Their Alloys, Wiley, New York (1971). xi + 441pp.


S.Z. Lewin and S.M. Alexander, "The Composition and Structure of Natural Patinas: Copper and Copper Alloys," Art and Archaeology Technical Abstracts 6 No.4 199-283 (1967); 7 No.1 277-370 (1968).


V.F. Lucey, "Development Leading to the Present Understanding of the Mechanism of Pitting Corrosion of Copper," British CCorrosion Journal No.1 34-41 (1972).


L.E. Merk, "A Study of Reagents Used in the Stripping of Bronzes," Studies in Conservation 23 No.1 15-22 (1978).


F.R. Ostertag, "Cleaning Bronze Artifacts," Curator 20 No.1 53-57 (1977).


E. Pirie, "Numismatics and Conservation: A Numismatic View," Museums Journal 79 No.1 (1979).


J. Riederer, "Corrosion Damage on Bronze Sculptures," Werkstoffe und Korrosion 23 No.12 1097-1100 (1972). In German.


M. Schmidt, "Observations on Natural Patination of Copper," Journal of the Institute of Metals 98 238 (1970).


C. Sease, "Benzotriazole: A Review for Conservators," Studies in Conservation 23 No.2 76-85 (1978).


T. Stambolov, "Cleaning Metal Art Objects," Chemisch Weekblad 67 No.20 K27-K29 (1972).


G.J. Varoufakis, "Chemical Polishing of Ancient Bronzes," Archaeometry 19 (Part 2) 219-221 (1977).


G.J. Varoufakis and E.C. Stathis, "Corrosion of Ancient Bronzes," Metallurgia 83 No.499 141-144 (1971).


G. Wever, "Mechanical Cleaning of Two Composite Objects," Curator 12 No.3 194-200 (1969).


See Also: Copper Benzotriazole Inhibition and Corrosion.


Copper and Copper Alloys: History and Technology


H. Barker and J. Rawson, "A Chinese Gift Bronze Bear from the Oppenheim Collection," The British Museum Quarterly 36 Nos. 1/2 53-56 (1971).


M.S. Bisson, "Prehistoric Copper Mining in Nortwest Zambia," Archaeology 27 No.4 242-247 (1974).


H. Born, Editor, Archaologische Bronzen, antike Kunst, moderne Technik, D. Reimer, Berlin (1985). 206pp.


K. Branigan, Aegean Metalwork of the Early and Middle Bronze Age, Clarendon Press c1974). 216pp.


J.H. Cairns, J. Clough, M.A.P. Dewep and J. Nutting, "The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Heavily Deformed Copper," Journal of the Institute of Metals 99 93-97 (1971).


W.T. Chase and U.M. Franklin, "Early Chinese Black Mirrors and Pattern-etched Weapons," Art Orientalis 11 215-258 (1979).


H.H. Coghlan, "A Bronze Strigil from Greece Examined," Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 11 No.2 86-87 (1977).


P.T. Craddock, "Europe's Earliest Brasses," MASCA Journal 1 4-5 (1978).


K. Faltermeier, "Der Bronze Kopf von Soloi-Rückformung des Abgusses und Technische Notizen zur Herstellung des Originals," Arbeitsblätter für Restauratoren 11 No.2 Gruppe 2 109-115 (1978).


J. B. Griffin, Editor, Lake Superior Copper and the Indians: Micellaneous Studies of Great Lakes Prehistory, Anthropology Papers No. 17, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michingan, Ann Arbor (1961). 189pp. Reviewed in American Antiquity 28 No. 2 247 (1962).


A. Hartmann and E. Sangmeister, "The Study of Prehistoric Metallurgy," Angewandte Chemie (International Edition) 11 No.7 620-628 (1972).


K. Jettmar, "Metallurgy in the Early Steppes," Artibus Asiae 33 Nos. 1/2 5016 (1971).


J.L. McCall and R.D. Buchheit, "Metallographic Studies of Archaeological Metal Artifacts from South Arabia," Metallography 4 No.3 189-207 (1971).


A.D. McMahon, Copper, A Materials Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. (1965). xii + 340pp.


W.D. Mitchell, The Art of the Bronze Founder, Especially in Its Relation to the Casting of Bronze Statuary and Other Sculptural Work, J. Williams, New York (1916). 47pp.


R.A. Peltzer, Geschichte der Messingindustrie und der kunstlerischen Arbeiten in Messing (Dinanderies) in Aachen und den Ländern zwischen Maas und Rhein von der Römerzeit bis zur Gegenwart, Cremer, Aachen (1909). microform, 231pp.


S. Sato, T. Otsu and E. Hata, "Embrittling of Copper Alloys During Annealing," Journal of the Institute of Metals 99 118-124 (1971).


C.S. Smith, Review of Metallurgical Remains of Ancient China by N. Bernard and T. Sato, and The Cradle of the East: An Enquiry into the Indigenous Origins of Techniques and Ideas of Neolithic and Early Historic China, 5000-1000 B.C. by Ping-Ti Ho, Technology and Culture 18 80-86 (1977).


M.G. Spratling, "The Debris of Metalworking," In G.J. Wainright, Gussage All Saints: An Iron Age Settlement in Dorset, Great Britain Department of the Environment, Archaeological Report No.10, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London (1979). pp. 125-149.


M.G. Spratling, et al., "An Iron Age Bronze Foundry at Gussage All Saints, Dorset: Preliminary Assessment of Technology," In Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Archaeometry and Archaeological Prospection, Edinburgh 1976, E.A. Slater and J.O. Tate, Editors, National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, Edinburgh (1980). pp. 268-292.


R.F. Tylecote, "A Contribution to the Metallurgy of 18th and 19th Century Brass Pins," Post-Medieval Archaeology 6 183-190 (1972).


T.A. Wertime, "The Beginnings of Metallurgy: A New Look," Science 182 No.4115 875-887 (1973).


See also: Casting Technology; Inorganic Pigments (Part I) for copper-based pigments.


Copper-Benzotriazole Corrosion Inhibition


D. Altura and K. Nobe, "Hydrogen Evolution on Copper in H2SO4 Containing Benzotriazole," Corrosion 28 No.9 345-347 (1972).


L. Angely, M. Bonnemay, G. Brondel and G. Peslerbe, "Study of Benzotriazole Adsorption on Copper," Metaux Corrosion Industrie No.555 409-413 (1971).


Anon., "Benzotriazole: An Effective Corrosion Inhibitor for Copper Alloys," Application Data Sheet No.108/9, Copper Development Association, Inc., New York (1969). 4pp.


N.R. Bharucha, "New Organic Corrosion and Tarnishing Inhibitors for Copper," Summary of research carried out by BNFMRA for INCRA (July 1966). 25pp.


H. Brinch-Madsen, "Further Remarks on the Use of Benzotriazole for Stabilizing Bronze Objects," Studies in Conservation 16 No.3 120-122 (1971).


M.G. Burberry and G.L. Greenfield, "Organic Inhibitors for Copper," Final Report to International Copper Research Association by the British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association, London (1968). 39pp.


W.T. Chase, Bronze Disease and Its Treatment, Bangkok National Museum, Bangkok (1975). 77pp.


R.J. Chin, D. Altura and K. Nobe, "Corrosion Inhibition of Iron and Copper in Chloride Solutions by Benzotriazole," Corrosion 29 No.5 185-187 (1973).


J.B. Cotton, "The Control of Surface Reactions on Copper by Means of Organic Compounds," (July 1966). 13pp.


J.B. Cotton and I.R. Scholes," Benzotriazole and Related Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors for Copper," British Corrosion Journal 2 No.1 1-5 (1967).


M.N. Desai, S.S. Rana and M.H. Gandhi, "Corrosion Inhibitors for Copper," Anti-Corrosion 17 17-21 (1970).


I. Dugdale and J.B. Cotton, "An Electrochemical Investigation on the Prevention of Staining of Copper by Benzotriazole," Corrosion Science 3 69-74 (1963).


F.W. Fink, E.L. White, W.K. Boyd and F.H. Haynie, "Corrosion Control of Galvanically Incompatible Metals in Sea Water," Materials Protection and Performance 10 No.7 17-22 (1971).


V. Greene, "The Use of Benzotriazole in Conservation," ICOM Committee for Conservation 4th Triennial Meeting, Preprints, ICOM, Paris (1975). pp. 25/6/1-25/6/10.


M.G. Kendall, "Corrosion Resistance of Electroplated Copper with Codeposited Benzotriazole," Final Report, International Copper Research Association (August 1967). 28pp.


C.J. Korpics, "Aromatic Triazoles as Corrosion Inhibitors of Copper and Copper Alloys," Paper presented at the CDA-ASM Conference on Copper (October 1972). 13pp.


R.S. Lindstrom, "Protective Coatings for Copper Metals," Final report to INCRA, New York (1972). 81pp.


F. Mansfeld and T. Smith, "Benzotriazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for Copper II. Acid NaCl Solutions," Corrosion 29 No.3 105-107 (1973).


F. Mansfield, T. Smith and E.P. Parry, "Benzotriazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for Copper," Corrosion 27 289-294 (1971).


T.B. Marsden, "Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Copper and Its Alloys - a Review," British Corrosion Journal 7 No.6 251-255 (1972).


P.D. Miller and W.K. Boyd, "A Survey of Corrosion Inhibitors and Related Additives to Improve the Corrosion Resistance and Heat Transfer of Copper and Its Alloys," Final Report, sponsored by International Copper Research Association, New York (1969). 58pp.


N. Morito and W. Suetaka, "Structure of Benzotriazole Salt Coating on Copper in View of Infrared and Visible Ultraviolet Reflection Spectra," Journal of Japan Institute of Metals 35 No.12 1165-1170 (1971).


W.A. Oddy, "Toxicity of Benzotriazole," Studies in Conservation 19 No.3 188-189 (1974).


G.W. Poling, "Reflection Infra-Red Studies of Films Formed by Benzotriazole on Cu," Corrosion Science 10 No.5 359-370 (1970).


G.W. Poling and I.C.G. Ogle, "Role of the Intervening Oxide Layer in Copper Corrosion Inhibition," Annual report to INCRA, New York (1972). 20pp.


R.F. Roberts, "X-Ray Photoelection Spectroscopic Characterization of Copper Oxide Surfaces Treated with Benzotriazole," Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 4 273-291 (1974).


T.K. Ross and M.R. Berry, "Benzotriazole as an Inhibitor of the Corrosion of Cu in Flowing H2SO4," Corrosion Science 11 No.4 273-274 (1971).


W.H. Safranek, "Chemical and Electrochemical Colored Finishes for Copper and Copper Alloys," Draft of report to be issued by the Copper Development Association (December 1966). 30pp.


G. Trabanelli, F. Zucchi, G.P. Bolognesi and G. Brunoro, "The Use of Photopotentials in the Study of Corrosion, Inhibition and Passivation Properties," Corrosion Traitments, Protection, Finition 19 No.8 439-444 (1971).


R. Walker, "The Use of Benzotriazole as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Copper," Anti-Corrosion 17 No.9 9-10; 12-15 (1970).


R. Walker, "Benzotriazole as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Immersed Copper," Corrosion 29 No.7 290-296 (1973).


R. Walker, "Benzotriazole as a Corrosion Inhibitor," Metal Finishing 71 No.9 63-66 (1973).


C.I. Whitman, "Precoated Copper and Copper Alloys - A Progress Report," Sheet Metal Industries 45 No.492 275-281 (1968).


I.A. Whittaker, "A Survey on the Stress Corrosion of Copper Based Alloys," Study sponsored by the International Copper Research Association (September 1965). 54pp.


See Also: Copper and Corrosion.


Corrosion


L.M. Applegate, Cathodic Protection, McGraw Hill, New York (1960). 229pp.


ASTM, Metal Corrosion in the Atmosphere, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia (1968). 391pp.


ASTM, Localized Corrosion - Cause of Metal Failure, STP 516, ASTM, Philadelphia (1972). 322pp.


ASTM, Erosion, Wear and Interfaces with Corrosion, STP 567 ASTM, Philadelphis (1974). 335pp.


R.D. Barer and B.F. Peters, Why Metals Fail, Gordon and Breach, New York (1970). pp.12-16.


J.H. Bateman, Materials of Construction, Pitman, New York (1950). pp.548-555.


J.A. Belk and A.L. Davies, Editors, Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis of Metals, Elsevier, New York (1968). pp.210-219.


D.M. Berger, "How Corrosion Theory Relates to Protective Coatings," Metal Finishing 75 No.6 42-45 (1977).


J.R. Cairns and P.T. Gilbert, The Technology of Heavy Non-Ferrous Metals and Alloys, CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio (1967).


D. Cushing, "Principles of Corrosion Applicable to Ancient Metals and Methods of Identifying Corrosion Products," In Application of Science in the Examination of Works of Art: Proceedings of the Seminar: September 7-16, 1965, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1967). pp.53-65.


D. Cushing, "Corrosion and Corrosion Products of Ancient Non-Ferrous Metals," In Application of Science in the Examination of Works of Art: Proceedings of the Seminar: September 15-18, 1958, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1959). pp.109-131.


D. Doeringer, D.G. Mitten, A. Steinberg, Editors, Art and Technology: A Symposium on Classical Bronzes, Fogg Art Museum and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1970). Part I, pp.57-94.


U. Evans, The Corrosion and Oxidation of Metals: Scientific Principles and Practical Application, Arnold, London (1960). 1094pp.


U.R. Evans, An Introduction to Metallic Corrosion, Arnold, London (1981). 302pp.


M.G. Fontana and R.W. Staehle, Editors, Advances in Corrosion Science and Technology, Plenum Press, New York (1970). Volume 1, x + 374pp.


P.J.E. Forsyth, The Physical Basis of Metal Fatigue, American Elsevier, New York (1969), Chapter 6.


R.J. Gettens, "Mineral Alteration Products on Ancient Metal Objects," In G. Thompson, Editor, Recent Advances in Conservation, IIC, London (1963). pp.89-92, Plate I.


R.C. Gifkins, Optical Microscopy of Metals, American Elsevier, New York (1970). pp.113-116.


G.A. Greathouse and C.J. Wessel, Deterioration of Materials, Reinhold, New York (1954). xvii + 835pp.


J.L. Gregg, Arsenical and Argentiferous Copper, Chemical Catalog Company, New York (1934). pp. -154.


R.H. Heidersbach, Jr., and E.D. Verink, Jr., "The Dezincification of Alpha and Beta Brasses," Corrosion 28 No.11 397-418 (1972).


M. Henthorne, Corrosion: Causes and Control, Cartech, Reading, Pennsylvania (1972). Reprint from Chemical Engineering. 72pp.


M. Hours and F. Michel, "Scientific Methods in the Study of the Metallurgy of Antiquity at the Louvre," In Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1973). pp.67-72.


R. Hultgren, Fundamentals of Physical Metallurgy, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (1958). 395pp.


E. Jackson, Bibliography of Books on Corrosion and Protection of Metals (3rd Edition), Institution of Corrosion Science and Technology, London (1988). 125pp.


S. Keene, Editor, Corrosion Inhibitors in Conservation, United Kingdom Institution for Conservation, London (1985). 44pp.


H. Leidheiser, Jr., The Corrosion of Copper, Tin and Their Alloys, Wiley, New York (1970). xi + 411pp.


S.Z. Lewin, "A New Approach to Establishing the Authenticity of Patinas on Copper-base Artifacts," In Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1973). pp.62-67.


T. Lyman, Editor, Metals Handbook, 8th Edition, American Society for Metals, Cleveland, Ohio (1964). Series, 11 Volumes.


W.A. Oddy, "The Corrosion of Metals on Display," In Conservation in Archaeology and Applied Arts, IIC, London (1975). pp.235-237.


W.A. Oddy, "An Unsuspected Danger in Display," Museum Journal 23 27-28 (1973).


R.M. Organ, "The Examination and Treatment of Bronze Antiquities," In Recent Advances in Conservation (1963). pp. 104-110.


R.M. Organ, "The Reclamation of the Wholly-Mineralized Silver in the Ur Lyre," In Application of Science in the Examination of Works of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1967). pp.126-144.


M.J.N. Pourbaix, Lectures on Electrochemical Corrosion, Translated by J.A.S. Green, Plenum Press, New York (1973). xxii + 336pp.


H.B. Pulsifer, Inspection of Metals, American Society for Metals, Cleveland, Ohio (1943). pp.144-153.


E. Rabald, Corrosion Guide, Second Edition, American Elsevier, New York (1968). xxxiv + 900pp.


R.J. Raudebaugh, Non-ferrous Physical Metallurgy, Pitman, New York (1952). xii + 345pp.


O.L. Riggs, Anodic Protection. Theory and Practice in the Prevention of Corrosion, Kerr-McGee, Oklahoma City (1981). 284pp.


R.L. Sands and C.R. Shakespeare, Powder Metallurgy, George Newnes, London (1966). pp.124-126.


B.R. Schlenker, Introduction to Materials Science, Wiley, New York (1970). pp.58-65.


J.C. Scully, The Fundamentals of Corrosion, Pergamon (1966). xi + 194pp.


A. Shrager, Elementary Metallurgy and Metallography, Third Revised Edition, Dover, New York (1969). x + 406pp.


K.F. Skidmore and H. Schwartzbart, "Corrosion and Dezincification of Brasses in Water," Journal of Testing and Evaluation 4 No.6 426-433 (1976).


C.S. Smith, "Interpretation of Microstructures of Metallic Artifacts," In Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art: Proceedings of the Seminar, September 7-16, 1965, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1967). pp.20-52.


C.S. Smith, "An Examination of the Arsenic-Rich Coating on a Bronze Bull from Horoztepe," In Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1973). pp.96-102.


C.S. Smith, "Some Speculation on the Corrosion of Ancient Metals," Archaeometry 18 114-116 (1976).


W.L. Smith, "Corrosion," Chemistry 49 No.1 14-16; No.5 7-9; No.8 10-12 (1976).


T. Stambolov, The Corrosion and Conservation of Metallic Antiquities and Works of Art, Central Research Laboratory, Amsterdam (1967). 196pp.


R.F. Tylecote, Metallurgy in Archaeology, E. Arnold, London (1962). xvi + 368pp.


A.E. Werner, "Two Problems in the Conservation of Antiquities: Corroded Lead and Brittle Silver," In Application of Science in the Examination of Works of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1967). p. 96-104.


E.M. Wise, Gold: Recovery, Properties and Application, D. Van Nostrand, Princeton (1964). pp.180-203.


See Also: Copper Benzotriazole Corrosion Inhibition; Materials Damage: Metals (Part V).


Electrochemistry


R.P. Buck, "Ion Selective Electrodes," Analytical Chemistry 50 No.5 17R-29R (1978).


M.L. Deanhardt, J.W. Dillard, K.W. Hanck and W.L. Switzer, "Determination of Pb and Cd in Pottery Using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry," Journal of Chemical Education 54 No.1 55-57 (1977).


P. Delahay, New Instrumental Methods in Electrochemistry, Interscience, New York (1954). 437pp.


R.A. Durst, Editor, Ion-Selective Electrodes, National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 314 (1969). 452pp.


I. Fatt, Polarographic Oxygen Sensors, CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio (1976).


A.M. Graabaek and O.J. Jensen, "Trace Analysis of Heavy Metals," Industrial Research/Development September (1979). pp.124-127.


W.R. Heineman and P.T. Kissinger, "Analytical Electrochemistry: Methodology and Applications of Dynamic Techniques," Analytical Chemistry 50 No.5 166R-175R (1978).


D.N. Hume, "Polarographic Theory, Instrumentation and Methodology," Analytical Chemistry 34 172R (1962).


M.T. Kelly and D.J. Fisher, "Instrumental Methods of Derivative Polarography," Analytical Chemistry 30 929 (1958).


I.M. Kolthoff and J.J. Lingane, Polarography, Second Edition, Interscience, New York (1952).


P. Lauren, "Electric Cells from Mesopotamia?," Chemistry 47 No.11 6-9 (1974).


S.Z. Lewin, "Electroanalytical Instrumentation," Journal of Chemical Education 39 No.4-No.7 (1962). Combined Offprint.


G. Popp, "Electro-Organic Synthesis -- Renaissance of an Old Technique," Eastman Organic Chemical Bulletin 45 No.3 1-8 (1973).


D.K. Roe, "Analytical Electrochemistry: Theory and Instrumentation of Dynamic Techniques," Analytical Chemistry 50 No.5 9R-16R (1978).


J.T. Stock, "Amperometric, Biopotentiometric and Coulometric Titrations," Analytical Chemistry 50 No.5 1R-9R (1978).


C.C. Westcott, "Selection and Care of pH Electrodes," American Laboratory 10 No.8 71-73 (1978).


Gold and Electrum


R.W. Ageton, "Gold," Mineral Facts and Problems: 1970, United States Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C pp.573-585.


K. Blakemore, The Book of Gold, Stein and Day, New York (1971). 224pp.


E.R. Caley, "Gold and its Alloys," In Analysis of Ancient Metals, Macmillan, New York (1964), Chapter 3.


S. Choate with B.C. DeMay, Creative Gold and Silver Smithing, Crown, New York (1970). 298pp.


J. Cherry, Goldsmiths University of Toronto Press, Toronto (1992). 72pp.


A.S. Darling and J.F. Healey, "Micro-probe Analysis and the Study of Greek Gold-Silver-Copper Alloys," Nature 231 443-444 (1971).


C.R. Dodwell, "Gold Metallurgy in the Twelfth Century: The De Diversis Artibus of Theophilus the Monk," Gold Bulletin 4 (July) 51-55 (1971).


C.B. Donnan, "A Precolumbian Smelter from Northern Peru," Archaeology 26 No.4 289-297 (1973).


J. Emmerling," Die Bearbeitung des Munzfundes von Kella in der Restaurierungswerkstatt," Alt-Thüringen 10 251-255 (1968/1969).


G. Eogan, The Accomplished Art: Gold and Gold-Working in Britain & Ireland (c. 2300-650BC), Oxbow Books, Oxford (1994). 199pp.


Gold Information Center, "Gold: A Look at its History and Rarity," Typescript, 7pp.


J.W. Grossman, "An Ancient Gold Worker's Tool Kit: The Earliest Metal Technology in Peru," Archaeology 25 No.4 270-275 (1972).


G. Gruschke-Eichendorff, "Der Mainzer Goldschmuck (Giesela-Schmuck) und seine Restaurierung," Neue Museumskunde 13 No.2 123-134 (1970).


M.J. Hughes and W.A. Oddy, "Reappraisal of the Specific Gravity Method for the Analysis of Gold Alloys," Archaeometry 12 (Part 1) 1-11 (1970).


L.B. Hunt, "The Early History of Gold Plating," Gold Bulletin 6 No.1 16-27 (1973).


T.G.H. James, "Gold Technology in Ancient Egypt," Gold Bulletin 5 No.2 38-42 (1972).


H. Kowalski and P. Reimers, "War Friedrich II von Hohenstaufen ein Falschmünzer?, BAM-Information No.2 36-38 (1972).


J.L. McCall and R.D. Buchheit, "Metallographic Study of Archaeological Artifacts," Proceedings of the Annual Technical Meeting of the International Metallographical Society, 3rd 1970 (1971). pp.99-104.


J.M. Ogden, Platinum Group Metal Inclusions in Ancient Gold Artifacts," Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 11 No.2 53-72 (1977).


C.C. Patterson, "Native Copper, Silver, and Gold Accessible to Early Metallurgists," American Antiquity 36 No.3 286-321 (1971).


P. Reimers, G.J. Lutz and C. Segebade, "The Non-Destructive Determination Gold, Silver and Copper by Photon Activation Analysis of Coins and Art Objects," Archaeometry 19 (Part 2) 167-172 (1977).


E. Rubenow, "Röntgenfluoreszenzanalyse Archäologischer Goldfunde," Jahresschrift mitteldeutsche Vorgeschicte (Halle) 52 327-336 (1968).


F.R. Tylecote," The Composition of Metal Artifacts: A Guide to Provenance?," Antiquity 44 No.173 19-25 (1970).


C.J. Willis, "All that Glitters...," Letter to the Editor with Editor's Note, Chemical and Engineering News July 14, 1975 p.5.


E.M. Wise, Gold: Recovery, Properties and Applications, D. Van Nostrand, New York (1964). 367pp.


See also the journal: Gold Bulletin; Coins: Analysis.


Iron and Steel: Analysis


P.W. Brown and J.R. Clifton, "Nondestructive Techniques for Evaluating Metallic Artifacts of Historical Interest," APT Bulletin 8 No.4 3-21 (1976).


R.M. Ehrenreich, "The Analysis of the Danebury Ironwork," In B. Cunliffe, Danebury: an Iron Age Hillfort in Hampshire, Vol. 3, London (1988).


R.M. Ehrenreich and D. Strahan, "The Effects of Boiling on the Quenched Steel Structure of Martensite," In J. Black, Editor, Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifiacts: Jubilee Conservation Papers, Summer Schools Press, London (1987). pp. 125-130.


E. Eichen, J. Tabock and K.R. Kinsman, "An Electron Microprobe Technique for Detecting Low Carbon Concentrations in Iron," Metallography 5 No.2 151-162 (1972).


J.W. Haldane, "A Study of the Chemical Composition of Pre Roman Ironwork from Somerset," Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group 4 No.2 53 66 (1970).


W. Haldane, "A Study of the Chemical Composition of Pre-Roman Ironwork from Somerset," Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group 4 No.2 53-66 (1970).


G. Harbottle, R. Cresswell and R.W. Stoenner, "Carbon-14 Dating of Iron Blooms from Kodlunarn Island," In W. Fitzhugh, Editor, The Archaeology of the Frobisher Voyages, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. (1992).


R.E.M. Hedges and C.J. Salter, "Source Determination of Iron Currency Bars through Analysis of the Slag Inclusions," Archaeometry 21 (Part 2) 161 175 (1979).


R.W.K. Honeycombe, Steels: Microstructure and Properties, Second Edition, Halsted Press, New York (1996). viii + 324pp.


A. Kaloyeros and R.M. Ehrenreich, "The Distribution of Phosphorus in Romano-British Ironwork," In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology II, Volume 185, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1991). pp. 725-730.


R. Knox, "Detection of Iron Carbide Structure in the Oxide Remains of Ancient Steel," Archaeometry 6, 43 45 (1963).


J.N. McGrath, "A Preliminary Report on the Metallographic Examination of Four Fragmentary Early Iron Age Sword Blades from Llyn Cerrig Back, Anglesey," Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group 2 No.2, 78 80 (1968).


J. Piaskowski, "Metallographic Examinations of Ancient Iron Objects," In A.K. Gosh, Editor, Perspectives in Paleo-Anthropology, Calcutta (1974).


B.G. Scott, "Notes on the Development of Metallographic Studies of Ancient Iron," Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 8 No.2 88 91 (1974).


M.F. Smith, Chemical Analysis of Steel (A Bibliography with Abstracts). Report for 1964-May 1977, NTIS/PS-77/0418 Report (1977). 183pp.


J.A. Smythe, "Ancient Sussex Iron Blooms: A Metallographic Examination," Transactions of the Newcomen Society 37 197 203 (1936-37).


J.E. Stead, "Note on Inclusions in Steel and Ferrite Lines," Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 97 No.1 287 292 (1918).


R.F. Tylecote and B.J.J. Gilmour, The Metallography of Early Ferrous Edge Tools and Edged Weapons, BAR British Series 155, Oxford (1986). 264pp.


H. Unglik, "Metallurgical Study of a Recently Recovered Iron Bloom and Associated Finds from Kodlunarn Island, Frobisher Bay, Canada," In W. Fitzhugh, Editor, The Archaeology of the Frobisher Voyages, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. (1992).


N.J. van der Merwe, The Carbon-14 Dating of Iron, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1969). xii + 137pp.


M.L. Wayman and R.M. Ehrenreich, "Metallurgical Examination of Iron Objects From the Eastern Arctic: Preliminary Results," In W. Fitzhugh, Editor, The Archaeology of the Frobisher Voyages, Washington, D.C. (1992).


J.H. Whiteley, "The Distribution of Phosphorus in Steel between the Points AC1 and AC3," Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 51 No.1 359 382 (1920).


J.H. Whiteley, "Cupric Etching Effects Produced by Phosphorus and Oxygen in Iron," Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 53 No.1 277 289 (1921).


B.C. Worssam and J. Gibson-Hill, "Analyses of Wealden Iron Ores," Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 10 No.2 77-82 (1976).


J.H. Wright, "Metallurgical Examination of a Roman Iron Beam from Catterick Bridge, Yorkshire," Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group 6 24-27 (1972).


Iron and Steel: Damascene Steel


J.W. Anstee and L. Biek, "Pattern-Welded Iron Swords," Nature 178 1432-1433 (1956).


N. Belaiew, “Damascene Steel,” Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 97 417-439 (1918).


K.A.C Creswell, Bibliography of Arms and Armour in Islam, Royal Asiatic Society, London (1956).


H. Maryon, “Pattern-Welding and Damascening of Sword-Blades. Part 1: Pattern-Welding,” Studies in Conservation 5 No. 1 25-37 (1960).


J. Plaskowski, About Damascene Steel, Ossolineum, Wroclaw (1974). 366pp.


J. Plaskowski, “How Alloy Steel was Invented, Wiadomosci Hutnicze 32 103-107 (1976).


J. Puraye, "Making Damascus Barrels, Part I," The American Rifleman 124 No.4 25-28 (1976).


J. Puraye, "Damascus Barrels: They Faked Those, Too (Part II of Damascus Barrel Story)," The American Rifleman 124 No.5 33-35 (1976).


M. Sachse, “Damascene Steel – History, Legend and Reality,” Archiv für das Eisenhüttenwesen 49 No. 11 521-526 (1978).


M. Sachse, "Die Restaurierung von Damaszenerstahl," Arbeitsblätter für Restauratoren 11 No.1 Gruppe 1 113-123 (1978).


O. Sherby and J. Wadsworth, “Damascus Steels,” Scientific American 252 No. 2 112-120 (1985).


J. Wadsworth and O. Sherby, “On the Bulat-Damascus Steels Revisited,” Progress in Materials Science 25 No. 1 35-68 (1980).


Iron and Steel: History and Technology


A.R. Aiano, "Romano-British Ironworking Sites, a Gazetteer," Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 11 No.2 73-82 (1977).


D. Allen, "Iron Currency Bars in Britain," Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 33 307-335 (1967).


D.H. Avery, N.J. van der Merwe and S. Saitowitz, "The Metallurgy of the Iron Bloomery in Africa," In R. Maddin, Editor, The Beginning of the Use of Metals and Alloys, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1988).


K.C. Barraclough, "Wortley Top Forge, the Possibility of Early Steel Production," Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 11 No.2 88-92 (1977).


K. C. Barraclough, Steelmaking: 1850-1900, Institute of Metals, London (1990). 320pp.


K.C. Barraclough and J.A. Kerr, "Steel from 100 Years Ago," Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 10

No.2 70-78 (1976).


A.W. Bealer, The Art of Blacksmithing, Third Edition, Harper & Row, New York (1984). 487pp.


H.M. Boylston, An Introduction to the Metallurgy of Iron and Steel, New York (1928). xviii + 571pp.


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L. Chung, "Studies on the Iron blade of a Shang Dynasty Bronze
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