Missile defense agency (mda) small business innovation research program (sbir)




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Game Theory In Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD)


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Weapons


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: DV, BC


OBJECTIVE: This topic seeks to develop advanced, innovative models of the offense and defense in a ballistic missile defense engagement using game theory techniques that will provide appropriate testing scenarios for evaluation and optimization of sensor and weapon resource management algorithms.


DESCRIPTION: As the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) evolves to incorporate new and enhanced sensors and weapon systems to contend with increasingly complex ballistic missile threats, optimization of BMDS sensor and weapon resource management algorithms will require that the anticipated objectives and strategy of a potential adversary are accounted for. Game theory techniques can be applied to ballistic missile defense objectives at two levels. At the structural level, game theory approaches can be used to determine the quantities of BMDS sensors and weapons as well as the geographical locations of the fixed system assets. At the tactical level, game theory can be applied to determine the optimum use of available BMDS assets through appropriate sensor and weapon resource management. This topic focuses exclusively on the tactical application.


Proposals should develop a framework for modeling an intelligent offense thus providing a capability to define stressing engagement scenarios against which the defense’s weapon and sensor resource management methodologies can be evaluated. The proposed methods should account for the following factors:


In planning an attack, a potential adversary with given inventory of missiles and weapons has essentially three decisions to make for each missile:


a. Relative launch timing: near simultaneous launches would provide stressing conditions for the defense’s sensors while extending an attack over time can lead to exhaustion of the defense’s weapon inventory without careful resource management.


b. Aimpoint Location: through the choice of target location the offense might expect to be able to exploit different kinematic engagement envelopes of different fixed weapon sites potentially leading to local exhaustion


c. Countermeasures: the offense has a choice of the type of countermeasures, if any, to deploy and the timing of such a deployment. Through variation of these parameters, the offense might hope to be able to affect the difficulty and approach to discrimination by the defense and the sensors resources required to effect it.


PHASE I: Develop a mathematical model of a BMD engagement that demonstrates the effects of changes to offense and defense options which account for the factors mentioned above. Using Game Theoretical approaches, establish techniques for computing optimum strategies for offense and defense using simulated data.


PHASE II: Develop and update the models in Phase 1 to include incomplete knowledge by each player of the other’s capabilities and pay-off matrices. Integrate with simulation framework to allow the testing and evaluation of resource management algorithms in realistic, complex threat scenarios.


PHASE III: Integrate the technology into the BMDS system in coordination with the BMDS C2BMC Element Program Office. Partnership with traditional DoD prime contractors will be pursued since the government applications will receive immediate benefit from a successful program.


PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: This technology is applicable to air traffic control, the transportation and shipping industry, e-commerce and robotics industry.


REFERENCES: 1. Global Ballistic Missile Defense: A Layered Integrated Defense. http://www.mda.mil/mdalink/pdf/bmdsbook.pdf


2. Missile Defense Agency Fiscal Year 2008 (FY08) Budget Estimates Overview http://www.mda.mil/mdalink/pdf/budgetfy08.pdf


3. Fudenberg, D and Tirole, J “Game Theory”, MIT Press, 1991.


4. Owen G, .”Game Theory”, W.B Saunders Company, 1968.


5. Weiner, S. D. and Rocklin, S.M. Discrimination Performance Requirements for Ballistic Missile Defense. Lincoln Laboratory Journal. Vol. 7 Number 1 1994.


6. Grometstein, A. A. Discrimination: Genesis and Algebra. Lincoln Laboratory Journal. Vol. 13 Number 1 2002.


7. Przemieniecki, J. S., Mathematical Methods in Defense Analyses. AIAA Education Series. 2000.


KEYWORDS: Game Theory; sensor resource management; weapon resource management; countermeasures


MDA07-032 TITLE: Advanced Passive and Active Sensor Technology for Discrimination


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Electronics, Space Platforms


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: DV, GM, TH, MK


OBJECTIVE: Research and develop innovative concepts which will significantly improve current performance of passive and active electro-optical and infrared sensors for use in future ballistic missile defense systems (BMDS) discrimination.


DESCRIPTION: Future ballistic missile defense face complex countermeasures, such as multiple targets mixed with decoys, balloons and can be cool shrouded. Key functions of a missile defense interceptor are to detect, track and discriminate threat objects. Discrimination relies on the use of sensors that perform a variety of remote measurements. Both active and passive sensors, and the combination of them are critical for future discrimination either in the seekers, or airborne and space borne platforms.


This topic solicits new ideas for passive and active sensors that will be able to detect, track, and discriminate complex targets at ranges beyond 1000 km. The topic emphasizes on innovative concepts, components and technologies for compact and light-weight IR sensors and ladar receivers. On-FPA and near-FPA data processing and data rate reduction capabilities are also sought for real time discrimination. Radiation hardened environment operation needs to be considered. Passive IR sensors require higher performance to include improved sensitivity, uniformity, operability, and resolution; reduced readout noise, advanced read out integrated circuits (ROIC) capabilities, cutoff wavelengths from 5 to 14 microns, large array sizes (in excess of 256 x256), and high operating temperatures (> 77K). These performance parameters should exceed those of current state of the art FPA detector technologies. Multi-color focal plane arrays (FPAs) should be designed to detect two to four wavebands. ROIC with sub-nanosecond response time and in an excess of 40M carrier charge capacity unit cell are of great interest. Hybrid receivers which are simultaneously capable of coherent and direct detection are also sought. Direct detection should meet or exceed Geiger response. Compact form factor should be capable of supporting receiver integration in a coherent or direct detection. Large format ladar receiver and /or APD arrays operating at 1064 nm are needed. Improvements to the receiver array can include demonstration of significantly reduced dark current, improved sensitivity from photon counting, with significant reductions in receiver size.


PHASE I: Research and develop a conceptual design meeting the above listed physical constraints and parameter requirements. Determine the expected performance through an extensive system level analysis/modeling effort. Identify technical risks and develop a risk mitigation plan.


PHASE II: Design, develop, and characterize a prototype a large format IRFPA or ladar receiver and demonstrate its functionality. Investigate private sector applications and commercialization of the large format IRFPA.


PHASE III: Develop a manufacturing process for the large format IRFPA or ladar receiver and assist the Missile Defense Agency in transitioning this technology to the appropriate Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) prime contractor(s) for engineering integration and testing.


PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL: The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies and EO/IR components developed in Phase II for potential commercial uses in such diverse fields as law enforcement, rescue and recovery operations, maritime and aviation collision avoidance sensors, medical uses and homeland defense applications. Specifically, FPAs and associated ROICs developed as a result of this SBIR topic will provide much needed sensitivity and resolution to sensors used in the medical field such as early breast cancer detection along with inexpensive collision avoidance sensors to be utilized in small private airplanes. FPAs and APDs produced as a result of efforts from this topic will be utilized by the law enforcement agencies on surveillance operations (drug trafficking, border patrol, etc.)


REFERENCES: 1. “The Infrared Handbook,” IRIA Series in Infrared and Electron- Optics, published by ERIM, 1993.


2. “MDA Infrared Sensor Technology Program and Applications,” M. Z. Tidrow, SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 5074 (2003), p39.


3. J. L. Miller, Principles of Infrared Technology, Chapman & Hall, 1994.


4. J. S. Acceta and D. L. Shumaker, The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook,” SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Washington, 1993.


KEYWORDS: Discrimination, IR Detectors, Ladar receiver, Active Sensors, Passive IR Sensor, Remote Sensing, Sensor Fusion, , Focal Plane Arrays, IR FPA.


MDA07-033 TITLE: Forecasting IR Satellite Imagery for Adaptive Sensor Tasking


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Electronics, Space Platforms


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: DV, GM, TH, SN


OBJECTIVE: Develop advanced algorithms and software to forecast infrared (IR) satellite imagery for real-time sensor management and adaptive sensor tasking.


DESCRIPTION: The need to monitor the activities of nations hostile to the US requires the routine availability of ground imagery to detect and respond to military developments. Successful monitoring requires not only knowing what is currently occurring, but during periods of rapid activity, being able to monitor at the same selected location what occurs over a near-term future of several hours to days. Imagery provided by IR satellite sensors that are regularly used for such monitoring is strongly influenced by weather conditions that can have an adverse impact on intelligence gathering. Prior knowledge of environmental radiance conditions help facilitate sensor management. Proposals are sought for developing an innovative capability to forecast satellite imagery of ground terrain based on weather forecast information to meet intelligence mission planning surveillance needs. Proposed advances should address issues related to determining the state of the atmosphere from IR imagery, spatial resolution that is commensurate with satellite imagery, generating short-range forecasts of up to 72 hours for this atmospheric state through dynamical meteorological modeling, and producing forecast imagery as seen by IR sensors through radiative transfer modeling. Other key features should address computational speed for operational implementation, and predictive skill in forecasting satellite imagery.


PHASE I: Define an approach for determining an atmospheric state from IR imagery, and producing 72 hour forecasts of the imagery for the same location, for any bandpass of an IR sensor. Prototype a robust and viable algorithm for forecasting IR imagery and demonstrate the algorithm for a remotely-sensed ground terrain. Assess the computational feasibility of implementing the algorithm for operational implementation.


PHASE II: Evolve the approach developed in Phase I into a forecast capability. Demonstrate the potential and feasibility of the software for real world satellite mission scenarios in coordination with government personnel. Assess the predictive skill of the IR imagery forecast capability using well-defined statistical measures.


PHASE III: Transition forecast infrared (IR) satellite imagery prototype to DoD and commercial space satellite ground applications. Validate real-time ability to improve forecasting infrared (IR) satellite imagery for real-time sensor management and adaptive sensor tasking.


DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: The technology will provide a forecast capability for IR imagery that will enhance intelligence mission planning surveillance. Commercial application: Results from this work will apply to weather forecasting and future NASA earth science missions.


REFERENCES: 1. Barry, Roger Graham, and Richard John Chorley, 2003, Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate, 170 pp., Routledge, Oxford, UK.


2. Berk, A., et al.(2000), Reformulation of the MODTRAN Band Model for Higher Spectral Resolution, paper presented at Algorithms for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery VI.


3. Berk, A., et al.(1998), MODTRAN Cloud and Multiple Scattering Upgrades with Application to AVIRIS, Remote Sens. Environment, 65, 367-375.


4. Mlawer, E. J., S. J.Taubman, P. D. Brown, and M. J. Iacono, and S. A. Clough, 1997, J. Geophys. Res., 102 (D14), 16,663-16,682.


5. Schowengerdt, Robert A, 2007, Remote Sensing, 3rd ed., Elsevier (Academic Press), San Diego, CA.


KEYWORDS: weather forecasting, satellite imagery, sensor management, adaptive tasking, intelligence surveillance


MDA07-034 TITLE: Device Level Thermal Management Solutions for Phased Array Radar


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Electronics, Space Platforms


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: AB, DV, GM


The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate low cost, manufacturable, chip-level thermal management solutions to reduce the operational junction temperature of high power RF power amplifiers.


DESCRIPTION: Wide bandgap semiconductors, namely GaN, have expanded the scope of device applications beyond those of silicon and gallium arsenide. Exploitation of wide bandgap semiconductors holds promise for revolutionary improvements in the cost, size, weight and performance of a broad range of military and commercial microelectronics. The intrinsic properties of GaN make it ideal for use in next generation microwave/millimeter wave radar applications. GaN power amplifiers are capable of operating at several times the power density of GaAs based devices. This enables more power on target which leads to longer range and/or decreased aperture size. Current GaN development programs are focused on demonstrating devices with 5-6W/mm of RF output power density. However, this power density does not reflect the true capability of GaN but rather a compromise between the desired RF performance and the realities of current thermal solutions. This new generation of high power microwave devices faces significant thermal challenges due to ever increasing power densities. Current GaN RF transistor performance is limited by localized heating in a very thin AlGaN epitaxial layer near the gate region. Due to its relatively low thermal conductivity, GaN is unable to effectively remove heat generated during device operation. The use of large metal heat-sinks with active cooling provides low thermal conductivity backgrounds, but cannot reduce the temperature near the submicron field-effect transistor gates. Efficient thermal management is essential for minimizing thermal energy near the transistor’s active channel. Ideally, the optimal solution would be to integrate thermal management directly into the GaN device thus minimizing design challenges for the system integrator. Innovative concepts are sought that can satisfy advanced radar system requirements


PHASE I: Develop and demonstrate innovative materials and/or techniques capable of reducing device junction temperature without degrading performance, reliability or process ability.


PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate cost effective manufacturing processes. Validate thermal, reliability and cost benefits to be achieved through a prototype device demonstration. Identify radar components suitable for insertion utilizing proposed technology.


PHASE III: Target MDA industrial partners for technology transition with potential integration into one or more BMDS systems.


PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL: Proposed technology is expected to garner a high level of interest for next generation broadband communications and optoelectronics applications.


REFERENCES: 1. Francis, D., Wasserbauer, J., Faili, F., Babic, D., Ejeckam, F., Hong, W., Specht, P., Weber, E.R., “GaN-HEMT Epilayers on Diamond Substrates: Recent Progress,” Compound Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology Conference, May 13-18, 2007, Austin.


2. Blevins, J., “Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Substrates: Current Status and Future Trends,” Compound Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology Conference, May 2004, Miami.


KEYWORDS: Thermal management, wide bandgap semiconductors, GaN, power amplifiers, phased array radar, heat conduction


MDA07-035 TITLE:
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