Every lesson will follow 5E instructional model with extended Explanation part




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Evolution Lesson plan

Subject/Grade: Integrated Science or Biology 9-12 Time: 6 lessons/90 min each

Objectives for the unit:

At the completion of this unit students will be able to:


  1. List correct procedural steps in the cycle of the scientific method.

  2. Define and distinguish between the chemical and the biological evolution.

  3. Describe six characteristics of life.

  4. Summarize historical scientific ideas on how life arose including Aristotelian and “primordial soup”.

  5. Correctly identify and match particular scientists with their achievements.

  6. Evaluate the deep hydrothermal zones of the oceans as a possible origin site for first life form.

  7. Compare and contrast the scientific and the creationist view on the theory of evolution.

  8. Analyze five pieces of evidence for evolution: 1. vestigial organs, 2. Molecular phylogeny, 3.Cellular structure of life, 4. Comparative anatomy, 5. Fossil record.

  9. Conclude the fact of evolution by examining the fossil record.

  10. Define the geological time scale.

  11. Outline the process of natural selection.

  12. Summarize the historical perspective on the theory of natural selection including gradualism and punctuated equilibrium.

  13. Correctly define ecosystem and list its six characteristics.

  14. (Psychomotor) Effectively pasteurize food. In a lab experiment.

  15. (Affective) distinguish between religion, the scientific way of knowing, and other ways of knowing.



Colorado Science Standards Supported:

All six Colorado Model Science Standards are supported by this unit.


Instructional Sequence:

1. Lesson One: MULTICULTURAL LESSON The Origin of Life

2. Lesson Two: The Biological Evolution

3. Lesson Three: The Fossil Record

4. Lesson Five: Field trip to the Denver Museum of Nature and Science or ”discussion circles” using books, field guides, and atlases from the library.

5. Lesson Five: Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection


SAFETY CHECKLIST

  • 1. Students will use hot plates and will boil water in the pasteurization lab. Precautions required.

  • 2. Safety precautions during the field trip.



Every lesson will follow 5E instructional model with extended Explanation part.

I. Part I Engagement

II. Part II Exploration

III. Part III Explanation

IV. Part IV Elaboration

V. Part V Evaluation

Alternatives:

Notes and comments:


SAFETY CHECKLIST

  • 1. At the end of the lab cleanup and double-check workstations.


Assessment: Assessment will be conducted after each lesson in the form of worksheets and after completion of the unit in the form of comprehensive test.


Origin of life/Chemical Evolution Lesson plan

Subject/Grade: Integrated Science or Biology 9-12 Time: 2/90 minute lessons

Objectives:

Content Objectives: At the completion of this unit students will be able to:

  1. List correct procedural steps in the cycle of scientific method.

  2. Correctly define and distinguish between the chemical and the biological evolution.

  3. Describe six characteristics of life.

  4. Summarize the historical, scientific ideas on how life arose including Aristotelian and “primordial soup”.

  5. Correctly identify and match particular scientists with their achievements.

  6. Evaluate deep hydrothermal zones of the oceans as a possible origin site for the first life forms.


Psychomotor: At the completion of this unit students will be able to:

  1. Safely use Bunsen burners.

  2. Correctly measure liquids using graduated cylinders and beakers.

Affective: At the completion of this unit students will be able to:

  1. Describe different cultural ideas on how life originated.

  2. Correctly justify why the scientific theory of evolution is the only one taught at every public school in the United States.

  3. Correctly justify why teaching religion in public schools is illegal and distinguish between teaching religion and teaching about religion.

  4. Gain awareness of diversity in reference to believes.


Literacy Objectives: At the completion of this unit students will be able to:


  1. Brainstorm in small-group-environment

  2. Construct and use concept map for oral presentation.

  3. Use Venn diagrams to compare and contrast two different sources.

  4. Prepare a 5-paragraph essay on 3 different cultural ideas on the origin of life.

  5. Synthesize information from different sources.



Colorado Model Science Standards supported:

Standard 1: Lab experiment, (pasteurization of water)

Standard 2: Changes of matter and energy.

Standard 3: The six characteristics of life.

Standard 4: The processes and dynamics of Earth.

Standard 6: The scientific way of knowing.



Instructional Sequence:


SAFETY CHECKLIST

  • 1. Students will use Bunsen burners and will boil water in the pasteurization lab. Precautions required.



I. Part I Engagement - 80 minutes followed by questions specifying the significance of this multicultural “idea circle” lesson.

Central Idea: The first life form might have been a miracle, an unlikely one-time natural event or a likely event of chemical reactions. Once that first life appeared the process of evolution began.


Focus questions:

What are some different cultural believes about the origin of life on Earth?

Using trade books, web resources, encyclopedias, and cultural mythology books students in small groups will read and present different cultural ideas on the origin of life.



  • Establish heterogeneous groups of 4-5 students

  • Prepare collection of different books describing different cultural ideas, mythologies about the origin of life and conduct “idea circles” activity. Every group should analyze at least 3 different sources. Students should investigate some of following:

  1. Ancient Egyptian and Greek

  2. Chinese

  3. Hindu

  4. Christian

  5. Native American

  6. Inca, Mayan, and Aztec

  7. Islam

  8. Students’ choice



http://www.magictails.com/creationlinks.html

http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML/Theogony.html

http://members.aol.com/egyptart/crea.html

http://cscwww.cats.ohiou.edu/esl/elective/mythology/#CreationStories

http://mythicjourneys.org/bigmyth/2_eng_myths.htm

http://mythicjourneys.org/bigmyth/index.htm



  • Set clear goals about what each group should accomplish:

  1. Students will prepare a concept map for the oral presentation

  2. Venn diagram, comparing and contrasting different sources.

  3. Oral presentation

  4. Students will write a five-paragraph essay describing 3 different cultural ideas on how life on Earth originated. Topic: Describe 3 most interesting ideas from different cultural mythologies on the origin of life. Be sure to include the correct culture and geographical location with a particular idea.



IDEA CIRCLES BACKGROUND

“An excellent way for students to respond to literature is by using idea circles. Idea circles represent the small-group/multiple-books model of organizing the classroom for literature study. They involve students in small-group peer-led discussions of concepts fueled by reading experiences with multiple texts “. (Guthrie & McCann 1996).

Idea circles are an ideal way to promote peer-directed conceptual understanding of any aspect of content area learning. This conceptual learning involves three basic ingredients:

  1. facts

  2. relationships between facts

  3. explanations

Idea circles not only engage students in learning about science but they also require engagement in a variety of literacy activities, including:

  1. locating information

  2. evaluating the quality and relevance of information

  3. summarizing information for their peers, and determining relationships among information found in a variety of sources

  4. integrating information, ideas, and view points

In addition, they involve students in a variety of important collaborative processes, including turn-taking, maintaining group member participation, and coaching one another in the use of literacy strategies (Guthrie & McCann 1996).

Idea circles involve three to six students in directed, small-group discussions. Idea circles are peer led and involve student-generated rules. Students work together to create a common understanding of a concept by constructing abstract understanding from facts and details. Every student may interact with a different text in preparation for the group discussion. Then during the discussion, students share the unique information that they have found.

The teacher begins the idea circle experience by presenting students with a goal in the form of a topic or question. An example of a question might be: What are some different cultural believes about the origin of life on Earth? Before the idea circle meets, students can either read extensively from relevant informational trade books or read and discuss their findings concurrently. Students are encouraged to search for information, comprehend text being used and synthesize information from different sources.

Information that students bring to the group may also come from prior experiences, discussions with others, as well as from their readings. In their groups, students exchange facts, discuss relationships among ideas, and offer explanations. When discrepancies arise students search their sources to clarify information (Guthrie & McCann 1996).


QUESTIONS:

Why are we talking about believes (religion) in the Science class at the beginning of a unit on evolution?

How is religion different from science?

Why is it illegal to teach religion in public schools?

How is teaching religion different from teaching about different religions?


II. Part II Exploration

REVIEW

1. What are 6 characteristics of life?

2. How do you distinguish life from non life?

3. What chemical elements are essential for life?

Characteristics of life

  1. Gets the energy and raw materials from surroundings.

  2. Has the ability to grow and develop.

  3. Has the ability to reproduce with variations.

  4. Has the ability to excrete wastes.

  5. Has the ability to respond to environmental stimuli.

  6. All life as we know it is based on water chemistry.


Elements essential for life

1. Water, Energy

2. Chemicals  Carbon , Oxygen , Hydrogen,

Sulfur, Phosphorus, Nitrogen (C, O, H, S, P, N)


Time pair share (10 minutes), how do you think life originated on Earth?

How did life arise?

1. A miracle

2. An unlikely event, happened only once on Earth shortly after its formation

3. An inevitable consequence of chemistry

4. The extraterrestrial planting

5. Any new ideas

6. Other than Christian believes, legends,


Why science can not study miracles? Why only the 3rd option can be studied by scientists?

III. Part III Explanation

The first life form might have been a miracle, an unlikely event or a likely event of chemical reactions.



  • Science can only study the 3rd option. Why? How?

  1. The only option that can be studied through the scientific method.

  2. The scientific process is based on reproducible experiment




Observations,

Data collection 


Identification of patterns










Prediction

collection


 Hypothesis




  • History of life

  1. The chemical evolution from Earth’s formation to when the 1st life appeared.

  2. The biological evolutionfrom when the 1st life appeared to present.



Historical perspective

Emphasis on international character of evolutionary theory and scientific investigations as a whole.


Aristotle  Ancient Greece  vitalism

Life force permeates the Earth, life arises spontaneously

(Everything spontaneously starts growing in the spring.)


Louis Pasteur  (1822-1895) Pasteurization

“No life can occur without prior life”

Experiment  Boiled water remained sterilized indefinitely if sealed.


Charles Darwin  The theory of evolution by natural selection

Outlined the key requirements for life:

  • Water

  • Energy

  • Chemicals  Carbon , Oxygen , Hydrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorus, Nitrogen,( C, O, H, S, P, N).


Alexander Oparin  (1894-1980)  “primordial soup”

Life arose from water, which gradually become enriched in organic molecules.


Miller/Urey Experiment  1950 University of Chicago

Primary building blocks amino-acids arise spontaneously in lab experiment from essential

chemicals, water, and electricity.


  • Deep hydrothermal zones as origin of life

  1. 1970’s Discovery of the abundant life on ocean floors near the underwater volcanoes.

  2. Microbes  the oldest most primitive organisms, closer to common ancestor than any other organism. (genetic studies)

  3. Require extremely high pressure to survive.

  4. Independent of the sun energy. Use of rock and Earth’s inner heat to survive. (oxidation/reduction)

  5. After Earth formed 4.5 billion years very hostile environment for next 1.5 billion years  Asteroids hit the Earth, blasted atmosphere, oceans. In deep hydrothermal zones microorganisms might had survived.




  • Possibility of life existence in other planets in the solar system: Mars, Europa, the moon of Jupiter, evidence of frozen ocean (The Sciences, 2004).


Chemical Evolution


  • Scientists believe that the spontaneous formation of complex chemicals from simpler ones occurred prior to the appearance of living things.

  • Laboratory experiments proved that complex molecules, including amino acids and lipids, would spontaneously be synthesized in a mixture of hydrogen gas, water vapor, methane, and ammonia gas, if the mixture was supplied with an energy source simulating lightning discharges.

  • The concentration of organic materials in local places in the ocean produced a primordial soup.

  • Scientists hypothesize that the molecules in the primordial soup formed the first cells, but the exact mechanism is not known. The most promising idea results from our observation that polar characteristics of lipids causes them to spontaneously form small globules. Such globules would have enclosed small amounts of the soup, where further reactions could occur.

  • Because RNA acts both as a nucleic acid and as an enzyme, scientists hypothesize that it may have been the precursor of molecules like DNA that store great quantities of information very efficiently.

  • The first formation of a cell may have occurred in tide pools, or on rocks that were constantly splashed with the soup, creating highly concentrated mixtures that were exposed to the ultraviolet energy in sunlight (The Sciences,1998)


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