Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false




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midterm review


True/False

Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.


____ 1. Most groups encourage their members to conform to the group’s way of thinking and behaving.


____ 2. Sociology is one of the oldest sciences, having been around about 400 years.


____ 3. A family is a group, but all of the people attending a football game are not a group, because they are too diverse.


____ 4. Sociologists rarely challenge conventional social wisdom.


____ 5. The sociological perspective allows sociologists to focus on the common behaviors of a group of people, rather than their individual differences.


____ 6. When you try to understand your friend’s feelings by placing yourself in her situation, you are using verstehen.


____ 7. W.E.B. DuBois scientifically studied the social structure of African American communities.


____ 8. Symbolic interactionists say that we are able to communicate with one another because we have a set of symbols that have similar meanings to all of us.


____ 9. Sociologists conduct research to gain knowledge.


____ 10. When conducting research, sociologists must always consider the ethical implications of their research methods.


____ 11. A survey is useful when a sociologist wants to study a large number of people.


____ 12. One reason that closed-ended questions are used in surveys is that the results are relatively easy to quantify.


____ 13. Statistical methods are used to analyze qualitative data.


____ 14. Humans have more instincts than other animals because they are more intelligent.


____ 15. Cultural behavior must be learned.


____ 16. In most societies, the real culture is identical to the actual culture.


____ 17. Another name for a subculture is a counterculture.


____ 18. Each person can only belong to a single social category.


____ 19. Not marrying a close relative, such as a brother or sister, is a taboo in many cultures.


____ 20. Unlike other animals, humans are already socialized when they are born.


____ 21. Symbolic interactionism states that human nature is primarily a product of society.


____ 22. The looking-glass self may not be an accurate reflection of how others view us.


____ 23. Symbolic interactionism sees socialization as one long power struggle, with those people in power struggling to keep their power.


____ 24. A 12-year-old’s significant others include children who are in her peer group.


____ 25. Emile Durkheim stated that social solidarity is a result of a society’s division of labor.


____ 26. Being a professional ballplayer would be an example of an ascribed status.


____ 27. We live in a postindustrial society.


____ 28. The industrial revolution began in 1970s when computers first became commonplace.


____ 29. Role conflict can be reduced when we try to take a positive attitude when examining our situation.


____ 30. In industrial societies, machines have replaced the power previously supplied by people and animals.


____ 31. Informal groups are created because people’s needs are not being met by any formal group.


____ 32. Depending on the situation, a bureaucracy can be either a primary group or a secondary group.


____ 33. The members of an out-group are that group of people who are excluded from the in-group.


____ 34. One difference between a group and a social category is that the members of a group must interact with one another while those in a social category need not.


____ 35. The members of a social aggregate must all have similar social statuses.


____ 36. In order to dominate someone, you must have that person’s cooperation.


____ 37. Groupthink can lead to conformity having seriously negative results.


____ 38. Deviance is easy to identify.


____ 39. Statistics show that the criminal justice system treats African Americans and Latinos more harshly than whites.


____ 40. Younger children learn deviant behavior more quickly than adults.


____ 41. Teenagers who engage in primary deviance are frequently never caught by authorities.


____ 42. Cultural transmission theory says that some people are deviant because it is part of their nature.


____ 43. Societies and groups frequently use social sanctions to exert external social control.


Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.


____ 44. Several members of a little league team begin wearing their baseball caps backwards and soon the entire team is following this style. This is an example of

a.

social structure.

c.

group imagination.

b.

group conformity.

d.

Social Darwinism.



____ 45. Karl Marx believed that class conflict was inevitable because

a.

latent functions are more common than manifest functions.

b.

social interdependence always leads to social unrest.

c.

Social Darwinism states that a classless society is the most stable type of society.

d.

workers will eventually overthrow the capitalists just as slaves overthrew their owners.



____ 46. The changes caused by the Industrial Revolution, such as people moving from farms to cities, is an example of social

a.

conformity.

c.

dynamics.

b.

Darwinism.

d.

statics.



____ 47. Using the Internet for shopping is convenient and can save time. This is a ____ function of this type of shopping.

a.

latent

c.

static

b.

dynamic

d.

manifest



____ 48. Some people think that shopping over the Internet can lead to social isolation because people go to stores less often. This is a function of Internet shopping.

a.

latent

c.

static

b.

dynamic

d.

manifest



____ 49. The distribution of power is most important in which of the following theoretical perspectives?

a.

symbolic interactionism

c.

functionalism

b.

conflict perspective

d.

positivism



____ 50. The theory that society benefits when each individual finds his or her own social-class level without outside interference is called

a.

group conformity.

c.

class conflict.

b.

group imagination.

d.

Social Darwinism.



____ 51. When a baby waves “bye-bye”, he is using a

a.

function.

c.

verstehen.

b.

symbol.

d.

rationalization.



____ 52. Harriet Martineau is considered an early feminist theorist because she

a.

thought that conflict between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie was inevitable.

b.

wrote about the link between slavery and the oppression of women.

c.

campaigned for equal pay for women.

d.

believed women were free to find their own social-class level.



____ 53. Jane Addams

a.

was concerned about the exploitation of the lower class.

b.

believed everyone should find his or her social-class level without outside interference.

c.

was the first person to research the social structure of African American communities.

d.

is considered the founder of symbolic interactionism.



____ 54. Which of the following is NOT associated with mechanical solidarity?

a.

It existed in preindustrial times.

b.

Everyone had a highly specialized role.

c.

There was a widespread consensus of values.

d.

There was strong social pressure to conform.



____ 55. Research can be divided into two broad categories:

a.

surveys and questionnaires.

c.

populations and samples.

b.

quantitative and qualitative.

d.

case studies and interviews.



____ 56. Which of the following is NOT necessary when determining a causal relationship between two variables?

a.

The two variables must be correlated.

b.

All other possible factors must be considered.

c.

The research must be based on entire populations, not just representative samples.

d.

A change in the independent variable must occur before a change in the dependent variable can occur.



____ 57. Assume that a class has the following scores on a quiz:

18

20

13

18

19

17

16

15

18

20

15

14

16

What is the mode for these scores?

a.

220

c.

18

b.

16.9

d.

17



____ 58. Assume that a class has the following scores on a quiz:

18

20

13

18

19

17

16

15

18

20

15

14

16
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