Art XXIII nullification and impairment in dispute settlement(Art. 26; Jds 285-300) 10




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НазваниеArt XXIII nullification and impairment in dispute settlement(Art. 26; Jds 285-300) 10
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Table of Contents


Introduction; Theory; the Case for Trade ((JDS) 4-28; 31-41; JDS 41-56) 1

WTO History; Structure (JDS 217-22; 224-28; 232-33) 1

Structure/Basics of the GATT/WTO 1

WTO Governing Structure 1

I. World Trade Organization 1

Bretton Woods conference 2

OECD 2

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 2

7.WTO was created from the 1994 Uruguay Round 3

GATT dispute resolution pre-1995 4

Decision Making in GATT/WTO 4

Accession and Membership 4

Dispute Settlement Under the WTO (JDS 267-85; JDS 306-26; 340-48;) 4

WTO Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) 4

Dispute Settlement Under GATT 5

Dispute Settlement Understanding of the WTO 6

Critical Issues in Dispute Settlement 7

Implementation and Retaliation Procedures 8

Section 301 of U.S. Trade Act of 1974 9

U.S.—Sections 301-310 of the Trade Act of 1974 9

Art. XXIII nullification and impairment in dispute settlement(Art. 26; JDS 285-300) 10

Tariffs and Customs Rules (JDS 374-76; 382-83; 386-401, 403-404 (question5); JDS 404-422) 10

Renegotiation of Tariff Bindings 11

Customs Law 12

Quotas and Non-Tariff Barriers (JDS 423-31, 433-43;) 12

Exports Under GATT 13

Transparency 13

The Most Favored Nation Principle (GATT 1947, Art. I:1; JDS 467-71; 475-89; 491-92) 14

Like Products 15

Safeguards 16

Regional Trade Agreements (GATT 1947, Art. XXIV; JDS 497-515) 19

Consequences of Regionalism 19

Trade and Labor Standards 21

Linkages Between Int’l Trade Policy and Environment, Human Rights, Labor Standards and National Security 21

Human Rights and Labor 23

Labor Standards and International Trade Policy. 25

GSP-Worker Rights Review Summary: Indonesia: Examines the procedure that may lead to the withdrawal of GSP benefits if a developing country fails to afford worker rights. 26

Article XX; Trade and the Environment (GATT 1994, art. XX; JDS 591-600; 605-11; 614-25; 628-35; 637-46) 27

General exceptions, Art. XX 27

Free trade and the environment 29

Article XX defenses and exceptions 33

XX: Chapeau 35

Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement (SPS) 37

Consumer safety 39

National Treatment(GATT 1947, art. III; Art. XX JDS 537-39; 551-86) 42

National treatment, GATT Art. III 42

Intent to discriminate 43

Transparency, GATT various articles 44

Basic Rule Cases 45

Discriminatory Regulations: Art. III:4 47

Trade and Development: (JDS 1149-60; 1163-72;JDS 848-57; 880-81; 884-894) 48

Subsidies & Countervailing Duties 48

49

B. SCM Agreement Part I- Subsidies 51

Art. I:1 Subsidies defined- 51

Art. 2: Specific subsidies targeted; general ones alright 51

C. SCM Part V- Countervailing Measures 51

How to identify illegal export subsidy 52

Domestic subsidies 53

D. Traffic Light System & SCM 54


I. red light subsidies (SCM part II) 54


II. DARK amber/yellow light subsidies (SCM part III) 55

III. green light subsidies (SCM part IV) 55

General Points of importance: 56

Development 57

Developing Countries in the WTO: 58

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) 59

Services (JDS 940-42 (for background on the GATS); 972-89) 60

Trade and Intellectual Property: TRIPS and Public Health (JDS 1003-1007; 1036-39) 63

Compulsory Licensing and Pharmaceuticals 64

The Future of International Trade 65



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