Aim: Gradual publication of an encyclopaedia of all peace plans, in digest form, gathered




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PP5completeRTF

PEACE PLANS

A PAMPHLET SERIES PRICE: 1/-

APPEARANCE ON DEMAND

No. 5

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AIM:

Gradual publication of an ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ALL PEACE PLANS, in digest form, gathered

from all available sources.

DISCUSSION OF ALL PEACE PLANS   in search for the rightful and sensible ones.


TENDENCY:

RECOGNITION OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS, being the greatest degree of TOLERANCE AND IMPARTIALITY which is morally still justified. This implies ANTI-­TOTALITARIANISM

or condemnation of communist, nazi, and other dictatorships.

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Contributions are welcome. Reprint is free and desired.

Published, anted and distributed by: J. M. Zube. Wilshire Street, Berrima, N.S.W., Australia.

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66

INDEX

Plan No. Page Number


111 Need for and Aim of Land Reform ……………………………………. .. 1

112 Land Reform according to Silvio Gesell ………………………………… 3

113 Theodor Hertzka's Concept of Land Reform …………………………. .. 4

114 Franz Oppenheimer's Settlement Plan …………………………………… 8

115 Herbert Spencer's Proposal: Tenancy by the Highest Bidder ………….. 10

116 Henry Meulen: Land to the User …………………………………………. 11

117 Dr. Everingham's Comment on the ALP's Land Polcy …………………..13

118 The Russian Mir and Alexander Herzen ………………………………… 13

119 Experimental Freedom for all Tolerant Land Reformers ……………… 15

120 International Land Reform or: Abolition of National Land Tenure …. . 19

121 Individual Responsibility for Acts that Lead to War …………………… 25

122 Women of the World Unite! ………………………………………………. 37

123 World Parliament of Women and World Language …………………….. 38

124 Women's Peace Party and World Congress of Women …………………. 40

125 Local Experiments with Rule by Women ………………………………… 44

126 Parallel Parliaments and World Federations of Women ………………. 44

127 Think Peace? ……………………………………………………………….. 49

128 Moral Revulsion ……………………………………………………………. 50

129 Ladies and Gentlemen, Secede! …………………………………………….53

130 The Cosmopolitan Union ……………………………………………………55

131 Mondcivitan Republic (Commonwealth of World Citizens) …………….. 56

132 Referendum Decisions ……………………………………………………… 58

133 Charter of Economic Order ……………………………………………….. 63

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An alphabetical index of the contents of all peace plans published in this series will follow every 12th. issue.

(This was done only after No. 12 and in a special issue in PP 46. Sorry, but my time and energy are

limited, too! - J.Z., 9.11.01.)


For new subscribers there is still a limited number of issues No. 1 4 available.

(By 2001 there are only a limited number of PP 11, 16-18, 19B, 19 C & 20 available. Make me an offer. Or get them & some other early issues from the Internet, once they are placed there, alternatively, on a CD-ROM, when I finally get around to compile it. - J.Z., 9.11.01.)


The subscription proceeds (12/ ­ shillings for 12 issues) are far from sufficient to cover the costs.

Should I subsidize your love for peace?

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111.) NEED FOR AND AIM OF LAND REFORM


That this kind of ownership forms an unjust and harmful monopoly has been lucidly explained by so many thinkers that I do not have to repeat all their deductions for inquisitive readers. Personally I have been most impressed in this respect by the ideas of Theodor Hertzka, Herbert Spencer and Henry George.


Land is an essential means of production. It is available only in a limited quantity while the population is increasing. Therefore, the current owners have a more or less strong monopoly position. If they could and would maliciously abuse it and everybody still respected their monopoly claims, then they could make all the landless people slaves. But at present they are victims of other monopolies which largely offset their advantage, mainly the banking and trade monopolies.


Ownership of agricultural land inevitably excludes many people from using the earth directly.

The land hunger existing even in fully developed countries is more or less latent   being hidden by private and State ownership combined with unwillingness to sell or the high prices for land. Thus the number of transfers is rather limited.

If there were free access to land the latent large demand would show almost as suddenly as e.g. in the Oklahoma land rush in 1889.


The first occupier of land has no more right to ownership of land than later comers. Investments give only rights to the investments and their fruits.


The only secure basis for peace is justice. Thus the present private land tenure laws endanger peace.


On a higher level, the prevailing idea that certain large areas of the earth's surface can be the rightful and exclusive property of a nation, race, or state is obviously one of the major factors causing wars. Compare e.g. territorial disputes and the effect of trade and immigration barriers.


Not only those in favour of the status quo but some fanatical land reformers, too, those in favour of an enforced distribution of land without just compensation or in favour of enforced collectivization or nationalization, are a threat to world peace.

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The underdeveloped countries are agricultural countries and especially their unsolved land question is a factor furthering wars. They are either, vulnerable to or already victims to totalitarian ideologies (compare Vietnam, China, Egypt, and Cuba).

Communists gain adherents in underdeveloped countries by promising ignorant landless peasants land of their own, not mentioning that this distribution would only be a step towards power for the communists which they would later abuse to expropriate all farmers in order to establish a state-feudalist system which they like to call socialism. Any, even a partly successful land reform checks the growth of communism and contributes thereby to peace. Compare e.g. the land reforms in Formosa and the Philippines.


The easiest way to further a just land reform in the underdeveloped countries would be its practical demonstration by the developed countries. Their example would be copied.

The question is, which are the just and necessary changes in this sphere and how can they be achieved peacefully?


I understand land reform mainly as a reform of the exclusive ownership of land used or usable for agriculture.

A rightful land reform should give all individuals, who desire to invest some or all of their labour or savings in agriculture, an unrestricted access to all available agricultural land and assure all people the full ownership of their investments in or on land.

It must preserve free enterprise and individual initiative and the right to the products of one's labour.

In other words: It should satisfy the land hunger of the landless without depriving anybody of his rightful possessions and earnings.

Various systems have been proposed or realized: Nationalization, municipalization, collection of site rent heavy taxation, enforced distribution etc. All these reforms either destroy private enterprise and initiative or still leave private monopolies to a certain extent in existence   by excluding at least some people from the use of land.

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112.) LAND REFORM ACCORDING TO SILVIO GESELL


Gesell largely agreed with Henry George concerning the need for land reform and the means to be adopted (compare peace plan 85: Collection by governments of the rent of all sites, excluding improvements, in return for the right of exclusive occupancy with unlimited right of bequest.). But Gesell did not want to entrust the government with this money.

Bruno H. Schubert, a follower of Gesell, in his publication "THE ANSWER", 1/65, ( available from: Free Economy Association, Inc., 2618 E 54th St., Huntington Park, Calif., U.S.A.) stated Gesell's proposals thus:


"Articles of a peaceful coexistence in brief:

1.) Every nation that joins the League of Peaceful Coexistence must abolish private ownership of land. Land shall not be confiscated, but it shall be bought by the state with bonds.

2.) The land policy shall be the conservation of all natural resources for present and future generations. Land shall be leased in small parcels for private use and for necessary public utilization.

3.) Everybody born on this earth has the natural right to rent or lease land for his or her use, any place on earth, for a rent set by free bidding ...."


In another pamphlet, "Free Economy", published 1953 by the same association, Schubert demanded:

"The net proceeds of the leasings will be divided wholly and in equal shares among the mothers of the minor children of the country."   Why? In issue 4/1965 of "THE ANSWER", page 79, he wrote:

"The creators of rent on land are the mothers who produce the population. Men and women as workers receive the full proceeds of their labour under the Natural Economic Order, but women as mothers lose remunerative employment. With the birth of every child the demand for land is increased, and therefore, the rent. Gesell proposes that the rent on land be used for annuities for mothers. This payment, together with the increase in working income, makes women economically independent....."

____________________________________________________________________________________________

When goods do not cross frontiers, armies will. - Bastiat.

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4

113.) THEODOR HERTZKA'S CONCEPT OF LAND REFORM


Many reformers have clearly argued for the equal right of all to the use of the earth. Disagreements exist only concerning the methods to realize it. ­Most concrete proposals offer only partial solutions and are based on coercion and expropriation. As far as I know, Hertzka's proposal is the only literal application of the equal right to the use of the earth which would not infringe any human rights or grant additional power or money to any administrative body.


"Hertzka combines in a unique way the demand for an abolition of private landholding with a complete economic liberalism. He wants to keep the productive associations   which are to be the pillars of economic activities   completely open, permitting everybody to join any of them any time. Thereby work for wages as well as exploitation becomes impossible. Even the differences in rent due to fertility and position of agricultural land would vanish in Hertzka's system. Associations working an especially good soil would be joined by many and would therefore have to share their earnings among a greater number of cooperators than the less favoured associations." - Translation from the article "Bodenreform" in "Woerterbuch der Volkswirtschaft", edited by Prof. Elster, Fischer, Jena, 1898.


In general terms Hertzka's land reform ideas was implied in points 25 29 of the New Human Rights Draft published as peace plan No. 110 in issue No. 4. Hertzka wanted all exclusive possession of agricultural lands abolished, even temporary ownership by the highest bidder. Only thus would the right of all to the use of the Earth be realized. Every other system would at least temporarily exclude some, a few immediately and many, because of the increasing population, in the future. All other proposals would only minimize but never abolish the evil.

His reform would mean in practice that if any site of land would be claimed by one person only then he could use it alone for the time being. If later on another and finally several claimed it, then they would have to share the same land with the original user,

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not by subdividing it into smaller and finally uneconomic parcels but by cooperating in the cultivation of the total. The profits would have to be distributed among them according to the work and capital each has invested. If none of the participants would get more than the benefits due to his added labour and capital then the original user and later comers would not be wronged. All would profit from the more intense use of the land and a further division of labour.


If the optimum or limits in this respect were reached then nobody would join any more. H. foresaw that in some cases working time and income would thus be reduced, at least temporarily.


To obtain the influx of new labourers and capital desirable to "socialize" monopoly profits and to repel an excess of labour and   or capital, there should be full publicity and no secrecy whatever concerning the economic activities of these associations.


Thus a relatively small but almost continuous movement of capital and labour would prevent those exploiting a natural monopoly like land from earning much more or much less than the normal price they would obtain for their labour and capital on a free market.


To prevent chicanery against new members and temporary monopoly pricing, these enterprises should be "open" in still another way: Everybody interested should be free to join in and to have a vote in their general meetings.

This could not be harmful itself or seriously abused for the exploitation of the working members because, if an injustice were obviously done to them, they could either call in another, still larger general meeting pleading their rights in it or they could give notice and join other associations where they could earn a normal reward for their efforts. Thus they could avoid their exploitation by a temporary majority.


Some productive associations would, due to the position and great fertility of the land they use, obtain an extra large profit even if they demanded only the market price for their products. To demand much less would lead to rationing with all its evils. In these cases the above described system on its own would lead to an extra large influx of labour and capital, redu­-
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