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|2 Conceptualizing Technology, Gender, and Development|
The conceptual approaches dominant within each technology-transfer research/action locus may be considered in terms of the broad frameworks of knowledge outlined in Chapter 1. It is also possible to identify frames of reference characteristic of the different disciplines involved, from medicine and nutrition to economics and geography to sociology and anthropology. In the case of some loci, the conceptual approaches are relatively impervious to new ideas; other loci, however, are receptive to both researchers and ideas from other loci.
The most marked phenomenon of the massive WID initiative of the past 11 years has been the constant movement of feminist scholars between academia and policy-oriented research and action. Scarcely had these scholars launched women’s studies as a field of research and completed their first fieldwork on gender relations, when they were summoned in the mid-1970s to provide critiques of existing development policies and generate guidelines for new directions in development. Kathleen Staudt, Achola Pala Okeyo, Nici Nelson, Deborah Fahy Bryceson, Edna Bay, Marjorie Mbilinyi, Claire Robertson, Shimwaayi Muntemba, and Carol MacCormack are just a few of the Africanist scholars who have made substantial contributions both to the theoretical understanding of gender relations in Africa and to development efforts. When governments, aid agencies, and nongovernmental organizations recognized the fundamental error in ignoring women, it was the energy and flexibility of such scholars that fueled the gender revolution within these institutions. For these feminist scholars, there was no time to build an ivory tower, and their work, both in academic journals and for development agencies, reveals their grounding in the concrete concerns and urgent priorities of African societies.
For their part, many agencies proved willing to support seminars, research, and projects inspired by the concerns of African and Western scholars. The conference on rural development and women in Africa held in Dakar, Senegal, in 1981 and cosponsored by ILO and AAWORD was an important example of such collaboration (ILO 1984). In 1986, IDRC sponsored a research methodology seminar focusing on gender issues for 31 African research officers; the host institution was the Eastern and Southern African Management Institute in Arusha, Tanzania. The support of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and CIDA for a special issue of Development: Seeds of Change (SID 1984) is an example of support for research and critique, as is the funding provided by CIDA and the Women’s Bureau of the Secretary of State, Government of Canada, to publish the special issue of Canadian Woman Studieslles Cahiers de la femme, on Forum ‘85, the conference of nongovernmental women’s organizations held in Nairobi, Kenya, in July 1985 (see CWS/cf 1986).
Commitment to WID is becoming institutionalized in agencies in several different ways. CDR in Denmark lists “women in the third world” as one of its three main research areas. IDRC has established a WID unit; this unit serves as a resource group for IDRC, sharing information and advising on issues related to the integration of women in development, as well as carrying out its own projects. CIDA has developed a WID policy framework whereby all project proposals must include an analysis of their impact on women to be accepted (CIDA 1987:42–43). The Commonwealth Secretariat (1984) developed a briefing strategy for delegates to national and international development meetings so that they can “integrate women’s issues into international development dialogue.”
Both conceptually and practically, we cannot separate Africa from the rest of the world when considering gender, technology, and development Scholars not only have circulated between development organizations and academia but also have interacted widely around the world. The current, major method of presenting research findings is in books organized thematically and including case studies from each region. These books, and the conferences that often inspired them, have provided exciting cross-cultural comparisons and generated important general conclusions on the impact of development efforts upon women. They have also, through their documentation of the wide variety of sex-gender systems and the concomitant different articulations with the development process, highlighted the importance of cultural and historical specificity in approaches to development. Three major texts on gender, technology, and development written in the past 8 years attest to the value of this approach, in spite of the limitations inherent in their use of a liberal feminist framework: Dauber and Cain (1981), D’Onofrio-Flores and Pfafflin (1982), and Ahmed (1985).
The continuing invisibility of gender
Despite the outpouring of information and analysis on gender and development over the past 10 years and the formal commitment to WID initiatives, sizable portions of mainstream academia and the research and action loci remain impervious to the challenge to their unexamined assumptions. This intransigence is all the more striking in the light of the cross-fertilization of ideas and flexibility of approach previously discussed. The phenomenon can only be explained by the continued adherence of many scholars and practitioners to a conservative framework of thought regarding women and gender issues. As stated in Chapter 1, such a framework is based on the notion that gender inequality and a sexual division of labour are natural rather than socially constructed. Ingrained in this thinking is a dichotomy between a ‘public’ male sphere and a ‘private’ female sphere. Hence, the question of revising the concept of the ‘public’ realm of politics and economy in the light of historically created gender relations does not arise. That the public/private dichotomy is based on specific Western economic and social practices is an invisible question within this framework.
Compartmentalization of “the women problem” is the chief means by which gender issues are excluded from socioeconomic study and planning. A telling example of this practice is a new book that is being used as a reference source by World Bank planners: Strategies for African Development (Berg and Whitaker 1986). This book includes a good chapter on women in development (Guyer 1986) that charts many of the problems of the subject, including a critique of agency programs in donor countries and a perceptive analysis of the reasons for the invisibility of women. However, this 603-page book indexes the topic “women” in only one other chapter, that on education, where inequalities for women in education are briefly mentioned and decried. Nowhere else is gender taken into account: indeed, the chapter on technology, entitled “Manpower, technology, and employment in Africa” (King 1986) is notable for its neglect of the issues so dramatically documented in a host of studies over the past 10 years. Instead, technology is treated as a problem in training for its use, construed in terms of gainful employment, whether in the formal or informal sector, in the factory, or on the farm (King 1986:431–442).
In this text, therefore, it is possible for Guyer (1986:406) correctly to identify “current indigenous practices and small scale intensive enterprises” as a potential development asset, while Hyden (1986:55–63) argues exactly the opposite: he derogates the “economy of affection,” which he sees as characterizing African societies.
The economy of affection denotes networks of support, communications, and interaction among structurally defined groups connected by blood, kin community or other affinities such as religion.… The economy of affection is the articulation of principles associated with “peasant” or “household” economics.…
Hyden argues that these networks and principles are detrimental to development, and suggests ways in which the “uncaptured peasantry” may be captured by the internationally integrated national economy.
The World Bank has contributed to the ghettoization of the gender issue. Although the organization has identified the problem (IBRD 1979), its major policy documents on Africa perpetuate the invisibility of women in major economic policy initiatives. The practice is deeply problematic given that these initiatives help shape the financial programs and development plans of African governments. In 1981, the influential Accelerated Development in sub-Saharan Africa: an Agenda for Action (the so-called Berg Report; IBRD 1981) included no text or tables referring to women or gender. In the chapter entitled “Basic constraints,” underdeveloped human resources are identified as one of the “internal ‘structural’ problems” that are “obstacles to growth” (IBRD 1981:9–16); nowhere does it mention women as one of these “underdeveloped human resources.” Even in discussing agriculture, health, and population, the document neglects the necessity of including women in planning for development. The chapter on human resources (pp. 81–90) is deficient in the same respect Technology is not treated as a distinct problem, rather, it is an aspect of labour problems.
A recent policy document on Africa, Financing Adjustment with Growth in sub-Saharan Africa, 1986–90 (IBRD 1986), takes the same approach. Focusing primarily on the structural reforms perceived as a necessary response to economic crisis and required by the IMF, the document criticizes African policies that “discriminate against agriculture and favor the urban sector” (IBRD 1986:18). However, the policies regarding agricultural development favoured by this document are those geared toward a further integration of the agricultural sector into the world economy, with no consideration of the well-documented problems for women — and, indeed, for families and the environment itself — of intensified cash crop production. Further, the recommended incentives for farmers (IBRD 1986:20) take no account of their differential impact upon men and women and, hence, given women’s importance in agriculture, the likelihood of their failure. Once again, the social dimensions of technology transfer are not treated as a discrete issue for consideration. The report simply states “Most observers agree that the technology shelf in sub-Saharan Africa is nearly bare. Most farmers make little use of fertilizer, and hand-hoe cultivation is still the most common.”1 From such an analysis, the report is content merely to propose the development of research capacity as the solution (IBRD 1986:32).
In contradiction to its approval of the fact that “the thrust of structural adjustment in Africa has been toward a greater role for prices, markets, and the private sector in promoting development,” the World Bank argues for stronger involvement of governments, which should make a concerted attack on the “constraints on growth.” In particular,
On issues such as family planning, resource conservation, and agricultural research, governments must commit themselves to change and promote a social consensus in its favor. Consensus must spring from a clearer understanding of the link between these long-term factors and prospects for a better quality of life.
This report raises grave questions about the propriety of a multilateral agency issuing directives bearing upon internal political processes, particularly in that the World Bank is dictating the policies for which governments are required to mobilize support. This is a fundamentally undemocratic action. Apart from this impropriety, there are other serious limitations to the document. Nowhere does the report address the importance of including women as participants in such a consensus. Moreover, there is a serious question as to whether a consensus can be generated around the change that the World Bank envisages as self-evidently desirable, when policies geared toward such change have, at best, neglected and, at worst, seriously disadvantaged women. Finally, the World Bank assumes that development initiatives flowing from the top down can be successful: the role of ordinary people is simply to accede passively to a consensus on government policy. Most of the research on women and development, including that on technology transfer, has shown the poverty of this approach. An evaluation of the ability of the measures to achieve their stated, long-term, macroeconomic goals, a highly controversial issue, is beyond the scope of this study. Kutzner (1986b) provides a useful review of structural adjustment policy and summarizes the critical responses of NGOs and UNICEF to the policy (also see Mosley 1986). Elson (1987) made an important contribution to the feminist critique of structural adjustment policy at a conference convened by the Institute for African Alternatives (IFAA).
The World Bank approach has set a bad example for African governments: during the United Nations Decade for Women, women and gender issues continued
1In contrast to this opinion, numerous studies have shown that the hand hoe, labour-intensive as it is, is the most appropriate piece of technology for retaining women’s control over food production. Once farming is mechanized, women lose control of the crop and subsistence crops give way to cash crops. See the synopsis of Muntemba’s Zambian study in Chapter 4 for a sobering account of the consequences for national production of introducing mechanization to the family farm. There is no straightforward relationship between agricultural productivity and labour-saving technology in Africa. Families eat if their female members wield the hoe: it would not be extreme to suggest that, to the extent that Africa can still feed itself, it is the hand hoe that feeds it. The neglected connection between food self-sufficiency in Africa and women’s agricultural production is also explored in Chapter 3. to be prominent in their absence from concrete African governmental planning. For example, Kenya’s Development Plan, 1984–1988 (Kenya 1983), while it discussed briefly the employment problems of women (p. 9) and called for “special policy measures” to tackle them, suggested no concrete guidelines for such a policy. Furthermore, the interrelation of gender issues with development problems in health, nutrition, and agriculture was not even raised.
At the international level in Africa, radical critique of development theory and policy has filtered into collective responses to agency and donor programs. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) has taken issue with the vision of development promulgated by the World Bank and IMF. In its Lagos Plan of Action for the Economic Development of Africa, 1980–2000 (OAU 1980), OAU emphasized the negative effects of world economic trends upon African development and urged that African countries collectively generate their own strategy for development; in vigorously implementing this strategy, they should “cultivate the virtue of self-reliance.” In this worthwhile vision of self-reliant development, however, women, once again, remained largely invisible. AAWORD (1985:2) commented on the OAU plan:
It is worthy to note that a chapter was dedicated to women and in it the role our Association among other women’s groups can play in the creation of equal opportunities for women has been recognized. In the debate that followed the dissemination of this document, we have both appreciated the attention given to the issue and criticized its compartmentalization as a chapter. In other words, we argue that women’s absence as well as presence in major concerns such as agricultural development, industrialization and the development and transfer of technology, educational and health programmes should be included within the major analysis and not as an aside. Presently we continue to argue that emerging development theories and strategies are faulty and incomplete to the extent that they fail to include gender as one of the major analytical categories.
OAU did sponsor some WID activities in the years following the Lagos Plan of Action and took a formal stance of encouraging the development of women-focused national and governmental organizations in Africa (see OAU 1982). The efforts were half-hearted, however.
The “stubborn obliviousness,” as Henn (1983:1043) calls it, to the overwhelming evidence on the importance of gender relations and the vital economic role of women in African society is not the only reason for the invisibility of women in the realm of technology and development. By the nature of the specialized fields that bear on development policy, there is a structural separation between research efforts in different areas involving technology transfer. The otherwise excellent research that has been done by IDRC exemplifies this problem. In the area of agricultural research, for example, an “inventory methodology” is used, whereby research is classified according to each commodity. The IDRC workshop on resource allocation to agricultural research held in Singapore in 1981 (Daniels and Nestel 1981), which was structured by this methodology, affirmed the utility of the methodology, given its widespread use and its value as a comparative tool. Nevertheless, the workshop admitted the limitations of the “inventory” approach:
All of the country studies classified research activities on a commodity basis. There was considerable support for such a classification on the grounds that it was easy to prepare and of immediate use. It was recognized, however, that a commodity classification may not be useful in readily identifying research activities directed to planning and development objectives that have a strong socioeconomic element, such as farming systems, integrated rural development, and transmigration programs.
(Daniels and Nestel 1981:12)
In other words, commodity-by-commodity study makes it difficult to address the larger question of technology transfer as it relates to gender issues, among other “socioeconomic elements.”
Other research efforts have made a more sustained effort to bring together discussion of technical and social issues. The training workshop on rural water supply in developing countries held in Malawi in 1980 (IDRC 1981), for example, presented a section on technology that included technical findings and research on training; social factors were addressed in a section on operation and maintenance. Bringing together studies of the social and technical aspects of a development problem, however, does not guarantee that the studies will influence each other. Even in the case of this workshop, which comes close to the heart of the development problem for women (the procurement of water), most of the technical and training studies drew little from social analysis. The workshop proceedings, therefore, reveal a dramatic anomaly: while one paper highlighted the importance of including women in water development projects in Kenya (Getechah 1981), another paper on training for water development in Kenya (Shikwe 1981) neither mentioned the primary responsibility of women for water procurement nor made any suggestions for the training of women in this field. A conclusion drawn by Sue Ellen Charlton from her experience in a USAID workshop on women in international development is probably relevant in the case of the water supply workshop as well as in most seminars on technology and development She found that “although there was ignorance of technical areas among most social science students…many students from professional fields such as nutrition and agronomy were ignorant of the basic political, social, and cultural realities of development” (Charlton 1984:xiii).
I have dealt at length with the boundary problem, whereby the analysis of gender is either ghettoized or not integrated into technical subjects, because this is probably the most serious problem facing both further fruitful research on development and the generation of adequate development policy. I address this point further in Part III (Chapters 5–7).