Materials of Art and Archaeology




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Materials of Art and Archaeology

Bibliography

Part IX. Stone


Norbert S. Baer


Conservation Center

Institute of Fine Arts

New York University


September 1999


Introduction


Part I. Inorganic Materials (2003).


Part II. Metals (1999).


Part III. Organic Materials (2003).


Part IV. Instrumental Methods (2003).


Part V. Environment (1999).


Part VI. Museology (2003).


Part VII. Dating and Provenance (2003).


Part VIII Library and Archive Materials (2003).


Part IX Stone (1999).


Part X. Dyes and Pigments (2003).

Cumulative Index


May be obtained from:

Conservation Center

Institute of Fine Arts

New York University

14 East 78th Street

New York, New York 10021


September 1999


PART IX: STONE


CONTENTS




Cemeteries 1


Lavas and Volcanic Tuffs 1


Stone: Biodeterioration 2


Stone: Case Studies 4


Stone: Case Studies: Acropolis 6


Stone: Case Studies: Kölner Dom 6


Stone: Characterization 7


Stone: Conference Proceedings 7


Stone: Conservation: Cleaning 7


Stone: Conservation: Cleaning: Lasers 9


Stone: Conservation: Consolidation 10


Stone: Conservation: Desalination 13


Stone: Conservation: Documentation 13


Stone: Conservation: Economic Analysis 14


Stone: Conservation: Ethics and Policy 14


Stone: Conservation: General References 14


Stone: Conservation: Water Repellants 16


Stone: Deterioration Mechanisms 17


Stone: Deterioration Mechanisms: Air Pollution Damage 22


Stone: Sculpture Conservation 25


Stone: Structures: NDT 25


Stone: Testing and Evaluation 27


Stone: Testing and Evaluation: Standards 28





Cemeteries


N.S. Baer and S.M. Berman, "Marble Tombstones in National Cemeteries as Indicators of Stone Damage: General Methods," Preprint of paper presented at the 76th Annual Meeting of the APCA, Atlanta, Georgia (l983). 23pp.


D. Dragovich"Weathering Rates on Marble Tombstones at a Sydney Cemetery," ICCM Bulletin 7 No.l 27-31 (l98l).


R.P. Emlen, “Protective Custody: The Museum’s Responsibility to Gravestones,” Markers 1 (1979/1980), AGS Publications, Worcester, Massachusetts (1980). pp. 143-148.


A. Geikie, "Rock Weathering as Illustrated in Edinburgh Church Yards," In Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh l879/80, pp.518 532.


G.F. Matthias, "Weathering Rates of Portland Arkose Tombstones," Journal of Geological Education 15 140-144 (1967).


L.R. Mayer, “The Care of Old Cemeteries and Gravestones,” Markers 1 119-142 (1979/1980).

T.C. Meierding, "Marble Tombstone Weathering Rates: A Transect of the United States," Physical Geography 2 No.1 1-18 (1981).


P.H. Rahn, "The Weathering of Tombstones and Its Relationship to the Topography of New England," Journal of Geological Education 19 No.3 112-118 (1971).


J. Riederer, "Die Erhaltung historischer Grabdenkmäler," Steinmetz und Bildhauer, No.5 272-275 (1973).


J. Sramek, "Determination of the Source of Surface Deterioration on Tombstones at the Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague," Studies in Conservation 25 No.2 47-52 (1980).


Lavas and Volcanic Tuffs


N. Beloyannis, “Deterioration of Volcanic Lavas by the Action of Water and Salts,” In Conservation of Architectural Surfaces: Stones and Wall Coverings, G. Biscontin and L. Graziano, Editors, Il Cardo, Venice (1993). pp. 161-167.


G. Caneva, G. De Marco, A. Dinelli and M. Vinci, “The Wall Vegetation of the Roman Archeological Areas,” Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage 1 217-226 (1992).


U. Carputi and G. De Martino, “L’Adhérence dans les Conservations des Maçonneries en Tuf,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials, Proceedings of the International RILEM/UNESCO Congress, M-J. Theil, Editor, E & FN Spon, London (1993). pp. 445-451.


A.E. Charola, Death of a Moai, Easter Island Foundation Occasional Papers 4, Bearsville Press; Cloud Mountain Press, Los Ocos, CA (1996). 50pp.


A.E. Charola, Easter Island: The Heritage and Its Conservation, World Monuments Fund, New York (1995). 68pp.


A.E. Charola, P. Bahamondez, M.E. S.M. Van der Maele, C.A. Weber, A.E. Cabeza and R.J. Koestler, “The Human Factor in the Preservation of the Monumental Heritage of Easter Island,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials, Proceedings of the International RILEM/ UNESCO Congress, M-J. Theil, Editor, E & FN Spon, London (1993). pp. 3-10.


A.E. Charola, R.J. Koestler and G. Lombardi, Editors, Lavas and Volcanic Tuffs, Proceedings of the International Meeting, Easter Island 1990, ICCROM, Rome (1994). xii + 355pp.


L. Cinquegrana, S. Andria and C. Piccioli, “Some Cases of Alteration and Degradation of Yellow and Grey Tuff-Stone in the Campania Area,” In Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Moller, Berlin (1996). pp. 201-209.


A. Colantuono, S. Dal Vecchio, O. Marino and G. Mascolo, “Accurate Measurement of Expansion and Shrinkage in Porous Stones Caused by Moisture Absorbtion,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials, Proceedings of the International RILEM/UNESCO Congress, M-J. Theil, Editor, E & FN Spon, London (1993). pp. 204-211.


M. De’ Genaro, C. Colella, A. Langella and P. Cappelletti, “Decay of Campanian Ignimbrite Stoneworks in Some Monuments of the Caserta Area,” Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage 4, No. 2 75-86 (1995).


M. De’ Genaro, M.D. Fuscaldo and C. Colella, “Weathering Mechanisms of Monumental Tuff-Stone Masonries in Downtown Naples,” Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage 2 53-62 (1993).


S. Laue, C. Bläuer Böhm and D. Jeannette, “Saltweathering and Porosity – Examples from the Crypt of St. Maria im Kapitol, Cologne,” In Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Moller, Berlin (1996). pp. 513-522.


L. Lazzarini, G. Lombardi, F. Marconi and C. Meucci, "New Data on the Characterization and Conservation of the Easter Island Pyroclastics Used for the Maois,” In Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Moller, Berlin (1996). pp. 1147-1157.


T. Nishiura, “A New Method for the Conservation of Rock Reliefs,” In Engineers, Society and the Environment, Proceedinngs of the Technical Congress, Section II – Conservation of Historical Monumnets. Their Role in Modern Society, Praha (1989). pp. 163-179.


P. Roselli, “Restoration of Rock-Hewn Churches of Goreme Valley (Cappadocia, Turkey) and Environmental Protection,” In The Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, V. Fassina, H. Ott and F. Zezza, Editors, Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia, Venice (1994). pp. 485-492.


P. Schubert, B. Fitzner, O. Schwab and J. Zallmanzig, Mauerwerk aus Tuffstein, Landesamt für Bauwessen und Angewandt Bauschadenforschung (LLB), Aachen (1992).


M.M. Segarra Lagunes, “La Conservation de la Pierre dite ‘Tezontle’ au Mexique,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials, Proceedings of the International RILEM/UNESCO Congress, M-J. Theil, Editor, E & FN Spon, London (1993). pp. 411-416.


D. Sikiotis, N. Beloyannis and Ph. Kirkitsos, “Study of the Deterioration of Volcanic Lavas in the Islands of Milos and Lesbos. Application of Ion Chromatography,” In Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Labroratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisbon (1992). pp. 801-810.


T. Topal and V. Doyuran, "The Physico-chemical Properties of the Weathered Cappadocian Tuff and Their Significance on Conservation Studies,” In Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Moller, Berlin (1996). pp. 223-231.


E. Von Plehwe-Leisen, H.D. Castello-Branco, E. Wendler, D.D. Klemm and R. Snethlage, “The Prophets of Aeijadinho in Concconhas, Brazil. Consideration on a Conservation Program for Soapstone,” In Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Labroratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisbon (1992). pp. 1415-1424.


E. Wendler, A.E. Charola and B. Fitzner, “Easter Island Tuff: Laboratory Studies for Its Consolidation,” In Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Moller, Berlin (1996). pp.1159-1170.


E. Wendler, D.D. Klemm and R. Snethlage, “Consolidation and Hydrophobic Treatment of Natural Stone,” In Durability of Building Materials and Components, J.M. Naker, P.J. Dixon, A.J. Majumdar and H. Davies, Editors, London, Chapman and Hall (1991). pp. 203-212.


C. Zantedeschi and A. Zanco, “Distinctive Characteristics of Euganean Trachytes for Their Identification in Ancient Monuments,” Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage 2 1-10 (1993).


B. Zatler-Zupancic, A. Mladenovic, A. Ramovs, J. Vesel and C. Augustin, “Andesite Tuff in Slovenia – Part of the Cultural Heritage of Gorenjska,” In Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Lisbon (1992). pp. 99-108.


Stone: Biodeterioration


G. Agarossi, R. Ferrari and M. Monte, "Biocides in the Control of Biodeterioration,” In La Conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium, Bari Grafo, Brescia, Italy (1989). pp. 511-517.


L. Aires-Barros, L. Alves and L. Esteves, “Saxicolous Lichenic Vegetation in Monuments as Bioindicators of Pollution,” Environmental Pollution 1 ICEP 1 162-169 (1991).


L. Aires-Barros, J. Basto, R.C. Graca, L. Alves, L. Esteves, A. Carmo and I. Ribero, “The Decay of Limestone Caused by Saxicolous Lichens: the Case of the Monastery of Jeronimos (Lisbon, Portugal),” In Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Bari, 1989, The Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, F. Zezza, Editor, Grafo, Brecia, Italy (1989). pp. 225-229.


V. Alunno Rossetti and M. Laurenzi Tabasso, “Distribuzione degli Ossalati di Calcio CaC2O4 · H2O e CaC2O4 · 2.25 H2O nelle Alterazioni delle Pietre di Monumenti Espositi all’Apperto,” In Problemi di Conservazione, G. Urbani, Editor, Editrice Compositori, Bologna (1973). pp. 375-386.


R.M. Atlas, A.N. Chowdhury and K.L. Gauri, “Microbial Calcification of Gypsum-Rock and Sulfated Marble,” Studies in Conservation 33 149-153 (1988).


C. Bassier, "Le Rayonnement Ultra-Violet dans la Désinfection des Matériaux de Nature ou D'Origine Minérale: Exemples d'Application,” In Patrimoine Culturel et Altérations Biologiques: Actes des Journées S'Etudes de la SFIIC, Poitiers, 17 dt18 Novembre 1988 Section Française de l'Institut International de Conservation, Champs-sur-Marne (1989). pp. 201-206.


G. Caneva, M.P. Nugari and O. Salvadori, Biology in the Conservation of Works of Art, ICCROM, Rome (1991). x + 182pp.


G. Caneva and O. Salvadori, "Biodeterioration of Stone,” In The Deterioration and Conservation of Stone: Notes from The International Venetian Courses on Stone Restoration L. Lazzarini and R. Pieper, Editors, Unesco, Paris (1989). pp. 182-243.


C. Cipriani, “Sulla Presenza di Whewellite fra le Croste di Alterazione di Monumenti Romani,” Bolletino del Servizio Geologico D’Italia 79 555-556 (1957).


A. Danin, "Biogenic Weathering of Marble Monuments in Didim, Turkey and in Trajan Column, Rome," Water Science and Technology 7 557-563 (1993).


M. Del Monte, “I Monumenti in Pietra e I Licheni. Rass,” Beni Culturali V No. 3 12-17 (1989).


M. Del Monte, “Trajan’s Column: Lichens Don’t Live Here Anymore,” Endeavour 15 No. 2 86-93 (1991).


M. Del Monte and A. Ferrari, “Patine da Biointerazione alla Luce delle Superfici dei Marmoree,” In Le Pellicole ad Ossaliti: Origne e Significato nella Conservazione della Opere d’Arte, Centro del C.N.R. “Gino Bozza,” Corporate Author and Publisher, Milan (1989). pp. 171-182.


M. Del Monte and C. Sabbioni, "Weddellite on Limestone in the Venice Environment," Environmental Science and Technology l7 No. 9 518-522 (l983).


M. Del Monte and C. Sabbioni, “A Study of the Patina called Scialbatura on Imperial Roman Marbles,” Studies in Conservation 32 114-121 (1987).


M. Del Monte, C. Sabbioni and G. Zappia, “The Origin of Calcium Oxalates on Historical Buildings, Mounments and Natural Outcrops,” Science of the Total Environment 67 17-39 (1987).


E. Diakumaku, P. Ausset, K. Sterflinger, U. Wollenzien, W.E. Krumbein and R.A. Lefèvre, “On the Problem of Rock Blackening by Fly-Ash, Fungal and Other Biogenic Particles, and Their Detection in Mediterranean Marbles and Monuments,” In La Conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo V. Fassina, H. Ott and F. Zezza, Editors, Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia, Venice (1994). pp. 305-310.


W.H. Dukes, “Conservation of Stone: Causes of Decay,” Archaeological Journal 156 429-432 (1972).


K. Elmer, E. Rose, B. Fitaner, W.E. Krumbein and T. Warscheid, "Sterilization of Cultural Objects by Ethylene Oxide - Application for Conservation Practice by Laboratory-Based or Mobile Treatments,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials E & F N Spon, London (1993). pp. 581-588.


J. E. Fearn, The Effects of Herbicides on Masonry, NSBIR 78-1449 (1978). 22pp.


M. Franzini, C. Gratziu and E. Wicks, “Patine as Ossalato di Calcio sui Monumenti Marmorei,” Società Italiana Mineralogia e Petrografia 39 59-70 (1984).


J. Garcia-Rowe, A. Aparicio-Martinez and C. Saiz-Jimenez, “Weeds Settling in Spanish cathedrals (Salamanca, Seville and Toledo),” In Science, Technoloy and European Cultural Heritage, N.S. Baer, C. Sabioni and A.I. Sors, Editors, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (1991). pp. 497-500.


A.A. Gorbushina, W.E. Krumbein, L. Panina, S. Soukharjevski and U. Wollenzien, “On the Role of Black Fungi in Color Change Biodeterioration of Antique Marbles,” Geomicrobiology Journal, Special Issue ISEB XI, Monograph (1994). 24pp.


C. Gratziu, “Prima Dati sulle Caratteristiche Petrografiche e Stratigrafiche delle Patine ad Ossalato di Calcio sui Monumenti Marmorei Romani,” In Manutenzione e Conservazione del Costruito fra Tradizione e Innovazione, G. Biscontin, Editor, Libreria Progetto Editore, Padova (1986). pp. 751-763.


P.S. Griffin, N. Indictor and R.J. Koestler, “The Biodeter-ioration of Stone: A Review of Deterioration Mechanisms, Conservation Case Histories, and Treatment,” International Biodeterioration 28 187-207 (1991).


E.H. Hueck van der Plas, “The Microbiological Deterior-ation of Porous Building Materials,” International Biodeter-ioration Bulletin 4 11-28 (1968).


B. Jones, “Construction of Spar Calcite Crystals around Spores,” Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 62 No. 6 1054-1057 (1992).


B. Jones and C.F. Kahle, “Lichen and Algae: Agents of Biodiagenisis in Karst Breccia from Grand Cayman Island,” Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 33 No. 4 446-461 (1985).


D. Jones and M.J. Wilson, "Chemical Activity of Lichens on Mineral Surfaces: A Review,” International Biodeterioration 21 No. 2 99-104 (1985).


D.K. Kobluk and M.J. Risk, “Calcification of Exposed Filaments of Algae, Micrite Envelope Formation and Sediment Production,” Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 47 No. 2 517-528 (1977).


R.J. Koestler and E.D. Santoro, "Assessment of the Susceptibility to Biodeterioration of Selected Polymers and Resins," GCI Scientific Program Report, Monograph, Getty Conservation Institute, Marina del Rey (1988). viii + 96pp + 3 leaves.


R.J. Koestler, T. Warscheid and F. Nieto, “Biodeterioration: Risk Factors and Their Management,” In Saving Our Architectural Heritage: The Conservation of Historic Stone Structures N.S. Baer and R. Snethlage, Editors, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, UK (1997). pp. 25-36.


W.E. Krumbein, “Geomicrobiology and Geochemistry of the ‘Nari-Lime-Crust’ (Israel),” In Recent Developments in the Carbonate Sedimentology in Central Europe, G. Müller and G.M. Friedman, Editors, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg and New York (1968). pp. 138-147.


W.E. Krumbein, S.E. Diakumaku, K. Petersen, T. Warscheid and C. Urzì, "Interactions of Microbes with Consolidants and Biocides Used in the Conservation of Rocks and Mural Paintings,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials E & F N Spon, London (1993). pp. 589-596.


W.E. Krumbein and C. Urzì, "Biologically Induced Decay Phenomena of Antique Marbles: Some General Considerations,” In La Conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo D. Decrouez, J. Chamay and F. Zezza, Editors, Musée d'Histoire Naturelle et Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, Geneva (1992). pp. 219-235.


F.J. Lewis, E. May and A.F. Bravery, “Isolation and Enumeration of Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Bacteria from Decayed Stone,” In Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Volume 2, G. Felix, Editor, Presses Polytechniques Romanades, Lausanne (1985). pp. 633-641.


M. Matteini and A. Moles, “Le Patine di Ossalato sui Manufatti in Marmo,” In OPD Restauro, Restauro del Marmo/Opere e Problemi, E. Biliotti, Editor, Opus Libri, Firenze (1986). pp. 65-73.


E. May and F.J. Lewis, "Strategies and Techniques for the Study of Bacterial Populations on Decaying Stonework,” In Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Torun (1988). pp. 59-70.


E. May, F.J. Lewis, S. Pereira, S. Tayler, M.R.D. Seaward and D. Allsop, “Microbial Deterioration of Building Stone – A Review,” Biodeterioration Abstracts 7 109-123 (1993).


G. Orial and A. Brunet, "Elne: The Old Cathedral Cloister: The Capitals up Against a Bacterial Attack,” In La Conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo Muséum d'Histoire Narurelle et Musée d'art et d'histoire, Geneva (1992). pp. 237-245.


J.J. Ortega-Calvo, X. Ariño and C. Saiz-Jimenez, "Ecological Factors Causing Differential Algal Colonization of Building Materials,” In Proceedings of the EC Workshop, Research on the Conservation of Brick Masonry Monuments Leuven, 1994 In Press.


S.G. Paine, F.V. Lingood, F. Scimmer and T.C. Thrupp, “The Relationship of Microorganisms to the Decay of Stone,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 222 97-127 (1933).


Y.P. Petushkova and A.F. Grishkova, "Bacterial Degradation of Limestone Treated with Polymers,” In ICOM Committee for Conservation: 9th Triennial Meeting, Dresden, 1990 ICOM Committee for Conservation, Los Angeles (1990). pp. 347-349.


C. Sabbioni and G. Zappia, “Oxalate Patinas on Ancient Monuments: The Biological Hypothesis,” Aerobiology 7 1 (1991).


C. Saiz-Jimenez, “Characterization of Organic Compounds in Weathered Stones,” In Science, Technology and European Cultural Heritage, N.S. Baer, C. Sabioni and A.I. Sors, Editors, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (1991). pp. 523-526.


C. Saiz-Jimenez, G. Garcia-Rowe, M. Garcia del Cura, J.J. Ortaga-Calvo, E. Roekens and R. Van Grieken, “Endolithic Cyanobacteria in Massdtricht Limestone,” Science of the Total Environment 94 209-220 (1990).


L. Schnabel, “The Treatment of Biological Growths on Stone: A Conservator’s Viewpoint,” International Biodterioration 28 125-131 (1991).


C. Sorlini, D. Falappi and P. Sardi, "Effects of Mould Growth on Serena Stone Samples Untreated and Treated with Resin,” In Science, Technology and European Cultural Heritage, N.S. Baer, C. Sabioni and A.I. Sors, Editors, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (1991). pp. 632-635.


A.B. Strzelczyk, "Stone," Microbial Biodeterioration Volume 6 of Economic Microbiology Academic Press, London (1981). pp. 61-80.


J.K. Syers, A.C. Birnie and B.D. Mitchell, “The Calcium Oxalate Content of Some Lichens Growing on Limestone,” Lichenologist 3 409-414 (1967).


S. Tayler and E. May, “The Seasonality of Heterotrophic Bacteria on Sandstone from Ancient Monuments,” International Biodeterioration 28 49-64 (1991).


S. Tayler and E. May, “A Comparison of Methods for the Measurement of Microbial Activity on Stone,” Studies in Conservation 40 No. 3 163-170 (1995).


E.P. Verrechia, J.-L Dumont and K.E. Verrechia, “Role of Calcium Oxalate Biomineralization by Fungi in the Formation of Calcretes: A Case Study from Nazareth, Israel,” Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 63 No. 5 100-1006 (1993).


T. Warscheid, K. Peterson and W.E. Krumbein, “A Rapid Method to Demonstrate and Evaluate Microbial Activity on Decaying Sandstone,” Studies in Conservation 35 No. 3 137-147 (1990).


A. Watchman, “Age and Composition of Oxalate-rich Crust in the Northern Territory, Australia,” Studies in Conserva-tion 36 No. 1 24-32 (1990).


Stone: Case Studies


O.P. Agrawal, T. Singh and K.K. Jain, “Study and Conservation of Spotted Red Sandstone of Mathura,” In Case Studies in the Conservation of Stone and Wall Paintings, IIC, London (1986). pp. 165-169.


L. Aires-Barros, “Salt Occurences in the Archaeological Site of Eleusis, Cathedral of Bari, Church of Santa Marija Ta’Cwerra (Malta) and Cathedral of Cadiz,” In Marine Spray and Polluted Atmosphere as Factors of Damage to Monuments in the Mediterranean Coastal Environment (Fourth Report), EU R&D Programme in the Field of Environment (1994). Contract No. EV5V-CT92-0102. pp. 16-20.


A. Alessandri and M. Pennini Alessandri, "Il Restauro Delle Colonne del'Adrianeo (Rome)," Bollettino d'Arte 71 191-196 (1986).


G. Allesandrini, R. Bugini, R. Negroti and R. Peruzzi, “La Façade de L’Eglise de la Chantreuse Près de Pavie (Italie): Études sur les Anciens Traitments Superficiels,” In Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Volume 2, G. Felix, Editor, Presses Polytechniques Romanades, Lausanne (1985). pp. 853-862.


G. Alessandrini, G. Dassu and R. Bugini, "The Technical Examination and Conservation of the Portal of St. Aquilino's Chapel in the Basilica of St. Lorenzo, Milan," Studies in Conservation 29 No. 4 161-171 (1981).


V. Antonelli, "Il Restauro della Porta della Carta in Venezia,” In Deterioramento e Conservazione della Pietra: Atti del 3 Congresso Internazionale Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy (1979). pp. 629-644.


M.A. Bello, L. Martin and A.J. Martin, “Scanning Electron Microscopy to Establish the Marble Alteration Mechanism in the Alhambra of Granada (Spain),” Scanning Microscopy 5 No. 3 645-652 (1991).


M.A. Bello, L. Martin and A.J. Martin, “Decay and Treatment and Macael White Marble,” Studies in Conservation 37 No. 3 193-200 (1992).


A. Bruno, "Protecting and Preserving the Column of Marcus Aurelius," Museum 39 No.1 3-7 (1987).


C. Bowler and P. Brimblecombe, "Long Term Stone Decay at York Minster," ECHNR 5 No.4 47-57 (1991).


S.G. Burgess and R.J. Schaffer, "Cleopatra's Needle," Chemistry and Industry 1026-1029 (1952).


R.J. Cheng and R. Castillo, "Investigations of Marble Deterioration of City Hall of Schenectady, New York," Atmospheric Sciences Research Center Technical Report No. 857, SUNY Albany (l982). 4lpp.


A.N. Chowdhury, A.R. Punuru and K.L. Gauri, “Weathering of the Limestone Beds at the Great Sphinx,” Environmental Geology and Water Sciences (1989).


M. Del Monte and C. Sabbioni, “Chemical and Biological Weathering of an Historical Building: Reggio Emilia Cathedral,” Science of the Total Environment 50 165-182 (1986).


D.A. Dolske, W.T. Petuskey and D.A. Richardson, “Impacts of Microclimate and Air Quality on Sandstone Masonry of Anasazi Dwelling Ruins at Mesa Verde National Park,” In Proceedings of the Anasazi Symposium A. Hutchinson and J.E. Smith, Editors, Mesa Verde Museum Assocition, CO. (1991). pp. 241-246.


V. Fassina, "A Survey on Air Pollution and Deterioration of Stonework in Venice," Atmospheric Environment 12 2205-2211 (l978).


K.L. Gauri and S.S. Yerrapraga, "Pore Potential and Durability of Limestone at the Sphinx,” In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology III Editors, P.B. Vandiver, J. Druzik and G.S. Wheeler, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1992). pp. 917-923.


F. Gomez-Moral, “Conservation of the Historic District of Quito: La Compañía de Jesús Church as a Model Project,” In The Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, V. Fassina, H. Ott and F. Zezza, Editors, Soprinten-denza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia, Venice (1994). pp. 717-720.


F.M. Helmi, “Deterioration Phenomenon in the North Temple Karanis (Near Fayoum), Egypt,” In Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Torun (1988). pp. 166-174.


F.A. Herget and R.W. Crooks, "Deterioration and Stabilization of Berea Sandstone on the Hamilton County Courthouse,” In Masonry: Design and Construction, Problems and Repair Editors, J.M. Melander and L.R. Lauersdorf, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA (1993). pp.412-426.


P. Hofmann, "Rome's Monuments Go Under Wraps," New York Times, February 15 (l98l).


D. Jeffrey, “Air Pollution Damage to Dublin’s Historic Buildings,” Air Pollution in Ireland, Dublin: A Case Study, Royal Dublin Society, Dublin (1988).


S.W. Kal, “Problems Encountered in the Conservation of the Rock-Hewn Churches of Lalibela,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials, Proceedings of the International RILEM/UNESCO Congress, M-J. Theil, Editor, E & FN Spon, London (1993). pp. 479-484.


D.D. Klemm, R. Snethlage and B. Graf, "Bericht über die Steinrestaurierung am Bayer-tor in Landsberg am Lech," Maltechnik/Restauro 83 No.4 242-252 (1977).


J. Larson, "New Approaches to the Conservation of External Stone Sculpture: The Twelfth Century Frieze at Lincoln Cathedral,” In Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisbon (1992). pp. 1167-1175.


L. Lazzarini, “I Rilievi Degli Arconi dei Portali della Basilica di San Marco a Venezia: Ricerche Tecnico-scientifiche,” In Die Skulpturen von San Marco in Venedig, Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich (1979). pp. 58-65.


L. Leysen, E. Roekens, Z. Komy and R. Van Grieken, “A Study of the Weathering of an Historic Building,” Anal. Chim. Acta 195 247-255 (1987).


R.A. Livingston, "The Air Pollution Contribution to Stone Deterioration: Investigating the Weathering of the Bowling Green Custom House, NY City," Technology and Conservation 6 No.2 36-39 (Summer 1981).


L. Malleret, "La Restauration des monuments d'Angkor et ses problèmes," Studies in Conservation 4 No.2 51-61 (1959).


R.E. Meadows, Historic Buiding Facades: A Manual for Inspection and Rehabilitation New York Landmarks Conservancy, New York (1986). xvi+165pp.


W.T. Petuskey and D.A. Dolske, “An Hypothesis of Anasazi Criteria for Selecting Sandstone Masonry,” In Proceedings of the Anasazi Symposium A. Hutchinson and J.E. Smith, Editors, Mesa Verde Museum Association, CO. (1991). pp. 239-240.


K.S. Rao, R.S. Soin, and T.S. Rao, "Air Pollution Threat to the Taj Mahal and Its Environs Due to Mathura Oil Refinery," Chemical Age India 29 No.8 663-674 (1978).


J. Riederer, "Steinkonservierung am Aphaia-Tempel auf Ägina," Maltechnik/Restauro No.3 193-199 (1973).


V.G. Rönicke and R. Rönicke, "Über den Mechanismus der zerströrenden Wirkung der Luftverunreinigung am Freiburger Münster," Deutsche Kunst und Denkmalpflege 30 No.l 57-64 (1972).


B. Ross, "Pity the Poor Lincoln Memorial: It has a Very Bad Case of the Blahs," The New York Times, (February 6, 1972). pp. 1, 22.


S.A. Saleh, F.H. Helmi, M.M. Kamal and A.-F.E. El-Banna, “Study and Consolidation of Sandstone: Temple of Karnak, Luxor, Egypt,” Studies in Conservation 37 No. 2 93-104 (1992).


O. Salvadori and A. Zitelli, “Monohydrate and Dihydrate Calcium Oxalate in Living Lichen Incrustations Biodeteriorating Marble Colums of the Basilica of S. Maria Assunta on the Island of Torcello (Venice),” In The Conservation of Stone II, Centro Conservazione Sculture all’Aperto, Bologna (1981). pp. 379-390.


N. Schiavon, "Decay Mechanisms of Oolitic Limestones in an Urban Environment: King's College Chapel, Cambridge and St. Luke's Church, London," In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.258-267.


R.K. Sharma and H.O. Gupta, "Dust Pollution at the Taj Mahal: A Case Study,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials E & F N Spon, London (1993). pp. 11-18.


A.D. Sharpe, S.T. Trudgill, R.U. Cooke, C.A. Price, R.W. Crabtree, A.M. Pickles and D.I. Smith, "Weathering of the Balustrade on St. Paul's Cathedral, London," Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 7 387-389 (1982).


G.G. Terreros and M. Alcalde, “Investigation and Treatment of the Portal of San Telmo Palace in Seville,” Studies in Conservation 41 No. 3 145-152 (1996).


K. Torfs, R. Van Grieken, F. Zezza, N. Garcia and F. Macri, “The Cathedral of Bari, Italy: Evaluation of Environmental Effects on Stone Decay Phenomenon,” Studies in Conservation 42 No. 4 193-206 (1997).


M. Vendrell-Saz and M. Garcia-Vallès, “Decay Mechanisms of the Portico of the Romanesque Monastery of Ripoll (Catalunya, Spain),” In Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisbon (1992). pp. 277-286.


T. Verdel and C. Chambon, "Environment Degradation Study of the Sphinx (Egypt) by the Use of System Dynamics: A New Approach at the Disposal of Specialists,” In La Conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia, Venice (1994). pp. 383-392.


V. Vergès-Belmin, "Repartition des Seds et Cartographie des Altérations sur la Façade de L'Église Notre-Dame-La-Grande à Poitiers, France,” In Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisbon (1992). pp. 927-936.


G. Vleugels, E. Roekens, A. van Put, F. Araujo, B. Fobe, R. Van Grieken, E. Mesquita, A. Carmo, L. Azevedo Alves and L. Aires-Barros, “Analytical Study of the Weathering of the Jeronimos Monastery in Lisbon,” Science of the Total Environment 120 225-243 (1992).


J. Vouvé, P. Malaurent and F. Vouvé, “Efficience des Methodologies Geoscientifiques Intirectes dans la Characterisation des Desordres Structurels d’un Monument Monolithique Souterrain et Mesunes Conservatoires Associees,” Studies in Conservation 42 No. 3 165-175 (1997).


Stone: Case Studies: Acropolis


K. Anagnostidis, C.K. Gehrmann, M. Gross, W.E. Krumbein, S. Lisi, A. Pantazidou, C. Urzì and M. Zagari, "Biodeterioration of Marbles of the Parthenon and Propylaea, Acropolis, Athens: Associated Organisms, Decay and Treatment Suggestions,” In La Conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle et Musée d'art et d'histoire, Geneva (1992). pp. 305-325.


Anon., "The Troubled Parthenon," Chemistry 3, July/August (1975).


G. Binns, "The Greek Acropolis and Parts of the Parthenon   London and Athens," The Environmentalist 3 245-250 (l983). (offprint).


CPAM, Conservation of the Surface of the Acropolis, Monuments Committee for the Preservation of the Acropolis Monuments (CPAM), Athens (1994).


P. Delopoulou and D. Sikiotis, "Dry Deposition of Nitrates on the Parthenon," Science of the Total Environment 106 263-268 (1991).


N. Gage, "Traffic and Pollution Proving the Acropolis All Too Mortal," The New York Times, June 23 (1978).


A.L. Huxtable, "Alms for the Acropolis," The New York Times, January 17 (1977). Editorial.


A. Ierodiconu, "Athens Turns to Alchemy to Stop Acropolis Wonders from Melting," Washington Post (7 August, 1981). p.A 23.


J.E. Yocom, "Air Pollution Damage to Buildings on the Acropolis," Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 29 No.4 333-338 (April, 1979).


Stone: Case Studies: Kölner Dom


S. Luckat, "Die Einwirkung von Luftverunreinigungen auf die Bausubstanz des Kölner Domes-III," Kölner Domblatt 38/39 95-106 (1974).


S. Luckat, "Stone Deterioration at the Cologne Cathedral Due to Air Pollution," In The Conservation of Stone I, Proceedings of the International Symposium, Bologna R. Rossi-Manaresi, Editor, Bologna (1976). pp.37 43.


S. Luckat, "Die Einwirkung von Luftverunreinigungen auf die Bausubstanz des Kölner Domes IV," Kölner Domblatt 151-189 (1977).


S. Luckat, "Stone Deterioration at the Cologne Cathedral and Other Monuments Due to Action of Air Pollutants," Proceedings of the International Clean Air Congress 4 128-130 (1977).


S. Luckat, "Untersuchungen von Luftverunreinigungen und ihr Einfluss auf Kunstgüter aus Stein am Beispiel des Kölner Doms," Arbeitsblätter für Restauratoren 2 149-153 (1980).


A. Wolff, "Untersuchungen zur Einwirkung von Luftverunreinigungen auf die Baumaterialien des Kölner Domes,” In International Union of Air Pollution Prevention Associations (IUAPPA), 3rd International Clean Air Congress, Düsseldorf, (1973). pp.A90 92.


Stone: Characterization


L. Aires-Barros, “Mineropetrography, XRF and IR-Specroscopy of Cathedral of Bari and Archaeological Site of Eluesis,” In Marine Spray and Polluted Atmosphere as Factors of Damage to Monuments in the Mediterranean Coastal Environment (Third Report), EU R&D Programme in the Field of Environment (1994). pp. 17-27.


E. Galan, L. Aires-Barros, B. Christaras, A. Kassoli-Fournaraki, B. Fitzner and F. Zezza, “Represenative Stones from the Sanctuary of Demeter in Eleusis (Greece), Santa Marija Ta’Cwerra of Siggiewi (Malta) and Bari (Italy) and Cadiz (Spain) Cathedrals: Petrographic Characteristics, Physical Properties and Alteration Products,” In Origin, Mechanisms and Efffects of Salts on Degradation of Monuments in Marine and Continental Environments, F. Zezza, Editor, Techomack, Bari (1996). pp. 75-85.


C.G. Inks and R.B. Hahn, “Determination of Surface Area of Calcium Carbonate by Isotopic Exchange,” Analytical Chemistry 39 625-628 (1967).


T.Y. Irfan and W.R. Dearman, “The Engineering Petrography of a Weathered Granite in Cornwall, England,” Journal of Engineering Geology 11 233-244 (1978).


W.S. MacKenzie and A.E. Adams, A Colour Atlas of Rocks and Minerals in Thin Section, Manson, London (1994). 192pp.


B. Meng, "Characterization of Pore Structure for the Interpretation of Moisture Transport,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials E & F N Spon, London (1994). pp. 155-162.


E.C. Robertson, "Physical Properties of Building Stone,” In Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments National Academy Press, Washington D.C. (1982). pp. 62-86.


J. Šramek, J. Rathousky and P. Schneider, “Mercury-Porosimetric Characterization of Clastic Sedimentary Rocks,” Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Geologica 1 35-54 (1990).


See Also: Stone Provenance ( Part VII).


Stone: Conference Proceedings


N.S. Baer and R. Snethlage, Editors, Saving our Architectural Heritage: The Conservation of Historic Stone Structures John Wiley & Sons Ltd, UK (1997). 425pp.


N.S. Baer, C. Sabbioni and A.I. Sors, Editors, Science, Technology and European Cultural Heritage Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (1991). xxxxii+980pp.


G. Biscontin and L. Graziano, Editors, Conservation of Architectural Surfaces: Stones and Wall Covering Il Cardo, Venice (1993). xii+239pp.


D. Decrouez, J. Chamay and F. Zezza, Editors, La Conservazione nel Bacino del Mediterrano Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium, Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle et Musée d’Art et d’Histoire Geneva (1991). 519pp.


J. Delgado Rodrigues, F. Henriques and F. Telmo Jermias, Editors, Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisbon (1992). xix + 1578pp (in three volumes).


V. Fassina, H. Ott and F. Zezza, Editors, La Conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterrano Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium, Soprintendenza ai Bene Artestici e Storici di Venezia, Venice (1994). xxvii+961pp.


National Materials Advisory Board (U.S.), Committee on Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments, Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. (1982). xiii + 365pp.


M.-J. Thiel, Editor, Conservation of Stone and Other Materials Proceedings of the Unesco/Rilem Conference (1993). 2 Volumes, 892pp.


R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone Donhead, London (1992). 308pp.


See Also: Stone: Conservation: General References.


Stone: Conservation: Cleaning


G. Alessandrini, L. Toniolo, A. Antonioli, A. Di Silvestro, F. Piacenti, S. Righini Ponticelli, and L. Formica, "On the Cleaning of Deteriorated Stone Minerals,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials E & F N Spon, London (1993). pp. 503-511.


C. Andrew, "Towards an Aesthetic Theory of Building Soiling,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.63-81.


C. Andrew, Stonecleaning: A Guide for Practitioners Historic Scotland, The Robert Gordon University, Edinburgh (1994). 126pp.


C. Andrew and E. Crawford, "Conservation and Planning Considerations in Stone Cleaning,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.193-198.


J. Ashurst, "Conservation of Stone: Cleaning Natural Stone Buildings," Architects Journal 156 No.35 494-504 (1972).


J. Ashurst, "Cleaning Masonry Buildings,” In Conservation of Building and Decorative Stone Volume 2 Butterworth-Heinemann, London (1990). pp. 125-154.


J. Ashurst, "The Cleaning and Treatment of Limestone by the Lime Method,” In Conservation of Building and Decorative Stone Volume 2 Butterworth-Heinemann, London (1990). pp. 169-184.


B. Bluck, "The Composition and Weathering of Sandstone with Relation to Cleaning,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.125-127.


P. Brimblecombe, "A Brief History of Grime: Accumulation and Removal of Soot Deposits on Buildings Since the 17th Century,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.53-62.


T. Chvatal, "Systematische Untersuchungen über die Wirksamkeit neuer Stein-Reiningungs-Pasten," Arbeitsblätter für Restauratoren 6 No.2 35-39 (1973).


T. Chvatal, "Systematische Untersuchungen über die Wirksamkeit der neuen Reinigungspasten,” In Aktuelle Restaurierprobleme und Untersuchungmethoden in der Denkmalpflege, Bundesdenkmalamt, Vienna (1973). pp.112-119.


E. De Witte and M. Dupas, "Cleaning Poultices Based on EDTA,” In Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisbon (1992). pp. 1023-1031.


V. Fassina, "General Criteria for the Cleaning of Stone: Theoretical Aspects and Methodology of Application,” In Stone Material in Monuments: Diagnosis and Conservation Comunitá delle Universitá Mediterranee, Scuola Universiteria Conservazione dei Monumenti, Crete (1993). pp. 126-132.


K.L. Gauri, L. Parks, J. Jaynes and R. Atlas, "Removal of Sulphated-Crust from Marble Using Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.160-165.


L.A. Goldberg, “A Fresh Face for Samuel Gompers: Methyl Cellulose Poultice Cleaning,” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 28 31-42 (1989).


C.A. Grissom, T. Power and S. West, “Methyl Cellulose Poultice Cleaning of a Large Marble Sculpture,” In Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Torun (1988). pp. 551-562.


M. Hoffman and H. Heuser, "The Injector Process for the Cleaning of Natural Stone Facades,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials E & F N Spon, London (1993). pp. 526-533.


K. Kouzeli, "Black Crust Removal Methods in Use: Their Effects on Pentelic Marble Surfaces,” In Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisbon (1992). pp. 1147-1156.


J.A. Lauffenburger, C.A. Grissom and A.E. Charola, "Changes in the Gloss of Marble Surfaces as a Result of Methylcellulose Poulticing," Studies in Conservation 37 No. 3 155-164 (1992).


J. Lehmann, “The Methodology for Cleaning and Desalting of Stone Objects in Goluchow Castle Museum,” In ICOM Committee for Conservation Eighth Triennial Meeting, Sydney (1987). pp. 487-491.


S.Z. Lewin and E.J. Rock, "Chemical Considerations in the Cleaning of Stone and Masonry," In The Conservation of Stone I, Proceedings of the International Symposium, Bologna, (June 19 21, 1975), R. Rossi-Manaresi, Editor, Bologna (1976). pp.343 360.


C. Liddle, "Building Cleaning: Process or Procedure, an Industry View,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.207-216.


R. Livingston, "Geochemical Considerations in the Cleaning of Carbonate Stone,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.166-182.


F. Lyons, “Stone Cleaning Regent House,” Final Report to the EC for Research Contract EV4V-0048-IRL, November (1991).


F. Lyons, “Stone Cleaning Materials and Techniques,” Final Report to the EC for Research Contract EV4V-0048-IRL, November (1991).


J. MacDonald, B. Thomson and K. Tonge, "Chemical Cleaning of Sandstone: Comparative Laboratory Studies,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.217-226.


T. Mansfield, "Sources of Building Soiling and a Review of the Stone Cleaning Industry 1991,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.84-96.


P. Maravelaki, G. Biscontin, E. Zendri, R. Polloni and W. Cecchetti, "Investigation on Surface Alteration of Limestone Related to Cleaning Processes,” In Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisbon (1992). pp. 1093-1102.


I. Maxwell, "Stone Cleaning, for Better or Worse? An Overview,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.3-52.


D. McLaughlin, "Acid Rain: The Cleaning and Conservation of Stonework in Bath,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.183-192.


A. Milligan, "To Clean or not to Clean Buildings within Edinburgh,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.97-104.


W.A. Oddy, M. Hughes and S. Baker, "Washing Limestone Sculptures from Egypt," Lithoclastia 2 3-10 (1976).


G. Orial and G. Riboulet, "Technique de Nettoyage de la Statuaire Monumentale par Désincrustation Photonique: Réalisation d'un Prototype Mobile,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials E & F N Spon, London (1993). pp. 542-549.


D. Rodwell, "Stone Cleaning in Urban Conservation,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.199-206.


J. Simpson, "Stone Cleaning: A Professional View,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.82-83.


T. Skoulikidis and P. Papakonstantinou, "Stone Cleaning by the Inversion of Gypsum back into Calcium Carbonate,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.155-159.


C. Tucker, The Cleaning of the Palace of Westminster,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.113-120.


V. Vergès-Belmin, C. Pichot and G. Orial, "Elimination de Croutes Noire sur Marbre et Craie: A quel Niveau Arrêter le Nettoyage? In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials E & F N Spon, London (1993). pp. 534-541.


L. Verhoef, "Cleaning or Proper Detailing to Prevent Cleaning?" In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.293-306.


J. Walker, "Mr. Clean (1938 Elgin Marbles Cleaning Scandal)," Connoisseur 215 30 (1985).


R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, Donhead, London (1992). xii + 308pp.


N.R. Weiss, "Cleaning of Building Exteriors," Technology and Conservation 2/76 pp.8-13.


M. Werner, "Research on Cleaning Methods Applied to Historical Stone Monuments,” In Science, Technology and European Cultural Heritage, N.S. Baer, C. Sabioni and A.I. Sors, Editors, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (1991). pp. 688-691.


M. Werner and C. Neuwald, "Research on Cleaning Methods Applied to Historical Stone Monuments,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.141-145.


M. Wilimzig, W. Sand and E. Bock, "The Impact of Stone Cleaning on Micro-organisms and Microbially Influenced Corrosion,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.235-238.


M.E. Young, "Stonecleaning of Granite Buildings and Monuments: The Use of Colour Measurement in Stonecleaning Trials,” In Conservation Science in the U.K., James and James, London (1993). pp. 20-28.


M. Young and D. Urquhart, "Abrasive Cleaning of Sandstone Buildings and Monuments: An Experimental Investigation,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.128-140.


M. Zádor, "Experience with Cleaning and Consolidating Stone Façades in Hungary,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.146-154.


Stone: Conservation: Cleaning: Lasers


M.I. Cooper, D.C. Emmony and J.H. Larson, "A Comparative Study of the Laser Cleaning of Limestone,” In Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisbon (1992). pp. 1307-1316.


M.I. Cooper, D.C. Emmony and J.H. Larson, "Laser Cleaning of Limestone Sculpture,” In Conservation and Science in the U.K. N.H. Tennent, Editor, James and James, London (1993). pp. 29-32.


M.S. D'Urbano, C. Giovannone, P. Governale, A. Pandolfi and U. Santamaria, "La Pulitura laser di Superfici Lapidee: Messa a Punto di una Metodologia Standardizzata pril Controllo degli Effetti,” In La Conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia, Venice (1994). pp. 955-962.


L. Lazzarini, J.L. Asmus and L. Marscesini, “Lasers for the Cleaning of Statuary: Initial Results and Potentialities,” In First International Symposium on the Deterioration of Building Stones, La Rochelle (1972). pp.89-94.


P. Maravelaki, G. Biscontin, E. Zendri, R. Polloni and W. Cecchetti, “Cleaning with Laser Radiation on Istria Stone,” In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology III P.B. Vandiver, J.R. Druzik, G.S. Wheeler and I.C. Freestone, Editors, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1992). pp. 955-961.


Stone: Conservation: Consolidation


G.G. Amoroso and V. Fassina, “Stone Decay and Conservation,” In Material Science Monographs 11, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1983).


R.M. Atlas, A.N. Chowdhury and K.L. Gauri, "Microbial Calcification of Gypsum-Rock and Sulfated Marble," Studies in Conservation 33 149-153 (1988).


M. Auras, "Stone Conservation by Impregnation with Polyurethane,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials E & F N Spon, London (1993). pp. 717-724.


W.P. Bauer, "Zum Stand der Festigung von Stein und verwandten Materialien,” In Aktuelle Restaurier Probleme und Untersuchungsmethoden in der Denkmalpflege, Bundesdenkmalamt, Vienna (1973). pp.126-139.


S.N. Black, L.A. Bromley, D. Cottier, J.D. Roger, B. Dobs and J.E. Rout, "Interactions at the Organic/Inorganic Interface: Binding Motifs for Phosphonates at the Surface of Barite Crystals," Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 87 3409-3414 (1991).


S.M. Bradley, “Evaluation of Organo-Silanes for the Use in Consolidation of Sculpture Displayed Indoors,” In Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Volume 2, G. Felix, Editor, Presses Polytechniques Romanades, Lausanne (1985). pp. 759-768.


S.M. Bradley, “An Introduction to the Use of Silanes in Stone Conservation,” Geological Curator 4 427-432 (1987).


K. Brandt, "L'Emploi des Silicones dans le Traitement des Maçonneries," Peintures, Pigments, Vernis 44 No.1 47 (1968).


J. Brus and P. Kotlik, “Cracking of Organosilicone Stone Consolidants in Gel Form,” Studies in Conservation 41 No. 1 55-59 (1996).


J. Brus and P. Kotlik, “Consolidation of Stone by Mixtures of Alkoxysilane and Acrylic Polymer,” Studies in Conservation 41 No. 2 109-119 (1996).


R.N. Butlin, T.J.S. Yates and W. Martin, "Comparison of Traditional and Modern Treatments for Conserving Stone,” In Preprints of the International Colloquium on Methods of Evaluating Products for the Conservation of Porous Building Materials in Monuments, Rome, 19-21 June 1995 ICCROM, Rome (1995).


M.C. Caron, "Applications des résines synthéthiques dans les travaux publics," Annals de l'Institut Technique du Batiment et des Travaux Publics 235-236 996-1016 (1967).


S.Y. Chang and T.A. Ring, “Map of Gel Times for Three Phase Region Tetraethoxysislane, Ethanol and Water,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 147/148 56-61 (1992).


A.E. Charola, “Brief Introduction to Silanes, Siloxanes, Silicones and Silicate Esters,” In The Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Notes from the International Venetian Courses on Stone Restoration, UNESCO, Venice (1988). pp. 313-317.


A.E. Charola, A. Tucci and R.J. Koestler, “On the Reversibility of Treatment with Acrylic/Silicone Resin Mixtures,” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 25 83-92 (1986).


A.E. Charola and G.E. Wheeler, “The Influence of Relative Humidity in Polymerization of Methyl Trimethoxy Silane,” In Adhesives and Consolidants, IIC, London (1984). pp. 177-181.


A.H. Church, "Stone Preserving and Colouring, Cements," British Patent, No.220, 28 January (1862).


T. Chvatal, "Die Festigung von Stein," Arbeitsblätter für Restauratoren 7 No.1 40-51 (1974).


J.R. Clifton, “Laboratory Evaluation of Stone Consolidants,” In Adhesives and Consolidants, IIC, London (1984). pp. 151-155.


R.L. Coffman, N. Agnew and C. Selwitz, "Modification of the Physical Properties of Natural and Artificial Adobe by Chemical Consolidation,” In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology II Editors, P.B. Vandiver, J. Druzik and G.S. Wheeler, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1991). pp. 201-207.


C. Danehey, G.S. Wheeler and S-C. H. Su, "The Influence of Quartz and Calcite on the Polymerization of Methyltrimethoxysilane,” In Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Lisbon (1992). pp. 1043-1052.


F. Deveraux, J.P. Boilot and F. Chaput, “Sol-gel Condensation of Rapidly Hydrolysed Silicon Alkoxides: A Joint 29Si NMR and Small-angle X-ray Scattering Study,” Physical Review A 41 No. 12 6901-6909 (1990)


E. De Witte, "Soluble Nylon as Consolidation Agent for Stone," Studies in Conservation 20 No.1 30-34 (1975).


E. De Witte, P. Huget, and P. Van den Broeck, "A Comparative Study of Three Consolidation Methods on Limestones," Studies in Conservation 22 No.4 190-196 (1977).


E. De Witte and M. Mathot, “The Consolidation of Tuff of Maastricht by Free Radical Polymerization of Methacrylate,” RILEM Symposium, Paris 6-15 (1978).


W. Domaslowski, "Consolidation of Stone Objects with Epoxy Resins," Monumentum 4 51-64 (1969).


W. Domaslowski, "L'Affermissement structural des pierres avec des solutions à base de résines époxydes,” In Conservation of Stone and Wooden Objects, IIC, London (1970). pp.85-101.


A.E. El-Banna, “Comparative Study of the Different Used Materials and Methods in Treatment and Conservation of Stone Monuments and Their Effect on Their Properties,” Master’s Thesis, Cairo University, Faculty of Archaeology, Conservation Department (1990).


V. Fassina, M.L. Tabasso, L. Lazzarini and A.M. Mecchi, “Protective Treatment for the Reliefs of the Arconi de San Marco in Venice: Laboratory Evaluation,” Durability of Building Materials 5 167-181 (1989).


C. Félix and V. Furlan, "Variations Dimensionnelles de Grès et Calcaires liées à leur Consolidation avec un Silicate d'éthyle,” In La Conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia, Venice (1994). pp. 855-859.


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