Materials of Art and Archaeology




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L. Lazzarini and O. Salvadori, "A Reasssessment of the Formation of the Patina Called Scialbatura," Studies in Conservation 34 No. 1 20-26 (1989).


S.Z. Lewin, "The Mechanism of Masonry Decay Through Crystallization,” In Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments National Academy Press, Washington D.C. (1982). pp. 120-144.


S.Z. Lewin, "The Susceptibility of Calcareous Stone to Salt Decay,” In La Conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium, Bari Grafo, Brescia, Italy (1990). pp. 59-63.


S.Z. Lewin, "Influence of Evaporite Minerals on Gypsum Crusts and Alveolar Weathering,” In La conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia, Venice (1994). pp. 101-107.


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R.A. Livingston, “Influence of Evaporite Minerals on Gypsum Crusts and Alveolar Weathering,” In La Conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo V. Fassina, H. Ott and F. Zezza, Editors, Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistice e Storici di Venezia, Venice (1994). pp. 101-107.


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P.P. Malesani and S.A. Vannucci, "Decay of Pietra Serena and Pietraforte, Florentine Building Stones: Petrographic Observations," Studies in Conservation 19 No.1 36-50 (1974).


M. Mamillan, "Methods for Assessing the Deterioration of Stone Monuments,” In Science, Technology and European Cultural Heritage, N.S. Baer, C. Sabioni and A.I. Sors, Editors, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (1991). pp. 90-99.


R.R. Manaresi, "Pietre porose: alterazione e conservazione," Bolletinno d'Arte 72 133-144 (1987).


M. Matteini, A. Moles and S. Giovannoni, "Calcium Oxalate as a Protective Mineral System for Wall Paintings: Methodology and Analyses,” In La conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia, Venice (1994). pp. 155-162.


E.S. McGee, "Gypsum Accumulation on Carbonate Stone," Atmospheric Environment 26 Part B 249-253 (1992).


E.S. McGee and V.G. Mosotti, "Gypsum Accumulation on Carbonate Stone," Atmospheric Environment 26B No.2 249-254 (1992).


D.J. McMahon, P. Sandberg, K. Folliard and P.K. Mehta, "Deterioration Mechanisms of Sodium Sulfate,” In Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisbon 705-714 (1992).


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J. Pühringer, "Salzwanderung und Verwitterung durch Salze,” In Papers of the International Colloquium on Materials Science and Restoration, Esslingen (1983). pp.36l 366.


M. Rautureau, G. Pierre and P. Bendimerad, "Incidence des joints Stylotiques sur le développement de l'altération des Pierres Calcaires." In La conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia, Venice (1994). pp. 65-68.


M.M. Reddy, S. Sherwood and B. Doe, "Limestone and Marble Dissolution by Acid Rain,” In Research and Design 85: Architectural Applications of Design and Technology Research, Proceeding of AIA (March, 1985). pp.383 388.


M. Ridley, "Acid Rain: The Risk to our Stone Buildings," Estates Gazette 274 1320-1322 (1985).


E. Roekens, Z. Komy, L. Leysen, P. Veny and R. Van Grieken, “Chemistry of Precipitation Near a Limestone Building,” Water Air Soil Pollution 38 273-282 (1988).


R. Rossi-Maranesi and A. Tucci, "Pore Structure and the Disruptive or Cementing Effect of Salt Crystallization in Various Types of Stone," Studies in Conservation 36 53-58 (1991).


C. Sabbioni and G. Zappia, "Weathering of Sandstone Monuments in Urban Areas," European Cultural Heritage Newsletter on Research 5 No. 4 10-16 (1991).


C. Sabbioni and G. Zappia, "Oxalate Patinas on Ancient Monuments: The Biological Hypothesis," Aerobiology 7 No. 1 31-37 (1992).


R.J. Schaffer, The Weathering of Natural Building Stones, Special Report, No.18 Reprint, Building Research Establishment, Watford, England (1972). x + 194pp.


N. Schiavon, "Decay Mechanisms of Oolitic Limestones in an Urban Environment: King's College Chapel, Cambridge and St. Luke's Church, London,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.258-267.


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B.J. Smith and J.P. McGreevy, “Contour Scaling of a Sandstone by Salts Weathering Under Simulated Hot Desert Conditions,” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 13 697-705 (1988).


B. Smith, B. Whalley and R. Magee, "Assessment of Building Stone Decay: A Geomorphological Approach,” In Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone, R.G.M. Webster, Editor, Donhead, London (1992). pp.249-258.


R. Snethlage and E. Wendler, “Moisture Cycles and Sandstone Degradation,” In Saving Our Architectural Heritage: The Conservation of Historic Stone Structures N.S. Baer and R. Snethlage, Editors, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, UK (1997). pp. 7-24.


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C.H.B. Sperling and R.U. Cook, “Salt Weathering in Arid Environments II. Laboratory Studies,” Papers in Geography 9 (1980).


C.H.B. Sperling and R.U. Cook, “Laboratory Simulation of Rock Weathering by Salt Crystallization and Hydration Processes,” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 10 541-555 (1985).


H. Sweevers and R. Van Grieken, "Analytical Study of the Deterioration of Sandstone, Marble and Granite," Atmospheric Environment 26B No.2 159-164 (1992).


G. Thomson and R. White, "The pH of Rain and the Destruction of Alkaline Stone," Studies in Conservation 19 No.3 190-191 (1974).


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S.T. Trudgill, H.A. Viles, R.J. Inkpen and R.U. Cooke, "Remeasurement of Weathering Rates at St. Paul's Cathedral, London," Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 14 175-196 (1989).


F. Vandiver, P. Bradow, O. Vittori, D. Camuffo, M. Del Monte and C. Sabbioni, “Wetting, Deterioration and Visual Features of Stone Surfaces in an Urban Area: A Discussuion,” Atmospheric Environment 18, No. 2 481-484 (1984).


H. Viles (Rapporteur), D. Camuffo, S. Fitz, B. Fitzner, O. Lindqvist, R.A. Livingston, P.-N.V. Maravellaki, C. Sabbioni and T. Warsheid, “Group Report: What is the State of Our Knowledge of the Mechanisms of Deterioration and How Good are Our Estimates of Rates of Deterioration?” In Saving Our Architectural Heritage: The Conservation of Historic Stone Structures N.S. Baer and R. Snethlage, Editors, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, UK (1997). pp. 95-112.


G.J. Vleugels, E.J. Roekens and R.E. Van Grieken, “Microattachment Study of the Weathering of Balegem and Massengis Limestones,” In Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Torun (1988). pp. 56-65.


G.J. Vleugels, E.J. Roekens and R.E. Van Grieken, “Study of the Weathering and Treated Limestones in Ambient Atmospheric Conditions,” In Science, Technology and European Cultural Heritage, N.S. Baer, C. Sabioni and A.I. Sors, Editors, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (1991). pp. 696-699.


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E.M. Winkler and E.J. Wilhelm, "Salt Burst by Hydration Pressures in Architectural Stone in an Urban Atmosphere," Geological Society of America Bulletin 81 567-572 (1970).


G. Zappia, C. Sabbioni and G. Gobbi, "Damage to Stone Surfaces in Urban Environment," Material Engineering 2 255-262 (1991).


G. Zappia, C. Sabbioni and G. Gobbi, “Weathering Layers on Stone Monuments in Maritime Localities of Northern and Central Italy,” In Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Bari, 1989, The Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, F. Zezza, Editor, Grafo, Brescia, Italy (1990). pp. 79-82.


K. Zehnder, "New Aspects of Decay Caued by Crystallization of Gypsum,” In Conservation of Stone and Other Materials E & F N Spon, London (1993). pp. 107-114.


K. Zehnder and A. Arnold, "Crystal Growth in Salt Efflorescence," Journal of Crystal Growth 97 513-521 (1989).


F. Zezza, “The Cathedral of Bari,” In Marine Spray and Polluted Atmosphere as Factors of Damage to Monuments in the Mediterranean Coastal Environment (1st Report), EU R&D Programme in the Field of Environment, Contract Numer EV5V-CT92-0102 (1993). pp. 25-30.


F. Zezza and F. Macri, “Marine Aerosol and Stone Decay,” Science of the Total Environment 167 123-143 (1995).


See Also: Stone: Case Studies


Stone: Deterioration Mechanisms: Air Pollution Damage


P. Ausset, R. Lefevre, J. Phillipon and C. Venet, "Large Scale Distribution of Fly-Ash Particles Inside Weathering Crusts on Calcium Carbonate Substrates: Some Examples on French Monuments,” In La Conservazione dei Monumenti nel Bacino del Mediterraneo Muséum d'Histoire Narurelle et Musée d'art et d'histoire, Geneva (1992). pp. 121-139.


P. Bacci, C. Sabbioni and G. Zappia, “Atmospheric Aerosol and Damage of Monuments and Historical Buildings,” In Aerosols: Science, Industry, Health and Environment, S. Masuda and K. Takahashi, Editors, Pergamon Press, Oxford (1990). pp. 997-1000.


A. Bernardi, “Comments on the Symposium ‘Air Pollution and Conservation, Safegaurding our Architectural Heritage’ Rome, 15-17 October 1986,” European Heritage Newsletter on Research 2 16 (1987).


A. Bernardi, “Meccanismi di Formazione della Croste Bianche, Nere e Grige Sui Monumenti,” Beni Culturali 4 No. 2 11-12 (1990).


A. Bernardi, D. Camuffo, M. Del Monte, C. Sabbioni, S. Vincenzi and G. Zappia, “Weathering of Bronze and Stone Monuments as a Result of Both Atmospheric Pollution and Precipitation,” European Cultural Heritage Newsletter on Research 1 No. 3 10-11 (1987).


G. Biscontin, V. Fassina, P. Maravelaki and E. Zendri, "Venice: Stone Material Behaviour in Connection with the Environment,” In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology II, Editors, P.B. Vandiver, J. Druzik and G.S. Wheeler, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1991). pp.253-264.


R.H. Borgwardt and R.D. Harvey, "Properties of Carbonate Rocks Related to SO2 Reactivity," Environmental Science and Technology 6 No.4 350-360 (April l972).


R.C. Braun and M.J.G. Wilson, "The Removal of Atmospheric Sulphur by Building Stones," Atmospheric Environment 4 371-378 (l970).


P. Brimblecombe, "History of Air Pollution and Deterioration of Heritage,” In Weathering and Air Pollution Comunità delle Università Mediterranee, Scuola Universiteria Conservazione dei Monumenti, Bari, Italy (1991). pp. 23-32.


R.N. Butlin, "Effects of Air Pollution on Buildings and Materials," Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 97B 255-272 (1991).


R.N. Butlin, A.. Coote, M. Devenish, I.F.C. Hughes, C.M. Hutchens, J.G. Irwin, G.O. Lloyd, S.W. Massey, A.H. Webb and T.J.S. Yates, "A Four-Year Study of Stone Decay in Different Pollution Climates in the United Kingdom,” In Seventh International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisbon (1992). pp. 345-353.


R.N. Butlin, A.. Coote, M. Devenish, I.F.C. Hughes, C.M. Hutchens, J.G. Irwin, G.O. Lloyd, S.W. Massey, A.H. Webb and T.J.S. Yates, "Preliminary Results from the Analysis of Stone Tablets from the National Materials Exposure Programme (NMEP)" Atmospheric Environment 26B No.2 189-198 (1992).


D. Camuffo, “Stone Decay and Air Pollution,” European Cultural Heritage Newsletter on Research 3 No. 2 12-16 (1989).


D. Camuffo, “Aspetti Microfisci della Precipitazione Acide in Relazione al Degrado dei Monumenti,” In Despsizioni Acide: i Precursori, le Interazioni con L’Ambiente e i Materiali, L. Morselli, Editor, Maggioli, Rimini (1991). pp. 339-350.


D. Camuffo, M. Del Monte and C. Sabbioni, “Influenza delle Precipitazione e della Condensazione sul Degrado Superficiale dei Monumenti in Marmo e Caclcare,” Bollettino d’Arte 41, Series: Materiali Lapidei, 15-36 (1987).


D. Camuffo and A. Sors, “The Impact of Atmospheric Contamination on Ancient Buildings,” In Urban Environment – The Future of the Ancient City, Commission of the European Communtities, Editors, Genoa (1990). pp. 106-114.


T.P. Cooper, P.F. O'Brien and D.W. Jeffrey, "Rates of Deterioration of Portland Limestone in an Urban Environment," Studies in Conservation 37 No. 4 228-238 (1992).


M. Del Monte, "Stone Monument Decay and Air Pollution,” In
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