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POST-HARVEST AND PROCESSING


Jackfruit


AU SERJI K., DEVI K.S.

TI DIETARY FIBER FROM MUSA-PARADISIACA AND ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS ON INTESTINAL MUCOSAL AND BACTERIAL BETA GLUCURONIDASE ACTIVITY IN HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE TREATED RATS.

SO BULL-ENVIRON-CONTAM-TOXICOL 50 (2). 1993. 293-299.


AU RUFFET E., PAQUET N., FRUTIGER S., HUGHES G.J., JATON J.C.

TI STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC STUDIES OF JACALIN FROM JACKFRUIT ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA SHOW THAT THIS LECTIN IS A 65 KDA TETRAMER.

SO BIOCHEM-J 286 (1). 1992. 131-134.

AB The 133-amino-acid sequences of the .alpha.-subunit of jacalin (a lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia) and of the slightly larger .alpha.-subunit were determined. The .alpha.- and .alpha.-subunits, in the approximate ratio of 1 3, were found to be virtually identical in their primary structures, except for one valine for isoleucine

substitution at position 113. Although both .alpha.- and .alpha.- chains were glcosylated, the extent of glycosylation in the .alpha.- chain was much greater than that in the .alpha.-subunit. In the .alpha.-polypeptide, all molecules contained an N-linked oligosaccharide at position 7 and some contained sugar at position 43. The .alpha.-and .alpha. -subunits were found to be strongly non-covalently associated with three distinct .beta.-subunits containing 20 amino acids each. Electron-microscopic visualizatlon of native jacalin disclosed a structure composed of four .alpha.-type subunits

with a clear-cut 4-fold symmetry. Analytical-ultracentrifugation studies of jacalin revealed an average molecular mass Clf 65 kDa, value compatible with a tetrameric structure of the . alpha. (.alpha.)-subunits. The recalculated number of sugar-binding sites

per iacalin molecule, given a molecular mass of 65 kDa, would yield 0.8 sites per .alpha. (.alpha.)-promoter, i .e. about twice the value previously determined (Appukutan & Basu ( 1985 ) FEBS Lett. 1980 .331-334; Ahmed & Chatteriee (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 9365-9372.


AU HASHIM O.H., KOBAYASHI K., TANIGUCHI N.

TI INTERACTION OF ARTOCARPUS LECTINS WITH HUMAN IGA DOES NOT INVOLVE ASPARAGINE-LINKED OLIGOSACCHARIDE OF THE IMMUNOGLOBULIN.

SO BIOCHEM-INT 27 (3). 1992. 423-429.

AB In view of the controversy with respect to the interaction of jacalin with human IgA2, a study was undertaken to assess the reactivity of the Artocarpus heterophyllus lectin, as well as the lectin, from Artocarpus integer (lectin C), with subclasses of human immunoglobulin A by EL ISA. Our data is consistent with the view that Artocarpus lectins have no affinity for the IgA2 immunoglobulins. In further support of the findings, we have established that N-linked oligosaccharide moieties of IgA have no significant bearing in the lectin-immunoglobulin binding. Interaction was also not affected in the presence of 1% (w~v ) BSA.


AU GOLLAHON K., GREENFIELD B., PORTER C.

TI CRUDE EXTRACT OF ARTOCARPUSHETEROPHYLLUS AND PHORBAL ESTERS ACCELERATE STROMAL CELL ADHESION IN LONG TERM BONE MARROW CULTURES.

SO CONFERENCE ON STROMAL REGULATION OF HEMATOPOIESIS, BETHESDJA, MARYLAND, USA, JUNE 21-22, 1991. EXP-HEMATOL-N-Y 20 (1). 1992. 1 15-1 16


AU BANERJEE R., DHANARAJ V., MAHANTA S.K., SUROLIA A., VIJAYAN M.

TI PREPARATION AND X-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF FOUR NEW CRYSTAL FORMS OF JACALIN A LECTIN FROM ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA.

SO J-MOL-BIOL 221 (3). 1991. 773-776.

AB Four new crystal forms of the anti-T lectin from jackfruit (Artocarpus intergrifolia) have been prepared and characterized. Three of them, two monoclinic (P21, a = 59.4 .ANG., b = 83.3 .ANG., c =63.S .ANG., .beta. = 107.7.degree. ; C2, a = 106.1 .ANG., b = 53.9 .ANG., c = 128.0 .ANG., .beta. = 95.0 .ANG. ) and one orthorhombic (C2221. a = 98.1 .ANG., b = 67.3 .ANG., c = 95.1 .ANG. ) were grown with 2-methylpentan-2,4-diol (MPD) as the precipitant while the fourth, an hexagonal form (P622. a = b = 129.6 .ANG. . c = 157.9 .ANG.), was obtained in the presence of methyl-.alpha.-D-galactopyranoside with polyethylene glycol 4000 as the precipitant. The reported relative molecular mass (Mr ) of the lectin was found to be inconsistent with the solvent content of the crystals estimated using measured densities. The Mr was redetermined using size exclusion chromatography in the presence of methyl- . alpha-D-galactopyranoside and Ferguson-plot analysis of mobilities in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The redetermined Mr (66,000) is consistent with the measured crystal densities. The orthorhombic and the hexagonal forms. which have one half molecule and one molecule, respectively, in the asymmetric unit, are suitable for high-resolution X-ray analysis.


AU CHIN A.H.G., NUSHIRWAN Z.

TIJACKFRUIT QUALITY FOR CANNING IN SYRUP.

SOMARDI CMALAYS AGRIC RES DEV INST) RES J 17 (2). 1989 C1990). 266-275.

ABJackfruit variety (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. ) . NSl variety, was harvested at 14, 15, 16 and 17 weeks maturity (from the first appearance of the spike), and allowed to ripen at ambient temperature for O, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days before processing as canned slices in syrup. Sensory evaluation and analysis were carried out on the raw and canned fruit, and on the stored canned fruit after 6 and 12 months storage. The results show that fruit harvested at 15 to 16 weeks maturity and stored for 3 days to ripen. gave optimum quality in the canned product . The processed 'nangka' could be kept up to 12 months without deterioration of quality.


AU HASHIM O.H., NG C.L., GENDEH G.S., JAAFAR M.I.N.

IGA BINDING LECTINS ISOLATED FROM DISTINCT ARTOCARPUS-SPP DEMONSTRATE DIFFERENTIAL SPEClFICITY.

SO MOL-IMMUNOL 28 (4-5). 1991. 393-398.

AB The discovery of jacalin, a group of lectins from Jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus), has attracted considerable attention due to its numerous interesting immunological properties as well as its usefulness in the isolation of various serum proteins. We have further identified a similar lectin from the seeds of Champedak (Artocarpus integer ) which we refer to as lectin-C and performed comparative studies with two types of jacalin isolated from different batches of the Malaysian iackfruit seeds (jacalin-Ml and jacalin-M2). The three purified lecins demonstrated equivalent apparent Mr of about 52,500, each of which comprised of a combination of two types of non-covalently-linked subunits with apparent Mr of approximately 13,30O and 16,000. The lectins demonstrated equal haemagglutinating activity against human erythrocytes o, blood groups A, B, AB and 0. Our data also demonstrated that lectin-C, iacalin-Ml and jacalin-M2 are similar by selectively precipitating human serum IgAl and colostral sIgA but not IgAZ, IgD, IgG and Igm. When immunoelectrophoresis was performed on normal human sera and reacted with the lectins, single precipitin arcs corresponding to IgA immunoprecipitates were detected with lectin-C and jacalin-MI. Jacalin-M2, however, exhibited two closely associated precipitin arcs. The binding of these lectins with IgA was pronouncely inhibited in the presence of p-nitrophenyl-.beta. -D-galactopyranoside, l-o-methyl-. alpha . -D-galactopyranoside, D-melibiose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-galactose. The data therefore Provide evidence on the differential specificity of IgA binding lectins isolated from seeds of similar as well as distinct Artocarpus species.


AU FERNANDO M.R., WICKRAMASINGHE S.D.N., THABRE M.I., ARIYANANDA P.L., KARUANAYAKEEF H.

TI EFFECT OF ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS AND ASTERACANTHUS-LONGIFOLIA ON GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN NORMAL HUMAN SUBJECTS AND IN MATURITY-ONSET DIABETIC PATIENTS.

SO J-ETHNOPHARMACOL 31 (3). 1991. 277-282.

AB Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effects of hot-water extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves and Asteracanthus longifolia whole plant material on the glucose tolerance of normal human sub jects and maturity-onset diabetic patients. The extracts of both Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia significantly improved glucose tolerance in normal subjects and the diabetic patients when investigated at oral doses equivalent to 20 g/kg of starting material.

AU FERNANDO M.R., THABREW M.I., KARUNANAYAKE E.H.

TI HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN SRI LANKA. SO GEN-PHARMACOL 21 (5). 1990. 779-782.

AB Investigations were carried out to determine whether aqueous extracts of Osbeckia octandra, Artocarpus heterophyllus and Bambusa vulgaris truly possess oral hypoglycaemic activity. All three plant extracts significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose level and markedly improved glucose tolerance in Sprague-Dawley rats. A maximum hypoglycaemic activity was observed at +3 hr with 0. octandra and B. vulgaris; with A. heterophyllus a maximum effect was not observed even at +5 hr. The hypoglycaemic activity of 0. octandra was comparable with that of tolbutamide whlle that of A. heterophyllus or B. vulgaris was better than that of tolbutamide. The magnitude of the hypoglycaemic effects varied with the dosage used and the time of storage (except with A. heterophyllus, whose activity did not change with storage even up to 3 days )

TI TWO NEW NATURAL DIELS-ALDER-TYPE ADDUCTS FROM THE ROOT BARK OF ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYL LUS.

SO J-NAT-PROD (LLOYDIA) 53 (2). 1990. 391-395.

AB Two new Diels-Alder-type adducts, artonins C and D, were isolated from the Me2CO extract of the root bark of Artocarpus heterophyllus. The structures of artonins C and D were shown to be 1 and 2, respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Artonins C and D are regarded biogenetically as Diels-Alder type adducts of a dehydroprenylchalocone derivatice and chalcone derivatives. These two compounds are the first examples of natural Diels-Alder type adducts found in the plants of Artocarpus species.


AU PINEAU N., AUCOUTURIER P., BRUGIER J.C., PREUD-HOMME J.L.

TI JACALIN A LECTIN MITOGENIC FOR HUMAN CD4 T LYMPHOCYTES.

SO CLIN-EXP-IMMUNOL 80 (3). 1990. 420-425.

AB The maior protein component of seeds from jackfruits is the lectin jacalin. Jackfruit crude extracts are known to stimulate human lymphocytes, but the mitogenic properties of purified jacalin have not been studied in detail so far. Study of the proliferative response of cell populations from normal human peripheral blood to purified jacalin showed it to be mitogenic through an interaction with lymphocytes by its lectin-binding site, as shown by inhibition by IgA. Jacalin failed to stimulate B cells to proliferate and to undergo plasma cell maturation. It induced a proliferation of CD4 (and not CD8) lymphocytes, as shown by phenotypic analysis of cells recovered after culture and by studies of the response of isolated T cell subpopulations. The proliferative response to jacalin was autologous monocyte-dependent. The kinetics of jacalin-induced DNA synthesis, expression of CD25 and interleukin-2 secretion was shifted by comparison with that induced by phytohaemagglutinin. The reason for the restricted responsiveness of CD4 T cells is presently unclear; iacalin bound to all blood cells and did not significantly co-cap with CDl, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD38, and jacalin response was neither enhanced nor inhibited by antibodies to these surface antigens.

AU IBRAHIM M.N.M., VAN-DER-KAMP A., ZEMMELINK G., TAMMINGA S.

TI SOLUBILITY OF MINERAL ELEMENTS PRESENT IN RUMINANT FEEDS.

SO J-AGRIC-SCI 114 (3). 1990. 265-274.

AB Eight feeds were treated with seven solvents and the proportion of seven mineral elements (Ca, Mg, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn) released was assessed. Six of the feeds were from Sri Lanka (Panicum maximum ecotype Guinea A, Glyricidia maculata, Artocarpus heterophyllus, untreated and urea-treated rice straw, and rice bran) and two from the Netherlands (maize silage and wheat straw). The solvents were water, tris buffer, rumen fluid from a cow deprived of (RF-) or fed (RF+) mineral supplements, neutral detergent solution with (NDS+) or without (NDS-)and acid detergent solution (ADS). Both the type of feed and the solvent significantly influenced (P < 0.01) the amount of dry matter loss and the proportion of minerals released. Maize silage released over 80% of its minerals, except Cu, in water and tris buffer, probably because of the low pH (3.7) during ensiling. The other feeds differed widely in their ability to release minerals. In general, P, Na and K were more soluble in water than ca, Mg and Zn . Mineral concentration in RF influenced not only the amount of minerals released, but also the extent of absorption of the feed. The latter effect was more pronounced in feeds with low mineral concentration, maize silage being no exception. Treatment with NDS+ and ADS removed all minerals except Cu. With all feeds, 12-34% and 5-34% of the Cu remained in the ND and AD residues, respectively, indicating its association with the cell wall. Results of the NDS- treatment showed that some of the Ca and Mg may be associated with the cell wall. Comparison of the feeds across the different solvents tested indicated that, in terms of absolute quantity of mineral released, G. maculata could be a good source of Ca, Mg, K and Cu, and that rice bran is a good source of P and Zn. The variety of rice straw tested released high amounts of Na. A. heterophyllus is rich in available Ca.


AU PRASAD K.M.R., V I RU PAKSHA T.K.

TI PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A PROTEASE FROM JACKFRUIT LATEX.

SO PHYTOCHEMISTRY-OXF 29 (6). 1990. 1763-1766.

AB A crystalline protease, artocarpin, isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus fruit latex, consisted of a single polypeptide of Mr 79,500. The pH optimum was 8.0 and pI 6.3. It was activated by thiol reducing reagents, and inhibited by phenylmethylsulphonylfluoride (PMSF), but not by thiol-blocking reagents. Artocarpin appears to be a serine-centred protease with a relatively broad specifically towards peptide substrates.

AU SELVARAJ Y., PAL D.K.

TI BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES DURING THE RIPENING OF JACKFRUIT ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS L.

SO J-FOOD-SCI-TECHNOL 26 (6). 1989. 304-307.

AB Jackfruit (Varikha group) was analysed at four ripening stages for sugars, organic acids, amino acids, liquid constituents, respiration and aroma characteristics. Fruit firmness, alcohol insoluble solids, starch, tannins, soluble amino acids, phospholipids and .free fatty acids decreased during ripening. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, sugars: acid citric: malitc acid ration, total lipids, total fatty acids unsaponifiables and total sterols increased during ripening sixteen anmino acids were identified and their concentration varied during ripening. The same types of fatty acids were present in all stages. The respiration pattern of "bulbs" with seeds excised from mature fruits followed a typical climacteric rise while ripening. Initiation of aroma production coincided with the rise in respiration and maximum aroma production accounted during the post-climacteric decline in respiration. The volatiles collected at ripe stage were resolved by GLC to 38 components.

AU PINEAU N., POUSSET J.L., PREUD-HOMME J.L., AUCOUTURIER P.

TI STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL SIMILARITIES OF BREADFRUIT SEED LECTIN AND JACALIN.

SO MOL-IMMUNOL 27 (3). 1990. 237-240.

AB Aquous extracts from seeds of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) and Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) were compared by polyacrylamido gel electrophoresis. Two bands of the same size t12 and 15 kD) as the jacalin subunits were the maior components in breadfruit seed extract. They strongly reacted with anti-jacalin antibodies by western blotting. The breadfruit lectin displayed the same IgAl and IgD precipitation specificity as jacalin in gel double experiments. It also stimulated in vitro proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results suggest that lectins from both species of Artocarpus are very similar.


AU AUCOUTURIER P., PINEAU N., KOBAYASHI K., PREUD-HOMME J.L.

TI METHODOLOGICAL PITFALLS IN IMMUGLOBULIN SUBCLASS ASSAYS AN INVESTIGATION OF ANTI-IG SUBCLASS MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY AND J REACTIVITY.

SO POULIK, M. D. tED.). PROTIDES OF THE BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS PROCEEDINGS COLLOQUIUM, VOL. 36. LIPOPROTEINS IGG AND IGA SUBC CYTOFLUOROMETRY, MEETING, LONDON, ENGLAND, UK, APRIL 3-5, XIII+481P. PERGAMON PRESS: OXFORD, ENGLAND, UK; NEW YORK, USA. ILLUS. ISBN 0-08-037378-X. O (O). 1989. 61-70.


AU NAIR G.A., NAIR N.B., NAI T.V.

TI NUTRITIONAL BIOLOGY OF PORCELLIONIDES-PRUINOSUS BRANDT 1833 PORCELLIONDAE ONISCIDEA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CONVERSION EFFICIENCY.

SO FERRARA, F. (ED). MONITORE ZOOLOGICO ITALIANO MONOGRAFIA, 4; (ITALIAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, NO. 4); SECOND SYMPOSIUM ON THE BIOLOGY OF TERRESTRIAL ISOPODS; URBINO, ITALY, SEPTEMBER 10-12, 1986. XII+512P. UNIVERSITA DEGLI STUDI DI FIRENZE: FLORENCE, ITALY, ILLUS. MAPS. PAPER. O (O). 1989. 271-284.


AU BACKER E.T., HARFF G.A.

TI AUTOANTIBODIES TO LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN SERUM IDENTIFTED BY USE OF IMM08ILIZED PROTEIN G AND IMMOBILIZED JACALIN A JACKFRUIT LECTIN.

SO CLIN-CHEM 35 (11). 1989. 2190-2195.

AB In this method for identifying autoantibodies to lactate dehydrogenase (anti-LDs ) in serum, we used immobilized Protein G to bind IgG-compIexed LD and immobilized jacalin to bind IgA-complexed LD, leaving non-com-plexed LD in solution. The non-complexed LD and total LD were kinetically measured. We report results as LD bound to immobilized Protein G and LD bound to immobilized jacalin. Using sera demonstrating IgG and IgA anti-LDs by immunoelectrophoresis ( IEP), respectively, we optimized the method for incubation time and concentration of binding agents. We demonstrated concomitant binding of LD and . gtoreq . 98% of IgG and of LD and . gtoreq . 92-~ of IgA . For LD bound to immobilized Protein G the detection limit was 10 U/L, within-and between-run CVs ranged from 2.9% to 9.1%, and values for normal sera were . ltoreq. 3% of total LD. Results for LD bound to immobilized jacalin were similar. We tested 10 sera displaying aberrant LD electrophoretograms: In seven, LD bound to immobilized Protein G was increased (range: 26-99% of total LD), indicating IgA-complexed LD. This was confirmed by IEP, demonstrating IgGl, IgGl ,2, or IgG3 anti-LDs in these sera. In the other ~three sera, LD bound to immobilized jacalin was increased (range 38-72% of total LD), indicating IgA-complexed LD. This was confirmed by IEP, demonstrating IgA anti-LDs in these sera. Evidently this method is an alternative to IEP for identifying anti-LDs in serum.


AU DAULATABAD C.D., MIRAJKAR A.M.

TI RICINOLEIC ACID IN ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA SEED OIL.

SO J-AM-OIL-CHEM-SOC 66 (11). 1989. 1631.

AB Seed oil of Artocarpus integrifolia syn. Artocarpus heterophyllus belonging to the Moraceae family contains a small amount of ricinoleic acid (7.2%). The identification was made on the basis of-TLC, IR, NMR, MS and chemical degradation . The major components of the oil are linoleic acid (40.2%~ and palmitic acid (30.2%).

AU HAUN M., INCLEDON B., ALLES P., WASl S.

TI A RAPID PROCEDURE FOR THE PURIFICATION OF IGA-1 AND IGA-2 SUBCLASSES FROM NORMAL HUMAN SERUM USING PROTEIN G AND JACKFRUIT LECTIN JACALIN AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY

SO IMMUNOL-LETT 22 (4). 1989. 273-280. AB Immunoglobulin A (IgA) from pooled normal human sera was purified using antibody and protein G affinity chromatography and gel filtration high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). This high purity product was seperated into IgAl and IgA2 subclasses utilizing the agarose-bound lectin 'jacalin'. Evaluation of product homogeneity by immunological testing confirmed greater than 95% purity. The total IgAl and IgA2 recovered from sera was approximately 26~/. of the initial antibody present.


AU AUCOUTURlER P., PINEAU N., BRUGIER J.C., MIHAESCO E., SKVARIL F.D.F.,PREUD-HOMME J.L.

TI JACALIN A NEW LABORATORY TOOL IN lMMUNOCHEMISTRY AND CELLULAR IMMUNOLOGY.

SOJ-CLIN-LAB-ANAL 3 (4). 1989. 244-251.

AU AHMED H., CHATTERJEE B.P.

TI FURTHER CHARACTERIZATION AND IMMUNOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE CARBOHYDRATE SPECIFICITY OF JACKFRUIT ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA LECTIN.

SO J-BIOL-CHEM 264 (16). 1989. 9365-9372.

AB The lectin for jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) seeds has beenpurified by Rivanol ( 6, 9-diamino-2-ethoxyacridine lactate) treatment.

The specific activity, molecular weights of parent lectin and its subunit, its glycoprotein nature, and hemagglutination-inhibition assays suggest that this preparation is identical to that obtauned by affinity chromatography on melibiose-agarose adsorbent ~Ahmed, H., and Chatterjee, B. P. (1986) in Lectins, Biology, Biochemistry, Clinical Biochemistry (Bog-Hansen, T. C., and van Driessche, E., eds) Vol. 5, pp. 125-133, Walter de Gruyter, New York). The lectin strongly agglutinates human and several animal erythrocytes. The lectin contains 5 isolectins of pI values 7.1, 6.85, 5.5, 5.3, and 5. 1. It is thermally stable and leses its activity above 75 . degree. C. The hemagglutinating activity remains unchanged in the presence o~ bivalent cations viz., Ca2+, M~2+, Mn2+. etc. It is a metalloprotein. The lectin retains its activity by dialysis with acetic acid followed by EDTA. It agglutinates Ehrlich ascites cells. Equilibrium dialysis of lectin with melibiose and quenching of fluorescence of 4-methylumbelliferyl-.alpha.-D-galactopyranoside by the lectin show that hometetrameric jackfruit lectin has two sugar-binding sites. The lectin precipitates well several galactomannans and glycoproteins having terminal D-Gal-.alpha.-(l .fwdarw. 6)- or D Gal-.beta.-(l .fwdarw. 3)-D-GalNAc residues. It hardly or does not precipitate polysaccharides having terminal D-Gal- . alpha . -(1. fwdarw. 3) residues. Quantitative precipitin-inhibition studies using various haptens suggest that the -OHC2- group at C-l and -OH groups at C-4 and partially at C-6 in the .alpha.-glycoside of D-galactose configuration are important for lectin-sugar interaction.

AU DE VINCENZI M., BADELLINO E., DI FOLCO S., DRACOS A., MAGLIOLA M., STACCHINI A., STACCHINI P., SILANO V.

TI A BASIS FOR ESTIMATION OF CONSUMPTION LITERATURE VALUES FOR SELECTED FOOD VOLATILES PART I I I.

SO FOOD-ADDIT-CONTAM 6 (2). 1989. 235-268.

AB Quantitative data on volatile compounds have been reported in 16 food items. No publications reported quan~itative data were found far two of these 16 food products, i.e. avocado and jackfruit- About 550 volatile compounds have been assayed globally in the other 14 food products. Mango and raspberry were the products with the greatest number of volatile compounds; the most representative substances were benzaldehyde, ethyl acetate, limonene and 2-phenylethanol.

AU CAN[)LISH J.K., GOURLEY L., LEE H.P.

TI DIETARY FIBER AND STARCH IN SOME SOUTHEAST ASIAN FRUITS.

SO J-FOOD-COMPOS-ANAL 1 (1~ . 1987. 81-84.

AB The levels of dietary fiber and its components and starch in those fruits which are extensively grown and consumed in Southeastern Asia have been determined using the Southgate procedure. The rich sources of dietary fiber among the 24 fruits examined were Achras zapota (sapodilla), Artocarpus polyphernia (jackfruit, chempedak),

and Psidium guajava (guava).

AU DHANARAJ V., PATANJALI S.R., SUROLIA A., VIJAYAN M.

TI PREPARATION AND PRELIMINARY X-RAY STUDIES OF TWO CRYSTAL FORMS OF THE ANTI-T LECTIN FROM JACKFRUIT ARTOCARPUS-INTEGRIFOLIA.

SO J-MOL-BIOL 203 (4). 1988. 1135-1136.

AB The anti-T lectin from jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) has been crystallized in two distinct forms. One of them is monoclinic, P21, with a = 84.1 .ANG., b = 92.5 .ANG., C = 168.2 .ANG. (1 .ANG. = 0.1 nm) and .beta. = 90.2.degree., while the other is orthorhombic, P212121, with a = 92 . 5 . ANG., b = 98 . 7 . ANG. and c = 164 . 5 . ANG. Both the crystal forms contain eight tetrameric molecules (Mr. apprxeq . 40, 000) in the unit cell.


AU AUCOUTURIER P., DUARTE F., MIHAESCO E., PINEAU N., PREUD-HOMME J.L.

TI JACALIN THE HUMAN IGAl AND IGD PRECIPITATING LECTIN ALSO BINDS IGA2 OF BOTH ALLOTYPES .

SO J-IMMUNOL-METHODS 113 (2). 1988. 185-192.

AB The lectin jacalin from jackfruit seeds shows a human IgA-subclass

specificity by gel precipitation and Western blotting. However, its rareity with IgA2 is a matter of controversy. We further studied the munoglobulin isotype specificity of jacalin by affinity chromatograPhy with myeloma sera and by inhibition of jacalin binding to solid-phase IgAl by purified monoclonal immunoglobulins. The lectin proved to bind IgA2 of both allotypes with a lower apparent affintiy than for IgAl and IgD.

AU ARYA A., PANDEY R.S., LAL B.

TI STEM CANKER AND DIE BACK DISEASES OF CERTAIN FRUIT TREES.

SO ACTA-BOT-INDICA 15 (1). 1987. 141-142.

AB A new stem canker of Mangifera indica L. incited by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Maug. ex Fr.) Ces. & de Not (ident. Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. & Dugg.) and two new dieback diseases of jackfruit and Indian gooseberry caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. are described from Allahabad and adjoining districts.


AU KONDOH H., KOBAYASH I.K.

TI ELIMINATION OF UNDESIRABLE IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONTAMINANTS INCLUDING AGGREGATED IGG FROM GAMMA GLOBULIN PREPARATIONS BY JACKFRUIT LECTIN AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY.

SO CLIN-CHIM-ACTA 174 (1). 1988. 15-24.

AB Jackfruit lectin, jacalin, has been characterized to combine with IgA of only IgAl subclass but not with IgA2 subclass and other immunoglobulins. However, we found in the present study that a lectin from another batch of jackfruit (Jacalin-H) showed a different nature in binding reaction. Jacalin-H combined with immunoglobulins of every class or subclass except monomer IgG. More interestingly, the Jacalin-H also combined with aggregated IgG. By means of the Jacalin-H affinity chromatography, we could efficiently eliminate aggregated IgF as well as immunoglobulins other than monomer IgG from commercial gamma-globulin preparations. Jacalin-H affinity chromatography is easy, inexpensive and efficient in the elimination of undesirable immunoglobulin contaminants in the commercial gamma-globulin prepartions.


AU AHMED H., CHATTERGEE B.P.

TI PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ALPHA-D GALACTOSYL-BINDING LECTIN FROM THE SEED OF JACKFRUIT ANTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA.

SO BOG-HANSEN, T. C. AND E. VAN DRIESSCHE (ED. ). LECTINS: BIOLOGY,

BIOCHlEMISTRY, CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY. VOL. 5. IUB ( INTERNATIONAL UNION OF BIOCHEMISTRY) SYMPOSIUM NO. 144 HELD AT THE SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL LECTIN MEETING, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM, AUGUST 18-23,1985, XVI+71P WALTER DE GRUYTER AND Co.: BERLIN, WEST GERMANY; NEW YORK, NEW YORK, USA. ILLUS. ISBN 3-010699-X; ISBN 0-89925-102-1. 0 (O). 1986. 1 2 5 - 1 3 4.


AUCHOWDHURY B., CHATTERJEE B.P.

TI PURIFICATIQN OF A GALACTOMANNAN FROM SEEDS OF POINCIANA-PULCHERRIMA LINN. USING.) JACKFRUIT LECTIN IMM0BILIZED AFFINITY ADSORBENT AND ITS STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION.

SO INDIAN-J-CHEM-SECT-B-ORG-CllEM-INCL-MED-CHEM 26 (7). 1987. 637-641.

AB A galactomannan from the seeds of Poinciana pulcherrima Linn. has been purified by affinity chromatography on the column of jackfruit lectin covalently coupled to Sepharose 4B. The polysaccharide on hydrolysis affords D-mannose and -galactose in the mol ratio of 3 :1. Methylation analysis has been conducted on the polysaccharide and the results have been corroborated by those from periodate oxidation followed by Smith degradation studies. The anomeric configuration of the sugar units in the galactomannan has been determined by chromium trioxide oxidation of the acetylated polysaccharide as well as gel diffusion studies using different lectins.


AU KONDOH H., KOBAYASH I.K., HAGIWARA K.

TI A SIMPLE PROCEDURE FOR THE ISOLATION OF HUMAN SECRETORY IGA OF IGAl AND IGA2 SUBCLASS BY A JACKFRUIT LECTIN JACALIN AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY.

SO MOL-IMMUNOL 24 (11). 1987. 1219-1222.

AB Jackfruit lectin, jacalin, prepared from two batches of jackfruit seeds showed a different specificity in precipitating reaction in Agarose gel with various purified immunoglobulins and secretory components. Jacalin-D, extracted from jackfruit seeds from the Philippines, reacts only with serum IgA and IgAl subclass. Jacalin-O, extracted from jackfruit seeds from Okinawa prefecture in Japan, makes a strong precipitin arc with IgAl subclass and a weak precipitin arc with IgA2 subclass of IgA2m(2) allotype, IgM, IgD and IgE Human secretory IgA of IgAl subclass was isolated from human milk by a single jacalin-P affinity chromatography using D-galactose as a dissociating agent. From conventionally purified human secretory IgA preparation, secretory IgA of IgAl subclass and of IgA2 subclass were separated from each other. The former was separated as jacalin-P adsorbed fraction and the latter as iacalin-P non-adsorbed fraction by the affinity chromatosraPhy. Subclass composition of secretory IgA in human milk was determined by the affinity column and was calculated to be 70% for IgAl and 30% for IgA2 subclass. Jacalin affinity chromatography has several advantages compared with antibody coupled affinity chromatography, notably high capacity, inexpensiveness, and very mild extraction of IgAl subclass.

AU PRAPUNPO I.P., CHULAVATNATOL M.

TI APPLICATIONS OF JACK FRUIT LECTIN IN STUDYING SPERM SURFACE AND IN SPERM FRACTIONATION.

SO KON, O. L., ET AL. (ED.) ICSU (INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC UNIONS) SHORT REPORTS. VOL. 6. CONTEMPORARY THEMES' IN BIOCHEMISTRY; 4TH FEDERATION OF ASIAN OCEANIAN BIOCHEMISTS CONGRESS, SINGAPORE, NOVEMBER 30-DECEMBER 5, 1986. XXXVII+715P. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS: CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND, UK; NEW YORK, NEW YORK, USA. ILLUS. ISBN 0-521-33269-9. 0 ~ 1987 (RECD. 1987). 280-201.

AU AUCOUTURIER P., MIHAESCO E., MIHAESCO C., PREUD-H0MME J.L.

TI CHARACTERIZATION OF JACALIN THE HUMAN IGA AND IGD BINDING LECTIN FROM JACKFRUIT.

SO MOL-IMMUNOL 24 (5). 1987. 503-512.

AB The lectin jacalin from the jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus reacts by precipitation and western blotting with human IgAl and IgD but not with IgA2 (nor IgG and IgM). However, it weakly binds IgA2 as shown by affinity chromatosraphy and competitive ELISA. Predominantly reactive carbohydrates are D-galactose and N-acetyl D-galactosamine. Jacalin has an apparent Mr of about 54,000 and is probably made up of three non-glycosylated and one glycosylated non-covalently linked subunits. Its electrophoretic properties and amino acid and carbohydrate composition are indicated.

AU PRAPUNPOJ P., CHULAVATANATOL M., SIR ISINHA S.

TI INTERACTION OF SERUM AND SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A FROM HUMANS AND OTHER MAMMALS WITH JACK-FRUIT LECTIN.

SO SEMI-ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY SOCIETY OF THAILAND, BANGKOK, THAILAND, OCTOBER 17, 1986. ASIAN-PACK-J-ALLERGY IMMUNOL 4 (2). 1986. 161-162.


AU AUCOUTURIER P., MIHAESCO E., MIHAESCO C., PREUDHOMME J.L.

TI CHARACTERIZATION OF JACALIN THE HUMAN IGA1 AND IGD PRECIPITATING LECTIN FROM JACKFRUIT.

SO JOINT MEETING OF THE GESELLSCHAFT FUER IMMUNOLOGIE (SOCIETY FOR IMMUNOLOGY) AND THE SOCIETE FRANCAISE D'IMMUNOLOGIE (FRENCH SOCIETY FOR IMMUNOLOGY), STRASBOURG, FRANCE, NOVEMBER 1922, 1986. IMMUNOBIOLOGY 173 (25). 1986. 280281.


AU HUNTER J.B., SURESH M.R., NOUJAIM A.A., HAGEN D.S., HEELEY D.H., MICETICH R.G.

TI ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A LECTIN FROM BREADFRUIT ARTOCARPUS ALTILIS SEEDS.

SO BIOCHEMARCH 2 (4). 1986. 319328.

AB Extracts from breadfruit and jackfruit seeds, with a high titer non

specific for human erythrocytes, produced immunoprecipitin reactions

of partial identity with antisera directed against Maclura pomifera

agglutinin. The breadfruit lectin (BFL) was purified by (NH4)2SO~

salt fractionation and afffinity chromatography on immobilized

beta.Dgal(13).alpha.galNAc. Gel filtration on BioGel P150

suggested a molecular weight around 44,500. SDS electrophoresis in

polyacrylamide gels revealed two dissimilar subunits of approximately

19,000 and 22,000 daltons. Amino acid analysis indicated a high

content of glycine and serine and low levels o~ histidine, arginine

and methionine. Purified BFL failed to agglutinate a variety of

bacterial strains, but may prove useful in tumor binding studies

because of its binding affinity to the Thomsen-Friederich (T) antigen.


AU KONDOH H., KOBAYASHI K., HAGIWARA K., KAJII T.

TI JACALIN A JACKFRUIT ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS LECTIN PRECIPITATE IMMUNOGLOBULIN A1 BUT NOT IMMUNOGLOBULIN A2 SUBCLASS ON GEL DIFFUSION REACTION.

SO JIMMUNOLMETHODS 88 (2). 1986. 171174.

AB Precipitation reaction in agarose gel between jacalin, a lectin from jackfruit seeds, and purified immunoglobulins of various classes and their components was studied. Single precipitation arcs were observed with monomeric and dimeric IgAl subclass as well as secretory IgAl, but not with IgA2 of both allotypes, IgG, IgM. IgD, IgE, free secretory component or with the J chain. Thus, jacalin can be used for differentiating IgAl from IgA2 subclass by a simple agarose gel diffusion.

AU WILLS R.B.H., LIM J.S.K., GREENFIELD H.

TT COMPOSITION AUSTRALIAN FOODS 31. TPOPICAL AND SUB-TROPICAL FRUIT.

SO FOODTECHNOLAUST 33 (3). 1986. 118120, 122123.

AB Avocado, banana, carambola, guava, Jackfruit, kiwifruit, lychee, loquat, mango, honey dew melon, rock melon, watermelon, olive, passionfruit, pawpaw, pepino, persimmon, pineapple, pcmegranate. prickly pear, rambutan, tamarillo and wax jambu were analysed and data for water, protein, fat, sugars (glucose , fructose, sucrose), starch, dietary fibre, organic acids (malic, citric, oxalic, succinic and quinic acids) ash, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, carotenoids (.alpha. and .beta. carotenes and cryptoxanthin), edible weight and energy are presented. Fatty acid composition and the P/M/S fatty acids ratio of avocado and olive are also presented. Sugar and Cavendish banana were purchased every two mcnths over a 12 month period and analysedfor water, vltamin C, sugars, starch and dietary fibre.


AU CHATTERJEE B.P., AHMED H., UHLENBRUCK G., JANSSEN E., KOLAR C., SEILER F.R.

TI JACKFRUIT ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA AND THE AGARICUS MUSHROOM LECTIN FIT ALSO TO THE SOCALLED PEANUT RECEPTOR

SO BEHRINGINSTMITT O (78). 1985. 148158.

AU AN0N

TI PROTECTING JACK FRUIT FROM ROTTING.

SO PESTICIDES-BOMBAY 19 (&). 1985. 47-48


AU MONCUR M.W.

TI FLORAL ONTOGENY OF THE JACKFRUIT ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS MORACEAE.

S0 AUSTJBOT 33 (5). 1985. 585594.

AB Scanning electorn micrographs of the jackfruit are presented, showing the development of the male and female inflorescences. An unusual feature is that the perianth segments in the female fuse in the middle region after anthesis. Primordia numbers decreased from 315 per mm2 at floral initiation to 0.26 per mm2 by completion of anthesis. At anthesis the males rotted before abscission, emitting a smell of overripe fruit which attracted large numbers of insects. No insects visited the females. Pollent was not shed readily after light physical disturbance, and would be expec~ed from a windpollinated species. These results are discussed in the light of conflicting views of whether anemophily or entomophily is the basic mode of pollination.

AU JAWALE A.N., PATIL V.K., MALEWAR G.U.

TI PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON NUTRIENT STATUS OF LEAVES OF JACKFRUIT ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF GROWTH.

SO PKV (PUNJABRAO KRISHI VIDYAPEETH) RES J 8 (1). 1984 (RECD. 1985. 6769.


AU NAMJUNTRA P., MUANWONGYATHI P., CHULAVATNATOL M.

TI A SPERMAGGLUTINATING LECTIN FROM SEEDS OF JACK FRUIT ARTOCARPUSHETEROPHYLLUS.

SO BIOCHEMBIOPHYSRESCOMMUN 128 (2). 1985. 833-839.

AB A lectin specific for Nacetylgalactosamine was isolated from seed extract of Jack fruit (A. heteroPhyllus) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by affinity chromatography on an Affigelgalactosamineagarose column. The lectin possessed agglutinating activities for human and rat sperm as well as human red blood cells. It was found to have MW = 62,000 consisting of 2 dissimilar subunits of MW = 18,000 and 13,000. It also crossreacted with an antibody against the lectin of Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera).


AU RAVINDRA~ V, RAJAGURU A.S.B., POTTER L.M., CHERRY J.A., KORNEGAY E.T.

TI EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL FEED INGREDIENTS OF TROPICAL ORIGIN IN POULTRY DIETS.

S0 73RD ANNUAL MEETING OF THE POULTRY SCIENCE ASS0CIATI0N. INC. POULTSCI 63 (SUPPL. 1). 1984. 168.


AU RASMUSSEN P.

TI IDENTIFICATION OF VOLATILE COMPONENTS OF JACKFRUIT ARTOCARPUSHETEROPHYLLUS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY WITH 2 DIFFERENT COLUMNS.

SO ANALCHEM 55 (8). 1983. 13311335.

AB A GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) method is descrlbed whereby a sample is routinely run on Z different GC columns. Matching of the mass spectra of the 2 runs gives 2 mass spectra and 2 retention indexes for many of the components of the sample. This information is compared with a small library o~ known spectra, using the retention indexes as windows to the library spectra to be examined. This leads to fast search times and very reliable identification of components. The use of 2 columns also increases the number of components that are clearly separated and helps in the assignment of isomeric structures.

AU CHATTERJEE B.P., UHLENBRUCK G.

TI OCCURRENCE OF AN ANTI THOMSEN FRIEDENREICH LIKE LECTIN IN JACKFRUIT SEEDS REACTING WITH A RECEPTOR IN ANT EGG GLYCO PROTEIN.

SO EXPERIENTAL  BASEL 38 (10). 1982. 1225  1226.

AU SOARES M.B.M., SEUANEZ H.N.

TI ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA JACKFRUIT LECTINS 2. MITOGENIC AND PRECIPITATING ACTIVITIES.

SO F~EVBRASGENET 5 (4). 1982 (RECD. 1983). 70972~.

AB Jacalin should not be used as a mitogenic agent in human and Rhesus lymphocyte cultures with a medium containing nonfetal bovine serum. Unsuccessful cultures were due to precipitation that occurred when iacalin molecules bound to serum proteins. Jacalin mitogenic molecules were involved ln the precipitation reaction together with serum proteins included in the .alpha.-2 globulins. The participation of serum antibodies in the precipitation reaction was ruled out. The presence of a precipitate in the culture medium was found to be associated with impaired cell growth in vitro. There was no evidence that cytotoxic products were being released from the precipitate into the medium. Jacalin molecules inducing blastic transformation and cell division in man and Rhesus are simultaneously hemagglutinating and precipitating. Different sites of the same molecule could be responsible for these 3 different biological activities.

AU SOARES M.B.M., SEUANEZ H.N.

TI ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA JACKFRUIT LECTINS 1. MITOGENIC AND AGGLUTINATING ACTIVITIES IN MAN AND RHESUS. S0 REV-BRAS-GENET 5 (3). 1982. 567-576.

AB Saline extracts of A. interifolia (jackfruit) seeds were used as mi.o3~n in whole blood and isolated lymphocyte cultures of man and rhesus. Extracts; here capable of inducing blast transformation and cell division in isolated lymphocyte cultures, this being particularly relevant in rhesus cultures where phytohemagglutinin is a poor m~ogen absorption with human erythrocyte membranes eliminated both the erythroagglutinating and mitogenic activities in man and rhesus. In man and rhesus, lectin molecules capable of inducing blast transformation and cell division are also erythroagglutinating, although different sites of the same molecules or different monomer units of a large multimeric molecule may be responsible for these 2 activities.


AU BUNN-M0REN0 M.M., CAM~-Ntl U.A.

TI LECTINS EXTRACTED FRCM SEEDS OF ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA JACKFRUIT POTENT AND SELECTIVE STIMULATORS OF DISTINCT HUMAN T CELL AND B CELL FUNCTIONS.

S0 J-IMtlUN0~ 127 (2). 1981. ~27-~29.

AB A lectin activity that selectively induces different functions of human lymphocytes was described in a PBS (phosphate-buffered saline) crude extract obtained from the seeds of A. integrifolia (jackfruit). Unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and purified T cells are strongly stimulated to proliferate by this extract; purified B cells are not. The lectin induced a potent polyclonal activation of B cells measured by a reverse he~olytic plaque assav using a multivalent anti-human Fab antibody.


AUBOBBIO F.O., EL DASH A.A., ROBBIO P.A., RODRIGUES L.R.

TIISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE STARCH OF JACKFRUIT SEEDS ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS

SOCEREAL-CHEM 55 (4). 1978 505-511.

ABStarch was isolated from jackfruit seeds (A.heterophyllus Lam) and purified (starch yield 25-40% of total solids). The starch was characterized by rounded or bell-shaped granules ranging in size from 7-11. mu., with an amylose content of 28.1% and a D-glucose composition of more than 99%. The starch formed a highly rigid gel. The initial pasting temperature was 74.5 degree C, with a peak viscosity of 94. degree C; the granules were not susceptible to breakdown by thermal or mechanical sheer.


AUSWORDS G., BOBBIO P.A., HUNTER G.L.K.

ITVOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF JACKFRUIT ARTOCARPUS-HETEROPHYLLUS

SOJ-FOOD-SCI 43 (2). 1978 639-640

ABUsing a combination of gas chromatography and spectrometry, 20 major components from an extract of distillate from jack fruit were identified. Of these, 16 were easters and 4 aliphatic alcohols. The total absence of terpenoids in jack fruit is unique in the plant kingdom.


AURAHMAN A.K.M.M., HUQ E., MIAN A.J., CHESSON A.

TIMICROSCOPIC AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OCCURRING DURING THE RIPENING OF TWO FORMS OF JACKFRUIT (ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS L.).

SOHORTICULTURAL ABSTRACT 65(8).1995. 957 (M/SO- FOOD CHEMISTRY 52(4). 1995. 405-410).

ABTrees known to produced 2 distinct textural forms of jackfruit, in which the fruits either remain firm when ripe or became soft and pulpy, were sampled when fruits were immature (10-11 weeks after anthesis) and judged ripe (15-16 weeks after anthesis). DM content of edible perianth increased with maturity from 125 to 215 and 140 to 240 g/kg wet weight perianth in the firm and soft fruits, respectably. Perianth from immature fruits had a high water insoluble DM content (840-890 g/kg Dm) consisting largely of cell wall materials (450-530 g/kg DM) and starch (approximately 330 g/kg DM). Microscopic examination of fruits at this stage showed the perianth to contain thin-walled cell packed with starch granules, some organised into distinct clusters. In ripen fruits the starch ( 20-110 g/kg DM) and cell wall (170-200 g/kg DM) contents were substantially reduced, the 10g of hydrolysis being greatest in the soft form. Cell maceration and starch dissolution were evident in both forms of the fruit when examined by light microscopy, but were more pronounced in the soft form. Concominent with the decrease in water-soluble DM was a substantial increase of water soluble materials ( 660-790 g/kg DM) and sucrose (approximately 95 g/kg DM). Mannitol (22-68 g/kg DM) was also found in ripe but not immature fruits. Concentration of low molecular weight carbohydrate was greatest in the soft form. Polygalactonase and pectin esterase activities were 12-fold and 40- fold higher in ripe fruits of the soft form than in those of the firm form. This was reflected in the greater extent of tissue maceration and loss of homogalacturonan in the soft form. Since both forms of fruit demonstrated a common pattern of ripening, texaral differences evidently related to the extent of change which was greatest in the soft form. The firm form of jackfruit may represent fruits in which cell wall degradation is arrested or delayed during ripening and possibly this was related to a reduced capacity to produced pectic and other cell wall degrading enzyme.

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