Module 1: Adult Learning Theories and Cognitive and Social Cognitive Theories




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3/30/2009 10:27 PM

Module 1

Module 1: Adult Learning Theories and Cognitive and Social Cognitive Theories

Week 1


Required and Recommended Readings for Module 1


e-Text Required Readings for Graduate Nursing Majors: Chapter 2 “Learning Theories” pages 15-36 These pages include cognitive and adult learning theory. You may also want to read the chapter 12, “Promoting and Assessing Critical Thinking”. Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators, 2009 (2nd ed.), Sandra DeYoung.


e-Text Recommended Readings for Graduate Nurse Majors: The netlibrary through SAU library electronic books has the following ebook Nurse As Educator: Principles of Teaching and Learning Jones and Bartlett Series in Nursing by Bastable, Susan Bacorn. Publication: Sudbury, Mass. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Inc., 1997.


Module 1 Recommended Textbook Readings for All Students: Pages 271-298. Learning in Adulthood, A Comprehensive Guide, 2007 (3rd. ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., San Francisco, CA. Note: the 1999 edition is available online through SAU library electronic books netlibrary.


eBook Recommended Readings for Graduate Education Majors: Thinking in Education
2Nd Ed. by Lipman, Matthew. Publication: Cambridge, New York Cambridge University Press, 2003. Chapter 2, page 28 “Approaches to Teaching Thinking, Enter the Critical Thinking Movement” provides an excellent overview of the thinking movement. Also, read about the misconceptions about teaching for thinking (page 72) and then how to build an inquiry community of thinkers (page 83). The graphic (page 200) provides a good visual definition of multidimensional thinking. This book is available online through SAU library electronic books netlibrary


e-Text Recommended Readings for Graduate Education Majors: Learning in the Museum
Museum Meanings by Hein, George E.Publication: London, New York Taylor & Francis Routledge, 1998. Available at netlibrary through SAU library electronic books. Read chapters Chapters 1-2


Module 1 Essential Questions

  1. What is learning?

  2. What are learning theories and their functions?

  3. How are learning theories different from philosophies and teaching models?

  4. What are the critical attributes and classroom applications of adult learning theories, cognitive, and social cognitive learning theories?

  5. What is the connection between learning theory and instructional strategies?

Extending the Learning: Additional areas of research students may want to explore include the following topics listed in Learning in Adulthood, A Comprehensive Guide: transformational learning, experience and learning, embodied, spiritual and narrative learning, learning and knowing non-western perspectives. Also, thinking and critical thinking skills are important topics.


Module 1 Assignments and Evaluation

Due Date: Assignments and Quiz are due by Sunday Midnight at the end of the first week/beginning of the second week.

Creating a Personal Page on the Theories Wiki Site: Go to the wiki site NOW and create your account. This wiki is open to the public. http://theories.wikispaces.com/ You will create your own page on the Theories Wiki site.


Theories Wiki Assignment:

1. Theories Knowledge Base: During Module 1, you will create your wiki page and include information which addresses one or more of the Essential Questions and/or Extending the Learning topics listed for Module 1. Your posting must be at least 4 paragraphs long, with each paragraph consisting of at least 5 sentences and contain at least two links to an external URL, which could include videos, articles, and/or favorite websites linking to important people, issues, concepts or principles which extend the readers knowledge of your posting. See the Wiki Page Rubric for grading criteria.


Other requirements for Module 1 and 2 Theories Wiki assignment:

  • At least one of your postings must include an image file, sized no larger than 300 x 300.

  • You should refine or enhance at least one posting created by others in the class.

Total Points 20

Discussion Board:

Graduate Nursing Majors: Post on the Wiki discussion board the following:

(1) A brief description of your professional experiences, your professional goals and one thing most people don’t know about you.

(2) Respond to the case study on page 35 of the required e-text, Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators, 2009 (2nd ed.), Sandra DeYoung. Your response to the case study should be 2-3 paragraphs and each paragraph should contain not less than 4 sentences. Also, you will respond to at least one (1) posting by another student.

Graduate Education Majors: Post on the Wiki discussion board the following:

(1) A brief description of your professional experiences, your professional goals and one thing most people don’t know about you.

(2) Respond to the following scenario: You are making a one hour presentation to 20 elementary teachers for a required professional development session, after school, Your topic is “Engaging Learners in Active Thinking”. You can tell by teachers’ expressions whispered comments, and papers for grading, they are not enthusiastic about the session. Describe how you would begin the session and engage the teachers throughout the session. Also, you will respond to at least one (1) posting by another student.

See Wiki Discussion Board Rubric for grading criteria. Total Points: 10


Module 1 Quiz: There will be an online quiz over Model 1 Essential Questions and Essential Questions listed on the Adult Learning and Cognitive and Social Cognitive documents included in Module 1. The quiz will be 10 multiple choice questions and you will have 15 minutes to complete the quiz. Total Points: 5

Planning Ahead


Review Modules 2 and note the assignments. Determine which learning theory will be your focus on the Theories Wiki page and begin collecting websites and information. Also, for Module 3, determine a lesson plan topic and begin collecting information about the connections between learning theory(s) and the instructional strategies. Review the assignments for Module 4, select one of the options and begin creating a list of resources, websites, video’s and images for your paper.


Module 1 Getting Started

To better understand the purpose of this module, Click here. (instructor video). The purpose of this module is to learn more about how adults learn and cognitive and social cognitive learning theories. But first, it’s important to define learning and theory. As you learn more about cognitive and social cognitive learning theories you will make connections with instructional strategies which support these theories. There are a multitude of websites and resources provided throughout Module 1 which provide a wide variety of resources as you create your Theories Wikki page. Carefully read the Essential Questions for both the adult learning content and the cognitive and social cognitive learning theories. The Essential Questions provide a framework for Module 1 and can provide a guide as you develop the content for your Theories Wikki page and also as you study for the Module 1 quiz.


Module 1 Content: Defining Learning Theory


Introduction

Learning Theories -- A Primer Exercise

http://academics.rmu.edu/~tomei/ed711psy/learning.jpg


What are your beliefs about learning? Click on the following website, scroll down and answer the 8 questions, “I believe…” http://academics.rmu.edu/~tomei/ed711psy/1lngtheo.htm


What is learning? Each person is unique with his or her own behavior patterns, ways of thinking and behaving. “Learning is the mechanism by which an individual becomes a compentently functioning member of society (Gagne,1977a). The importance of learning is that it is responsible for all the skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values that are acquired by human beings. Learning, therefore, results in a variety of different kinds of behaviors, referred to by Gagne (1972, 1977a as capabilities (Gelder, 2001)


What are the sources of knowledge about learning? Gelder (2001) includes folklore such as customs, tales or sayings, proverbs and maxims, traditional wisdom and myths which were replaced gradually by logically consistent belief systems called philosophies. These early beliefs have influenced theoretical developments and educational practice. “Philosophy provides a coherent set of values about the nature of reality, truth, beauty and knowledge.” Empirical research done by people such as Edward L. Thorndike in the 1920’s started the “golden age of empiricism” characterized by collection of data, surveys, questionnaires and many studies on school life. A fourth source of knowledge about learning is theory.


Click here to start answering the question, “What is a learning theory?” (Instructor video)


What makes a learning theory a theory? A theory is a set of broad principles which can be tested. As you view the BoBo Doll video you will see a demonstration of testing a theoretical principle. A theory explains the underlying psychological events related to learning. For example, why is modeling and reinforcement important to the learning process? Theory explains the psychological events related to modeling and reinforcement. Also, all important terms included in a theory are defined. For example, modeling is defined, reinforcement is defined, cognitive is defined. Definitions provide clarity and understanding of the theory. Finally, a theory is based upon a set of assumptions which can be clearly described – explicit assumptions. For example, we could make the assumption that if adults model negative behavior, children will learn negative behavior. Other words, a learning theory is not about how we organize instruction or how we instruct students, a theory is not tangible but it does help us better understand how students learn.


To summarize, a theory starts with , 1) a set of explicit assumptions 2) key terms are defined 3) derive from the assumptions specific, testable principles, 4) theory should be able to explain the underlying psychological events related to learning. (P 8-11).


Learning theories can be grouped in various ways but typically fall into one of three major categories that share common elements: Behaviorist Theories, Cognitivist Theories and Constructivist, Social, and Situational Theories.


Other researched-based theories and models, categorized as Miscellaneous Theories and Models, such as adult learning theory, motivation theory and multiple intelligence theory, contribute to the educators knowledge base about how students learn but do not necessarily fully meet the theory criteria. Also, it should be noted that Brain-Based Learning (BBL) grew out of Neuroscience & Constructivism and educators should be cautious about making classroom applications.”


As you review the many links, resources and materials on adult learning and cognitive and social cognitive theories you will acquire the necessary information to create and post information on your Theories Wikki page. I look forward to reading your work on your theories Wikki page.


What are the four primary functions of learning theory? Gelder (2001) lists, “1) serves as a guide for planning instruction 2) evaluates current products for classroom use and current practice 3) diagnoses problems in classroom instruction 4) Evaluates research conducted on theories (p16).


Module 1 Content: Adult Learning Theories and Classroom Applications


Student Outcomes: The following resources on adult learning theories provide a starting gate for student research and investigation to answer the following questions:


Essential Question: What are the critical attributes and classroom applications of adult learning theories?

  1. What is andragogy?

  2. How did adult learning theory develop and who were important researchers?

  3. What are the connections between adult learning theory and cognitive and social cognitive learning theories?

  4. How does the structure of knowledge, prior knowledge and experience impact the professional development needs of adult learners?



Introduction for Graduate Nurse Educators (Scroll/Control/Click)


http://tbn3.google.com/images?q=tbn:i2sh-qeavewx6m:http://www.nursing.gr/theory/drawing%2520puzzle.jpg


Introduction for Graduate Education and Nursing Majors

What is andragogy and how does the term compare and contrast with pedagogy? (Scroll/Control/Click)


see full size image


The following website provides a list of learning theories. Click “Andragogy” to compare and contrast with pedagogy. http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Admin/TOC/index.htm


How did adult learning theory develop and who were important researchers?

“Malcolm Knowles might well be considered the founding father of adult learning. He contrasted the “concept of andragogy, meaning “the art and science of helping adults learn,”…with pedagogy, the art and science of helping children learn” (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999, p. 272). Knowles’ original studies and writings arose from the assumption that there are significant, identifiable differences between adult learners and learners under the age of eighteen. Primarily, the differences, according to Knowles, relate to an adult learner being more self-directing, having a repertoire of experience, and being internally motivated to learn subject matter that can be applied immediately – learning that is especially “closely related to the developmental tasks of his or her social role” (p. 272). http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Learning_Theories/Adult_Learning_Theories


Malcolm Knowles, a famous adult educator, whose ideas became widely known during the 1970's. His beliefs about adult learners continue to influence the work of adult educators today…” Click here to learn more about Knowles findings and the findings of more current researchers. http://liad.gbrownc.on.ca/programs/insadult/fovervie.htm


How did adult learning theory develop, who were important researchers and how do their findings “fit” a diverse adult learning society ?

While many believe adult learners are more self-directed and internally motivated, adult learners also cope with a variety of critical issues while attending school, such as economic barriers, internal family stressors and organizational obstacles.

Read chapters 3 and 4 in the following ebook found through SAU library home page at www.netlibrary.com to learn more about critical theory and the stories of struggling adult learners.

Adult Students At-risk: Culture Bias in Higher Education
Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series

by Quinnan, Timothy William.; Tierney, William G.
Publication: Westport, Conn. Bergin & Garvey, 1997.


Also, read chapters 2 and 3 and pages 57 and 48 in the following ebook written by an Australian author challenges standard beliefs about adult learning and the differences between andragogy and pedagogy, available through SAU library home page at www.netlibrary.com


Making Space: Merging Theory and Practice in Adult Education

by Sheared, Vanessa; Sissel, Peggy A.
Publication: Westport, CT Bergin & Garvey, 2001.


Digging Deeper and Making Applications of Adult Learning Theory


see full size image

Scroll/Control/Click

What critical features of cognitive structures and adult learning theory should be considered when professional development activities are designed for educators and/or teaching/training adults?


see full size image


Scroll/Control/Click


How does the structure of knowledge, prior knowledge and experience impact the professional development needs of adult learners? Read Part Three, Memory, Cognition and the Brain and note chapter 9 on memory in the following ebook, available through SAU library home page at www.netlibrary.com


Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide
Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series

by Merriam, Sharan B.; Caffarella, Rosemary S.
Publication: San Francisco Jossey Bass, 1999.


This website on “Chunking” describes a valuable cognitive strategy for developing memory skills. Click HERE to learn more. http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Admin/TOC/index.htm


How do adults’ learning journeys from novice to expert change the traveler? Read the introduction for key terms and an overview then explore chapters of interest in the following ebook available through SAU library home page at www.netlibrary.com


Professional Learning : Gaps and Transitions On the Way From Novice to Expert
Innovation and Change in Professional Education ; V. 2

Author:

Boshuizen, Henny P. A.; Bromme, Rainer; Gruber, Hans

Publication:

Dordrecht Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.


Planning professional development activities for adults? Click here for smart ideas. http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/methods/technlgy/te10lk12.htm


What connections can be made between social, and situational theories and adult learning theory?


The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model for Adult Learning is presented in the following ebook designed for teacher educators. However, the model can be applied to nurse educators as they create professional development opportunities. This book is available through SAU library home page at www.netlibrary.com


Learning Along the Way : Professional Development By and for Teachers

Author:

Sweeney, Diane.

Publication:

Portland, Me Stenhouse Publishers, 2003.












Module 1 Content: Cognitive and Social Cognitive Learning Theories and Classroom Applications


Student Outcomes: The following resources on cognitive and social cognitive learning theories provide a starting point for student research and investigation to answer the following questions:


Essential Questions: What are the critical attributes and classroom applications of cognitive and social cognitive learning theories?

a. How are they defined and described and what are key terms?

b. Who are two or more major researchers?

c. What are two or more assumptions and/or principles of the theories?

d. What applications of the theories can be applied to adult education and/or classroom instruction?


INTRODUCTION

For a brief introduction to social cognitive learning go to the following site. Note you can click the buttons on the left to briefly review other learning theories.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.innovativelearning.com/educational_psychology/images/recipcausation.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.innovativelearning.com/educational_psychology/social/index.htm&usg=__kB-dzAGT9Uw6XkSS-zDTAJX8t2k=&h=496&w=622&sz=19&hl=en&start=3&tbnid=_oPUOOCwvsB1yM:&tbnh=108&tbnw=136&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsocial%2Bcognitive%2Blearning%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3D


http://www.innovativelearning.com/educational_psychology/images/recipcausation.jpg


The following 4 minute clip provides a brief introduction to Bandura’s social cognitive learning. The video is narrated by Albert Bandura.


http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=social+cognitive+theory&www_google_domain=www.google.com&hl=en&emb=0&aq=0&oq=social+cogni#


Another film by Davidson films is the Bobo Doll Experiment. There are several short clips. Click the pictures on the bottom to learn about the Bobo Doll experiment, social cognitive theory and other related topics as told by Alberto Bandura on the website listed below.


http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=bobo+doll+experiment&www_google_domain=www.google.com&hl=en&emb=0&aq=1&oq=%22Bobo+Do#


DIGGING DEEPER INTO AND MAKING APPLICATIONS OF COGNITIVE AND SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORIES


Paul Bloom is Professor of Psychology at Yale University. He is the author of over 50 scientific publications in psychology, linguistics, and cognitive science, and has written or edited four books. He serves as Associate Editor for Developmental Psychology and Language and Cognitive Processes. His research explores the nature of language and thought, primarily from a developmental perspective. Click on the following website to learn more about Bandura’s social cognitive learning. Bloom includes Bandura’s two processes well known to educators—guided instruction and modeling—promote cognitive development in children (1989, p.13). The website includes a short clip on those two issues.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.edb.utexas.edu/robinson/bandura/images/image006.png&imgrefurl=http://www.edb.utexas.edu/robinson/bandura/socialcognitive.htm&usg=__NEsqzfRsm48r3Z1pRWJcW-9mnjg=&h=107&w=85&sz=11&hl=en&start=2&tbnid=8QyrXO3v7v5YQM:&tbnh=85&tbnw=68&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dyale%2Buniversity%2Blectures%2B%2522social%2Bcognitive%2Btheory%2522%26ndsp%3D21%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DG


Recommended e-Text for Graduate Nursing Students : e-Text Teaching, Read pages 15-23 “Cognitive Learning Theories” in Strategies for Nurse Educators, 2009 (2nd ed.), Sandra DeYoung. Note the Case Study on page 35.


Recommended e-Text for All Students: Learning Theories, A to Z by Leonard, David C.
Publication: Westport, Conn. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002. Click on “S” then “Social Cognitive Theory” While reading the section click on embedded links. http://www.netlibrary.com.ezproxy.southern.edu:2048/Reader/


Recommended Textbook Readings for All Students: Pages 284-290, “Cognitive Orientation”, “Social Cognitive Orientation”. Learning in Adulthood, A Comprehensive Guide, 2007 (3rd. ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., San Francisco, CA. Note: the 1999 edition is available online through SAU library electronic books. http://www.netlibrary.com.ezproxy.southern.edu:2048/Reader/


What instructional strategies reflect cognitive and social cognitive learning theories? Click HERE for Summary of Learning Theories, Goals, Roles and Instructional Strategies document. Note the lists of strategies for each of the learning theories.


What are examples of lesson plans based upon cognitive and/or social cognitive learning theories? Click HERE for Teaching Concepts and Lesson Formats document. Observe the lesson sequence for using a Concept Attainment strategy and the Taba Model.


Click HERE for Synectics Lesson Plan. Note the use of metaphors and similies.


Click HERE for a Cooperative Learning Lesson Plan. Note the critical attributes of a cooperative learning lesson. Source: http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/cooperativelearning.htm#elements

5 Elements of Cooperative Learning

It is only under certain conditions that cooperative efforts may be expected to be more productive than competitive and individualistic efforts. Those conditions are:

1. Positive Interdependence  
(sink or swim together)

  • Each group member's efforts are required and indispensable for group success

  • Each group member has a unique contribution to make to the joint effort because of his or her resources and/or role and task responsibilities

 

http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/j0078781.gif

2. Face-to-Face Interaction  
(promote each other's success)

  • Orally explaining how to solve problems

  • Teaching one's knowledge to other

  • Checking for understanding

  • Discussing concepts being learned

  • Connecting present with past learning

 

http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/football.gif

3. Individual 
&
Group Accountability

( no hitchhiking! no social loafing)

  • Keeping the size of the group small. The smaller the size of the group, the greater the individual accountability may be.

  • Giving an individual test to each student.

  • Randomly examining students orally by calling on one student to present his or her group's work to the teacher (in the presence of the group) or to the entire class.

  • Observing each group and recording the frequency with which each member-contributes to the group's work.

  • Assigning one student in each group the role of checker. The checker asks other group members to explain the reasoning and rationale underlying group answers.

  • Having students teach what they learned to someone else.

 

http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/lawn.gif

4. Interpersonal &
Small-Group Skills


  • Social skills must be taught:

    • Leadership

    • Decision-making

    • Trust-building

    • Communication

    • Conflict-management skills

 

http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/j00787421.gif

5. Group Processing

  • Group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective working relationships

  • Describe what member actions are helpful and not helpful

  • Make decisions about what behaviors to continue or change

 

http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/j0078837.gif



Module 1: Additional Resources


What websites provide information about learning theories? Welcome to the Theories into Practice (TIP) data base. TIP is a data base tool to make learning theory and instructional practices more accessible to educators. Explore the summaries of 50 major learning theories and instruction. Also, note the learning domains, concepts and other related websites. http://tip.psychology.org/index.html.
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