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13. The international scientific community, and in particular the World Federation of Scientists, should assist developing countries and donor organizations to understand better how ICTs can further development in an environment that promotes information security and bridges the Digital Divide.
Much of the work in addressing developmental and digital divide issues is seen as falling within the purview of political and economic decisionmakers. However, the scientific community make significant contributions in this area because, among other reasons, of the rapid growth of peer-to-peer scientific networks which offer low-cost opportunities and solutions for developing countries.
ICTs bring both opportunities and challenges to developing countries.128 The G8, World Bank, United Nations (UN), and U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) are each committed to bridging the global “Digital Divide.”129 The donor community130 also understands that ICTs are a powerful development tool that can help boost economies, increase competitiveness, attract foreign direct investment (FDI), and raise the skill level of the workforce in developing countries. Developing countries also realize the potential impact of technology, and many are launching their own ICT initiatives and aggressively competing for donor funds to assist them.
Internet growth works in their favor. Today, there are approximately 600 million people connected to the Internet. However, that online population accounts for only 10% of a world population of about 6 billion people. Since 65% of Americans are already online,131 we can expect some of the highest connectivity increases to be in the 180 developing countries around the globe. Indeed, Forrester Research predicts that by 2007, 70% of software programming will be performed in developing countries.132
Thus, developing countries have an unprecedented opportunity to seize upon the advantages of ICTs to propel their progression toward industrialization, market economies, and social advancements. These opportunities, many of which are directly dependent on inputs from the scientific community, include:
While the contribution of the scientific community could be a force-multiplier, each of these opportunities, is largely dependent upon the development of the legal and regulatory framework to support these activities. The legal framework is one of the most important factors because it touches upon all aspects of commerce, is critical to attracting investment, and is at the core of providing certainty to business operations. The term “legal framework” also includes public policy, which forms the underlying foundation of government support for ICTs and a favorable business environment. Information and infrastructure security are two of the most important components.
With nearly 200 countries connected to the Internet, cybercrime has become a global issue that requires the full participation and cooperation of the public and private sectors in all countries, including the 180 developing countries around the globe. A major component of information and infrastructure security is a nation’s ability to deter, detect, investigate, and prosecute cyber criminal activities. Weaknesses in any of these areas can compromise security not only in that country, but around the globe. This is due to the global, interconnected nature of the Internet and the way in which countries must rely upon each other’s expertise and assistance in addressing cybercrime matters.
The confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data and networks – including critical infrastructure – are central to attracting FDI and ICT operations to developing countries. The opportunities associated with ICTs are not guaranteed; they are dependent upon developing countries’ ability to effectively address the additional challenge of cyber security and to take steps to actively participate in the global community in combating cybercrime.
Appropriate security laws and regulations are also important because:
For the most part, developing countries are struggling with how to use e commerce and ICTs in everyday government and business operations.
The lack of an adequate legal framework – especially with respect to information and infrastructure security and computer crime – will diminish or prevent developing countries from grasping ICT opportunities. The reasons are clear:
Much of the inadequacies in addressing these critical issues in developing countries occur because of shortages in scientific and knowledge-based resources. Much is also due to scarcities in financial resources, which in turn constrict the enormous potential inherent in the large human resource base in the developing world. By helping identify and discover low-cost solutions, and by closer coordination with other relevant partners, the scientific community can unleash these human resources, and place them at the service of the developmental effort. The role of the World Federation of Scientists would be an important catalyst in this effort.
Deeper consideration of these issues is indicated in the future. The PMP intends to focus on some of these in subsequent meetings.
List of PMP Members
William A. Barletta
William A. Barletta is Director of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division and the Office of Homeland Security at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He is an Editor of Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, an Editor of the Internet Journal of Medical Technology, Chairman of the Board of Governors of the U.S. Particle Accelerator School, and Member of the Governing Board of the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion. His recent research has concentrated on cyber security and the application of neutron sources and bright ion beams to nanotechnology and medicine.
Olivia A. Bosch
Olivia Bosch is currently a Senior Research Fellow in the New Security Issues Programme of The Royal Institute of International Affairs in London. Previously, she worked as a Senior Fellow at the Center for Global Security Research (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California) and at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London.
Dr. Dmitry S. Cherechkin is an Academician and Vicepresident of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, where he is a Professor of Computer Sciences in the Institute for Systems Analysis. He currently acts as Deputy Chairman of the Government’s Workshop Group to elaborate the Information Development Strategy of Russia.
Ambassador Ahmad Kamal served as a professional diplomat in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan for close to forty years until his retirement in 1999. During this period, he held diplomatic postings in India, Belgium, France, the Soviet Union, Saudia Arabia, the Republic of Korea, and with the United Nations both in Geneva and in New York. He continues to be a Senior Fellow of the United Nations Institute of Training and Research. He is also the Founding President and CEO of The Ambassador’s Club at the United Nations.
Andrei V. Krutskikh
Prof. Dr. Andrei V. Krutskikh is a diplomat and politologist, specializing in issues of disarmament and international cooperation in the field of science and technology. He has served in diplomatic service in the Foreign Affairs Ministry (VFA) of Russia since 1973. He has been stationed at Russian embassies in the USA and Canada. Dr. Krutskikh was a member of the Russian negotiations teams for the SALT II and INF Treaties. At present, he serves as deputy director of the department in the MFA for security, technological, and disarmament affairs. He is a Member of the International Academies on Informatization and Telecommunication and a Professor at the Moscow State Institute/University on International Relations.
Axel H.R. Lehmann
Prof. Dr. Lehmann received his Studies of Electrical Engineering (Dipl.-Ing.) and received his doctorate of Informatics at the University of Karlsruhe in Germany. From 1982-1987, he was research assistant and Visiting Professor at the Universities of Karlsruhe and Hamburg. Since 1987, Dr. Lehmann has been Full Professor for Informatics at the Faculty for Informatics, Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen. Major positions and activities include Dean of the Faculty for Informatics (1995-1997) and member of the Academic Senat of the Universitaet. He served as Vice-President and President of the Society of Modeling and Simulation International from 1993-2000 and is a member of an Advisory Council for the Ministry of Science, Culture, and Research, Baden-Wuertternberg, Germany.
Timothy L. Thomas
Mr. Thomas works at the Foreign Military Studies Office at the U.S Army’s Fort Leavenworth establishment in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
Prof. Dr. Tsygichko is an expert of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and professor at the Institute of Systems Analyses of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The author of six scientific books and more than 200 articles, Dr. Tsygichko is a Full Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences and full professor of cybernetics in the field of system analyses and decision making systems for national security problems. He is a retired colonel and received his Doctor of Technical Sciences (Cybernetics) from Moscow University.
Dr. Henning Wegener serves as Chairman of the World Federation of Scientists Permanent Monitoring Panel on Information Security. A German diplomat and lawyer, Dr. Wegener, received his L.L.B. from the University of Bonn, his M.C.L. from George Washington University, and his LL.M. and J.S.D. from Yale University. He has undertaken further studies at the Sorbonne in Paris. Ambassador Wegener joined the German Federal Foreign Office in 1962. From 1981-1986 he was Ambassador in Geneva, from 1986-1991 he was Assistant Secretary General for Political Affairs of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in Brussels. Dr. Wegener was Lecturer in Political Science at the Free University of Berlin from 1990-1995, and from 1991-1995 he was Deputy Secretary of the Federal Press and Information Office in Bonn. From 1995-1999 he was Ambassador of Germany to the Kingdom of Spain and to the Principality of Andorra. Since 2000, he has been a consultant in Madrid. He has published extensively on foreign and security policy.
Jody R. Westby
Ms. Westby is founder and President of The Work-IT Group, specializing in privacy and security, cybercrime, and information warfare. Previously, Ms. Westby was Chief Administrative Officer and Counsel of In-Q-Tel, Inc., a corporation devoted to finding unclassified, commercial solutions to IT problems facing the U.S. intelligence community. As a practicing attorney, Ms. Westby practiced international trade, technology, and intellectual property law with the New York firms of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison and Shearman & Sterling. As Senior Fellow and Director of Information Technology Studies for The Progress & Freedom Foundation, she directed and managed IT projects on an array of cutting-edge issues. Prior to that, Ms. Westby was Director of Domestic Policy for the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Ms. Westby is chair of the American Bar Association’s Privacy and Computer Crime Committee and was chair, co-author and editor of its International Guide to Combating Cybercrime, International Strategy for Cyberspace Security, and International Corporate Privacy Handbook.
1 In the context of the work of the PMP and the Recommendations and Explanatory Comments herein, the term “information security” is intended to encompass the broader scope of cyber security, which includes the security of data, applications, operating systems, and networks.
2 Eduardo Gelbstein and Ahmad Kamal, Information Insecurity: A survival guide to the uncharted territories of cyber-threats and cyber-security, United Nations ICT Task Force and United Nations Institute of Training and Research, 2nd ed., Nov. 2002 at 1, http://www.un.int/kamal/information_insecurity (hereinafter “Gelbstein and Kamal”).
3 Howard F. Lipson, Tracking and Tracing Cyber-Attacks: Technical Challenges and Global Policy Issues, CERT Coordination Center, Special Report CMU/SEI-2002-SR-009, Nov. 2002 at 10, http://www.cert.org/archive/pdf/02sr009.pdf (hereinafter “Lipson”).
4See CERT/CC Statistics 1988-2003, http://www.cert.org/stats/.
5 Gelbstein and Kamal at 20-21, http://www.un.int/kamal/information_insecurity.
6 Richard Power, “2002 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey,” Computer Security Issues & Trends, Vol. VIII, No. 1, Spring 2002 at 10-11, http://www.gocsi.com/pdfs/fbi/FBI2002.pdf.
7 National Strategy for Homeland Security, Office of Homeland Security, July 2002 at 30, http://www.caci.com/homeland_security/nat_strat.shtml.
8 Jody R. Westby and William A. Barletta, “Public and Private Sector Responsibilities for Information Security,” Mar. 2003 at 2-3, http://www.itis-ev.de/infosecur (citing " Barton Gellman, “Cyber-Attacks by Al Qaeda Feared,” Washington Post, June 26, 2002, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A50765-2002Jun26.html) (hereinafter Westby and Barletta Public-Private Responsibilities”).
9 Jody R. Westby and William A. Barletta, “Consequence Management of Acts of Disruption,” Aug. 2002 at 3, http://www.itis-ev.de/infosecur (citing "G-7 to Call for Police Network," Wall Street Journal, Apr. 15, 2002 at A4) (hereinafter Westby and Barletta Consequence Management”).
10 Id. at 2 (citing "Security: Improvements Needed to Reduce Risk to Critical Federal Operations and Assets," GAO Testimony of Robert F. Dacey, Director, Information Security Issues, Before the Subcommittee on Government Efficiency, Financial Management, and Intergovernmental Relations, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, Nov. 9, 2001, GAO-02-231T at 3).
11 Id. at 2-3 (citing Hanan Sher, "Cyberterror Should Be Int'l Crime," http://www.newsbytes.com/news/00/157986.html).
12 Id. at 3 (citing John Lancaster, "Abroad at Home," Nov. 3, 2000, at A31, http://washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A4288-2000Nov2?language=printer).
13 Bill Miller, “Worries of Cyberattacks on U.S. Are Aired,” The Washington Post, Apr. 26, 2002 at A26.
14 Vitali Tsygichko, “Cyber Weapons as a New Means of Combat,” Sept. 23, 2002 at 4, http://www.itis-ev.de/infosecur (hereinafter “Tsygichko”).
15 Carter Gilmore, “The Future of Information Warfare,” Dec. 28, 2001, http://rr.sans.org/infowar/future_infowar.php (citing Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, Joint Pub. 1-02 at 209).
16 Dorothy E. Denning, “Cyberterrorism,” Testimony before the Special Oversight Panel on Terrorism, Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives, May 23, 2000., http://www.terrorism.com/documents/denning-testimony.shtml.
17 Anne Marie Squeo, “U.S. Studies Using ‘E-Bomb’ in Iraq,” The Wall Street Journal, Feb. 20, 2003 at A3, A9.
18 Gelbstein and Kamal at 3, http://www.un.int/kamal/information_insecurity.
19 Id. at 8.
20 Westby and Barletta Consequence Management at 1, http://www.itis-ev.de/infosecur (citing Global Internet Statistics: Sources & References, Global Internet Statistics (by Language), Mar. 31, 2002, http://www.global-reach.biz/globstats/evol.html).
21 Id. (citing Dave Krisula, "The History of the Internet," Aug. 2001, http://www.davesite.com/webstation/net-history.shtml).
22 These items are described in detail in the paper by Timothy L. Thomas (with Karen Matthews), “The Computer: Cyber Cop or Cyber Criminal?” http://www.itis-ev.de/infosecur.
23 Dorothy E. Denning, “Activism, Hacktivism, and Cyberterrorism: The Internet as a Tool for Influencing Foreign Policy,” Internet and International Systems: Information Technology and Foreign Policy Decisionmaking Workshop, http://www.nautilus.org/info-policy/workshop/papers/denning.html.
24 Westby and Barletta Consequence Management at 1, http://www.itis-ev.de/infosecur.
25 Ahmad Kamal, “New Forms of Confrontation: Cyber-Terrorism and Cyber-Crime,” Aug. 2002 at 2, http://www.itis-ev.de/infosecur.
27 The international law aspects of this statement will also be considered in the context of Recommendation 3 and considered in depth in papers by Messrs. Krutskikh and Tsygichko, http://www.itis-ev.de/infosecur.
28 Gelbstein and Kamal at 123, http://www.un.int/kamal/information_insecurity.
30 Jody R. Westby, ed., International Guide to Combating Cybercrime, American Bar Association, Section of Science & Technology Law, Privacy & Computer Crime Committee, 2003 at 11, http://www.abanet.org/abapubs/books/cybercrime/ (hereinafter “Westby Cybercrime”).
31 Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime – Budapest, 23.XI.2001 (ETS No. 185) (2002), http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/CadreListeTraites.htm (hereinafter CoE Convention); Press Release, “Budapest, November 2001: opening for signature of the first international treaty to combat cybercrime,” Council of Europe, Nov. 14, 2001, http://press.coe.int/cp/2001/840a(2001).htm. The criminal law aspects of information security are further developed in Recommendation 2 and the PMP paper by Henning Wegener, “Guidelines for national criminal codes and their application throughout the international community,” Jan. 2003 at 7, http://www.itis-ev.de/infosecur