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See Europol’s website at http://www.europol.eu.int/home.htm.
96 See http://www.europol.eu.int/content.htm?links/en.htm for links to EU Member States’ national law enforcement websites, links to European institutions and international organizations, and links to other law enforcement agencies and organizations.
97 The text of the Europol Convention can be found at http://www.europol.eu.int/content.htm?legal/conv/en.htm.
98 See http://www.eurunion.org/partner/EUUSTerror/PoliceChiefsTaskForce.htm for more information on the European Police Chiefs Operational Task Force.
99 See Interpol website at http://www.interpol.int/.
100 See http://www.interpol.int for further information on Interpol. Much of the commentary to this Recommendation was taken from the Law Enforcement Chapter of the International Guide for Combating Cybercrime, which was co-authored and edited by Jody Westby. See Westby Cybercrime at 95-98, http://www.abanet.org/abapubs/books/cybercrime/.
101 Whitfield Diffie and M.E. Hellman, “New Directions in Cryptography,” IEEE, Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. IT-22, Nov. 1976 at 644-654.
102 Westby Cybercrime at 44, 74, http://www.abanet.org/abapubs/books/cybercrime/ (citing Cryptography and Liberty 2000: An International Survey of Encryption Policy, Electronic Privacy Information Center, http://www2.epic.org/reports/crypto2000).
103 Timothy L. Thomas, “Al Qaeda and the Internet: The Danger of ‘Cyberplanning,’” Parameters, Spring 2003 at 112.
104 Lipson at 5, 13, http://www.cert.org/archive/pdf/02sr009.pdf.
105 Id. at 13-15.
106 Id. at 16.
107 Id. at 60-61.
108 Id. at 43.
109 Id. at 63-64 (emphasis added).
110 Howard F. Lipson and David A. Fisher, “Survivability—A New Technical and Business Perspective on Security,” http://www.cert.org/archive/pdf/busperspec.pdf; Westby and Barletta Consequence Management at 9-12 http://www.itis-ev.de/infosecur. .
111 The National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace, cover letter from President Bush, Feb. 2003, http://www.whitehouse.gov/pcipb/.
112 ISO/IEC 17799:2000 Information technology -- Code of practice for information security management. http://www.iso.ch/cate/d33441.html.
113 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), http://www.ietf.org; Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), http://www.ieee.org.
114 Lipson, p. 48 (emphasis in original), http://www.cert.org/archive/pdf/02sr009.pdf.
115 This system is now being referred to as Terrorism Information Awareness program. See “DOD surveillance system renamed, But details of Pentagon data-gathering project unchanged,” http://www.stacks.msnbc.com/news/916028.asp.
116 “Total Information Awareness (TIA) program being promoted by the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), http://www.darpa.mil/iao/TIASystems.htm.
117 “Human ID at a Distance (HumanID)”, http://www.darpa.mil/iao/HID.htm.
118 “Letter to Attorney General John Ashcroft”, U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy, January 10, 2003, http://www.senate.gov/~leahy/press/200301/011003.html.
119 “Terrorism spying project to end: Personal records of millions had been targeted,” Sept. 25, 2003, http://www.msnbc.com/news/971869.asp?cp1=1; see also Audrey Hudson, “Data program must solve privacy fears, says the Pentagon,” Washington Times, May 21, 2003, http://www.washingtontimes.com/national/20030521-125954-7816r.htm.
120 “The Carnivore FOIA Litigation,” http://www.epic.org/privacy/carnivore/; see also “Internet and Data Interception Capabilities Developed by the FBI,” Statement for the Record of Donald M. Kerr, Assistant Director, Laboratory Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Before the United States House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on the Constitution, July 24, 2000, http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress00/kerr072400.htm; “Carnivore Diagnostic Tool,” Statement for the Record of Donald M. Kerr, Assistant Director, Laboratory Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Before the United States Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Sept. 6, 2000, http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress00/kerr090600.htm.
121 “Answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Echelon,” Feb. 7, 2002, http://archive.aclu.org/echelonwatch/faq.html.
122 Draft Report on the existence of a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications (ECHELON interception system), section “Motion for a Resolution,” Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System, European Parliament, 18 May 2001, http://www.europarl.eu.int/tempcom/echelon/pdf/prechelon_en.pdf.
124 Jelle van Buuren, Hearing On Echelon In Dutch Parliament, Heise Telepolis, Jan. 23, 2001 (available at http://www.heise.de/tp/) and http://archive.aclu.org/echelonwatch/faq.html.
125 Lipson at 4, http://www.cert.org/archive/pdf/02sr009.pdf.
126 A discussion of cyber attacks from an arms control perspective is presented in V. Tsygichko, “Cyber Weapons as a New Means of Combat,” http://www.itis-ev.de/infosecur.
127 Lipson at 18, http://www.cert.org/archive/pdf/02sr009.pdf.
128 The explanatory comments for this Recommendation are, in large part, taken from the International Guide to Combating Cybercrime, which was written and copyrighted by Jody Westby. The Cybercrime Guide was written to assist developing countries understand cybercrime and the steps they needed to take to become active participants in combating cybercrime on a global scale. See Westby Cybercrime at 11-17, http://www.abanet.org/abapubs/books/cybercrime/.
129 “Digital Divide” refers to “The gap between those able to benefit by digital technologies and those who are not.” See http://www.digitaldivide.org.
130 The donor community consists of aid institutions such as The World Bank Group, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), United Nations (UN), Canada International Development Agency (CIDA), European bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), and numerous other development banks and assistance organizations.
131 Global Internet Statistics: Sources & References, Global Internet Statistics (by Language), Mar. 31, 2002, http://www.global-reach.biz/globstats/evol.html.
132 “Taking up technology,” Financial Times, Apr. 2, 2002, at 8.