Photonic Band Gap Materials: Light Control at Will




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Photonic Band Gap Materials: Light Control at Will



Sajeev John

Dept. of Physics

University of Toronto

Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A7


Abstract


Photonic band gap (PBG) materials [1,2] are artificial periodic dielectric microstructures capable of trapping light [3] on sub-wavelength scales without absorption loss in three-dimensions. This enables virtually complete control of the flow of light on microscopic scales in a 3D optical chip [4-6] as well as very strong coupling of light to matter where desired. By further engineering the electromagnetic density of states [7-9] within the chip it is possible to realize unprecedented coherent optical control of the quantum state of resonant atoms or quantum dots [10]. This defines a fundamentally new regime for quantum optics. I discuss consequences of light trapping in classical and quantum electrodynamics. I also discuss the challenges and requirements for materials fabrication to realize these remarkable effects.


1. S. John, Physical Review Letters 58, 2486 (1987)

2. E. Yablonovitch, Physical Review Letters 58, 2059 (1987)

3. S. John, Physical Review Letters 53, 2169 (1984)

4. A. Chutinan, S. John, and O. Toader, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 123901 (2003)

5. A. Chutinan and S. John, Physical Review B 72, 16, 161316 (2005)

6. A Chutinan and S. John, Optics Express 14 (3), 1266 (2006)

7. D. Vujic and S. John, Physical Review A 76, 063814 (2007)

8. R.Z. Wang and S. John, Physical Review A 70, 043805 (2004)

9. R.Z. Wang and S. John, J. Photonics and Nanostructures (Elsevier) 2, 137 (2004)

10. Xun Ma and Sajeev John, Physical Review Letters (in press Dec 2009)


Fabrication of functional three-dimensional photonic crystals



Min Gu

Centre for Micro-Photonics and

Centre for Ultra-high-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems

Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences

Swinburne University of Technology

Phone: 03 9214 8776 Fax: 03 9214 5435

E-Mail: mgu@swin.edu.au


Abstract


In order to use a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal (PC), it is necessary to incorporate physical functionalities into photonic bandgap structures. The important functionality includes nonlinearity and metallisation. A 3D nonlinear PC holds a key to on-chip applications including telecommunication, information processing and bio-sensing. On the other the hand, due to the strong discontinuities of the dielectric function at the metal/air or metal/dielectric interfaces, 3D metallic photonic crystals (MPC)s offer intriguing electromagnetic properties and important applications such as enhanced metal absorption, modified blackbody radiation, ultra-wide complete photonic band gaps, negative refraction, sub-wavelength imaging, and microwave antenna and circuits. In this presentation, recent progress on the fabrication of functional PCs will be reported. In particular, it is shown that the incorporation of highly nonlinear nanocrystal quantum dots can transform the plain polymer into a multi-functional active medium, leading to a 3D nonlinear photonic crystal with stop gaps with more than 80% suppression in transmission in the telecommunication wavelength region. We also demonstrate the fabrication of 3D hybrid MPCs with stop gaps in the near-infrared wavelength range. This kind of 3D metallic PC possesses not only strong photonic band gaps but also significant localised plasmon resonances (LPRs) due to the existence of the coated metallic nanoshells. The resultant LPRs significantly enhance the absorption of 3D MPCs by more than two orders of magnitude and can be widely tuned in spectra.


Metallic inclusions in Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres



Maryanne Large,

The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia


Abstract


Historically, metals have not been widely used in optics because of their relatively high intrinsic loss. However, this is increasingly changing with the development of applications based around plasmonic effects and metamaterials. This lecture will explore some of these applications, based around using microstructured polymer optical fibres as a scaffold for metal deposition. The talk will describe work we have done in absorptive polarizers, Surface Plasmon Resonance, and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering. Finally, I will discuss very recent results based around using fibre fabrication techniques to produce metamaterials.


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