Dedication to my wife, Qiang Le And to my parents acknowledgements




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NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CIRCULATION CONTROL WING SECTIONS


A Thesis

Presented to

The Academic Faculty


by


Yi Liu


In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Doctor of Philosophy in the

School of Aerospace Engineering


Georgia Institute of Technology

April 2003


Copyright © 2003 by Yi Liu


NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CIRCULATION CONTROL WING SECTIONS


Approved:




Lakshmi N. Sankar, Chairman




Krishan K. Ahuja




Robert J. Englar




D. Stefan Dancila




Richard Gaeta


Date Approved

DEDICATION





To my wife, Qiang Le

And to my parents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS



I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Lakshmi N. Sankar, my teacher and dissertation advisor, for his encouragement and support throughout the research period. His delightful personality and detailed knowledge of this research topic has guided me along the way. I would not be here without all that he has done.

I would also like to thank Dr. K. Ahuja, Mr. R. Englar, Dr. D. Dancila and Dr. R. Gaeta, members of my thesis committee, for their thorough review of the thesis and for their valuable comments. I am especially appreciative to Bob Englar for providing the experimental data, and for helpful suggestions from his many years of experience.

I would like to acknowledge NASA Langley Research Center for sponsoring this research under the Breakthrough Innovative Technology Program, Grant-NAG1-2146.

I thank Ms. Mary Trauner of High Performance Computing Group of the Office of Information Technology at Georgia Tech, for her understanding and support during my last semester of thesis work.

I would like to thank all my colleagues in the CFD lab for their warm friendship and support during my Ph.D. studies. I would also like to thank my old friends in China, for their constant encouragement through all these years.

Finally, I would like to thank my parents, Mr. Feng Liu and Mrs. Yuhua Peng, for their continued support throughout my education at Georgia Tech. I would also like to acknowledge the warm support and caring of my dear wife, Qiang Le. Without her encouragement and enthusiasm, this work could not have been completed.

TABLE OF CONTENTS


DEDICATION iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS v

LIST OF TABLES viii

LIST OF FIGURES ix

LIST OF NOMENCLATURE xii

SUMMARY xv

INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Motivation and Objectives 1

1.2 Circulation Control Technology 5

1.2.1 The Circulation Control Wing Concept 5

1.2.2 The Advanced Circulation Control Airfoil 9

1.2.3 Applications and Benefits of the Circulation Control Wing 10

1.3 Previous Research Work 13

1.4 Overview of the Present Work 18

MATHEMATICAL AND NUMERICAL FORMULATION 21

2.1 The Governing Equations 22

2.1.1 Governing Equations in Cartesian Coordinates 22

2.1.2 Governing Equations in Curvilinear Coordinates 27

2.2 Numerical Procedure 32

2.2.1 Temporal Discretization 33

2.2.2 Linearization of the Difference Equations 34

2.2.3 Approximate Factorization Procedure 36

2.2.4 Spatial Discretization of the Inviscid Terms 37

2.2.5 Spatial Discretization of the Viscous Terms 39

2.2.6 Implementation of Low Pass Filters 40

2.3 Turbulence Models 42

2.3.1 Baldwin-Lomax Turbulence Model 44

2.3.2 Spalart-Allmaras Turbulence Model 46

2.4 Initial and Boundary Conditions 49

2.4.1 Initial Conditions 49

2.4.2 Outer Boundary Conditions 50

2.4.3 Solid Surface Conditions 51

2.4.4 Boundary Conditions at the Cuts in the C Grid 52

2.4.5 Jet Slot Exit Conditions with Given C 53

2.4.6 Jet Slot Exit Conditions with Given Total Jet Pressure 56

TWO DIMENSIONAL STEADY BLOWING RESULTS 58

3.1 Code Validations with a NACA 0012 Wing 59

3.2 Unblown and Steady Blowing Results 60

3.2.1 Configuration Modeled 60

3.2.2 Computational Grid 61

3.2.3 Blowing and Unblown Results Comparison 62

3.2.4 Steady Blowing with Specified Total Pressure 66

3.3 Effects of Parameters that Influence the Momentum Coefficient 67

3.3.1 Free-stream Velocity Effects with Fixed C and Fixed Jet Slot Height 68

3.3.2 Jet Slot Height Effects with Fixed C and Fixed Free-stream Velocity 69

3.4 Other Simulations for the CC Airfoil 70

3.4.1 Comparisons with the Conventional High-Lift System 70

3.4.2 Leading Edge Blowing 71

TWO DIMENSIONAL PULSED BLOWING RESULTS 90

4.1 Jets Pulsed Sinusoidally 91

4.2 Jets Pulsed with a Square Wave Form 93

4.2.1 Pulsed Jet Flow Behavior 93

4.2.2 Effects of Frequency at a Fixed C 96

4.2.3 Strouhal Number Effects 97

4.3 Summary of Observations 99

THREE DIMENSION CIRCULATION CONTROL WING SIMULATIONS 114

5.1 Tangential Blowing on a Wing-flap Configuration 115

5.2 Spanwise Blowing over a Rounded Wing-tip 118

Region B 122

Region A 122

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 134

6.1 Conclusions 135

6.2 Recommendations 138

GENERALIZED TRANSFORMATION 141

REFERENCES 145

VITA 155
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