Answers exercise 1: time chart

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Use information from the passage to complete this date chart. You should write the information in note form, not in complete sentences:


?c.6000 Indo-European parent language possibly spoken by farmers in _Turkey___


?c.3000 Indo-European parent language possibly spoken in western _(former) Soviet Union

c.1300 Writing in the Hittite language in __Turkey_____

Chinese characters written on __bones_____

Earliest poems in the ____Sanskrit_ language in India

c.650 The __Greek___ alphabet first used

Late 4th.

century Alexander the Great conquers the ___Mddle East



century The __New Testament written in Greek

_Gallic________ language dies out in France

5th. cent. End of the ___Roman________ Empire.

______Germanic_________ tribes invade Britain

c.800 Irish migration to ____Scotland____


  1. ___Tocharian_________ spoken in Sinkiang.


century Ireland fully under ___Ebglish________ control


century __English________ replaces Irish as main language in _____Irealand_________

EXERCISE 2: FAMILY TREE. Fill in this table showing the relationship of the languages discussed in the passage.

Use capital letters for languages which are no longer spoken..







WEST GERMANIC _Dutch________







OLD ___Irish___




LATIN ___Spanish_____




LAVONIC ___Polish______


NCIENT___Greek_ Modern __Greek_


SANSKRIT __Panjabi______

INDO-IRANIAN __Nepali_______

OLD PERSIAN Modern Persian


The similarities are, of course, more noticeable in the older languages than in the modern ones, because the modern ones have changed more. However, if we look at some other common words, the link can still be seen. Here are some more Latin, Greek and Sanskrit words. At the bottom of the table you will find the equivalents in English, German, French and Nepali, but not in the right order. See if you can put these words from the modern languages in the blanks in the main table. The crosses in the Nepali column (X) show where the original IE word has been lost from the language:

Latin French Greek Sanskrit Nepali German English

duo deux duo dva dui____ zwei___ two____

novus nouveau neos nava naya___ neu____ new____

mater mère___ meter matr ___X___ Mutter_ mother_

septem sept___ hepta sapta sat____ sieben_ seven__

nomen nom____ onoma nama nam____ Name___ name___

okto huit___ okto ashta ath____ acht___ eight__

stella étoile__ aster tara tara___ Stern___ star_

pater père ___ pater pitr ___X___ Vater__ father_

tres trois__ treis tri tin____ drei___ three__

frater frère__ phrater bhratr bhai___ Bruder_ brother

six six____ heks shat cha__ sechs__ siz___

French: père, nom, trois, étoile, frère, six, huit, neuf, sept, mère, deux

Nepali: dui, tara, bhai, cha, naya, ath, sat, tin, nam

German: Mutter, Stern, Bruder, sechs, neu, Vater, sieben, Name, zwei, acht, drei

English: name, six, star, brother, seven, mother, two, eight, father, three, new


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