Sallie Bernard* Albert Enayati, B. S., Ch. E., M. S. M. E. Heidi Roger




НазваниеSallie Bernard* Albert Enayati, B. S., Ch. E., M. S. M. E. Heidi Roger
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Autism:

A Unique Type of

Mercury Poisoning


Sallie Bernard*
Albert Enayati, B.S., Ch.E., M.S.M.E.
Heidi Roger
Teresa Binstock

Lyn Redwood, R.N., M.S.N., C.R.N.P.

Woody McGinnis, M.D.


*Contact: sbernard@nac.net


2000 by ARC Research

14 Commerce Drive

Cranford, NJ 07016


April 3, 2000


ABSTRACT


Autism is a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by impairments in social relatedness, language, and communication, a need for routine and sameness, abnormal movements, and sensory dysfunction. Mercury is a toxic metal that can exist as a pure element or in a variety of inorganic and organic forms and can cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and other behavioral dysfunctions.


The characteristics of autism and mercury poisoning, derived from a review of medical literature, have been found, upon comparison, to be strikingly similar. The characteristics of both disorders are summarized in the following table and fully elucidated in the body of this document. The parallels between the two diseases are so close that it would be unreasonable to assume that the similarities occur by chance.


We claim that autism is a form of mercury poisoning, based on similarities of characteristics and on the known exposure to mercury of the majority of US children. The exposure route is childhood vaccines, most of which contain thimerosal, a preservative comprised of 50% ethylmercury by weight. The amount of mercury a typical child under two years receives from vaccinations equates to 237.5 micrograms, or 3.53 x 1017 molecules (353,000,000,000,000,000 molecules), most of which is not excreted and goes directly to the brain. The amount is known to exceed Federal safety standards, but is still considered a “low” level, such that only a small percentage of exposed individuals will exhibit signs of toxicity. Affected individuals are those genetically prone to mercury sensitivity, which is consistent with the observed high heritability rate of autism. Furthermore, the timing of mercury exposure via vaccines coincides with the emergence of autistic symptoms. Moreover, mercury has been detected in urine, hair, and blood samples from autistic children, and parental reports, though limited at this date, indicate significant improvement in symptoms with administration of standard heavy metal chelators. Thus, the four agreed-upon criteria used by clinicians to diagnose mercury poisoning – i.e., observable symptoms, known exposure at the time of symptom onset, detectable levels in biologic samples, and improvement with chelation - have been met for autism.


The phenotypic expression of mercury poisoning varies by a host of factors – including type of mercury given, method of administration, rate and level of dose, individual genotype, and age of patient – so that each variation in factors has created in the past a slightly different manifestation of the disease – Mad Hatter’s disease, Minamata disease, and acrodynia, for example. The pathology arising from the set of mercury-related variables involved in autism – intermittent bolus doses of ethylmercury injected into genetically susceptible infants and toddlers – has never been reported before in medical literature. Thus we argue that autism represents a unique form of mercury poisoning not heretofore described. Our findings have widespread implications for the affected population of autistic individuals, for other unexplained disorders with symptoms similar to heavy metal intoxication, and for childhood vaccination programs.


Summary Comparison of Characteristics

of Autism & Mercury Poisoning


Mercury Poisoning

Autism

Psychiatric

Social deficits, shyness, social withdrawal

Social deficits, social withdrawal, shyness

Disturbances

Depression, mood swings; mask face

Depressive traits, mood swings; flat affect




Anxiety

Anxiety




Schizoid tendencies, OCD traits

Schizophrenic & OCD traits; repetitiveness




Lacks eye contact, hesitant to engage others

Lack of eye contact, avoids conversation




Irrational fears

Irrational fears




Irritability, aggression, temper tantrums

Irritability, aggression, temper tantrums




Impaired face recognition

Impaired face recognition










Speech,

Loss of speech, failure to develop speech

Delayed language, failure to develop speech

Language &

Dysarthria; articulation problems

Dysarthria; articulation problems

Hearing

Speech comprehension deficits

Speech comprehension deficits

Deficits

Verbalizing & word retrieval problems

Echolalia; word use & pragmatic errors




Sound sensitivity

Sound sensitivity




Hearing loss; deafness in very high doses

Mild to profound hearing loss




Poor performance on language IQ tests

Poor performance on verbal IQ tests










Sensory

Abnormal sensation in mouth & extremities

Abnormal sensation in mouth & extremities

Abnormalities

Sound sensitivity

Sound sensitivity




Abnormal touch sensations; touch aversion

Abnormal touch sensations; touch aversion




Vestibular abnormalities

Vestibular abnormalities










Motor Disorders

Involuntary jerking movements - arm flapping, ankle jerks, myoclonal jerks, choreiform movements, circling, rocking

Stereotyped movements - arm flapping, jumping, circling, spinning, rocking; myoclonal jerks; choreiform movements




Deficits in eye-hand coordination; limb apraxia; intention tremors

Poor eye-hand coordination; limb apraxia; problems with intentional movements




Gait impairment; ataxia – from incoordination & clumsiness to inability to walk, stand, or sit; loss of motor control

Abnormal gait and posture, clumsiness and incoordination; difficulties sitting, lying, crawling, and walking




Difficulty in chewing or swallowing

Difficulty chewing or swallowing




Unusual postures

Unusual postures










Cognitive Impairments

Borderline intelligence, mental retardation - some cases reversible

Borderline intelligence, mental retardation - sometimes "recovered"




Poor concentration, attention, response inhibition

Poor concentration, attention, shifting attention




Uneven performance on IQ subtests

Uneven performance on IQ subtests




Verbal IQ higher than performance IQ

Verbal IQ higher than performance IQ




Poor short term, verbal, & auditory memory

Poor short term, auditory & verbal memory




Poor visual and perceptual motor skills, impairment in simple reaction time

Poor visual and perceptual motor skills, lower performance on timed tests




Difficulty carrying out complex commands

Difficulty carrying out multiple commands




Alexia (inability to comprehend the meaning of written words)

Hyperlexia (ability to decode words while lacking word comprehension)




Deficits in understanding abstract ideas & symbolism; degeneration of higher mental powers

Deficits in abstract thinking & symbolism, understanding other’s mental states, sequencing, planning & organizing
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