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Библиографические ссылки на источники
N. Y. Malikova
Pacific State University
One of the key problems of modern economy is to provide labor, which would have the vocational structure and industrial characteristics which meet the market requirements. There are three kinds of vocational training: training of new workers; retraining and training of workers for the second trades; improvement of professional skills of workers.
Training of workers is a vocational training of persons not having any trade before. Vocational training is required for the youth going to work at the factory without a speciality.
Retraining and training of workers for the second trade is connected with acceleration of productive capacities renovation rates, liberation of considerable proportion of the workers engaged in manual and heavy physical work, development of labour organization collective forms demanding work mix, and some others. The retraining of workers already having a trade is conducted with the purpose of acquiring a new profession . This is a feature of retraining.
Workers professional skills improvement is a vocational training aimed at development of professional knowledge and skills in a trade already acquired.
PSI is organized with the purpose of professional skill improvement of workers, acquiring technical and economic knowledge to master advanced techniques and technology and cope with more sophisticated work .
To consider problems and achievements of the modern professional training it is necessary to view historical preconditions of their formation.
Training, retraining and improvement of the personnel professional skills in the USSR.
The most typical displays of scientific and technical progress at that time were the following: development of an intellectual element in manual labour, increase of a role of workers general and vocational education, acceleration of the staff professional structure renovation, etc.
The basic directions of reorganization provided for the transfer to a professional training on the grounds of direct contracts between educational institutions and associations, enterprises and organizations.
In the USSR, the national system of labour training for various social spheres was created. The qualified workers were prepared by vocational training system and at the enterprises. The basic form of the systematic labour training and retraining for corresponding branches of the national economy was vocational schools.
In fact, the list of trades applied up to 1987 was reduced twice due to the use of a more progressive grouping principle based on commonalities of labour processes, kinds of the equipment and materials. It also took into account the requirement of team organization of work. Fulltime graduates undertook to work not less than two years at the enterprises where they were directed after leaving the school .
The enterprises and the organizations were given the right to choose independently educational institutions for their workers professional skills improvement and retraining and to dissolve contracts with educational institutions showing poor quality of training.
Therefore, it is possible to note, that the educational system was improved to meet the requirements of social and economic development rate, the construction prospects, the demands put forward by progress in scientific and technical progress.
Education development was one of the major directions of the state activity and the key question of personnel selection.
Current status of personnel training, retraining and professional skills improvement system
Scientific and technical progress essentially influences the work of all categories of workers, and hence, raises requirements to their vocational training.
The hi-tech automated manufacture is in need of qualified workers of a new type, who are close to technical experts in respect of their professional knowledge.
Today a worker should be able to master the latest technical equipment in short terms, to operate initiatively, to possess a keen feeling of responsibility for the functioning of the trusted technical equipment, to be ready to learn something new (production, technology, equipment, adjacent trades and a work place).
The majority of workers have a low level of professional knowledge and skills, and their training is too narrow to meet the requirements made by the development of technical equipment in the nearest ten years.
In the 50-80 years, there was a stereotype of perceiving the acquired education as final.
Despite of the subsequent attempts to transform the educational system from periodic to continuous one, the opinion prevailed, that once knowledge is received by a person it keeps its value throughout all his professional career; training became widely considered as a preparatory step previous to one’s labour activity . This is one of the reasons of Russian technological lag from developed countries. While in the last decades training (the general and vocational training) has been directed to prepare person for working life, now, as practice shows, the basic accent should be made on preparing a worker to study all his life. Essentially, the concept of knowledge expansion changes into the concept of knowledge renovation and deepening during all period of professional activity. Knowledge stops to be considered as a certain fund, becoming a stream of constantly updated information .
For realization of technological innovation experts, possessing knowledge necessary to perform the functions of a constructor, technologist, production organizer familiar with scientific organization of work, production planning and economy are required.
These are the requirements made by a modern civilized employer investing means in the staff development.
Today the system of staff vocational training in our country is guided by the state educational standards including:
There are main systems of vocational training based on observance of state standards, confirmed by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation: primary, secondary and higher education and the postgraduate vocational training providing workers retraining and improvement of their professional skills . Moreover, the specificity of certain enterprises creates demand for corporate educational standards.
However, in order to represent a whole picture of workers training, retraining and professional skill improvement at the moment it is necessary to consider problems of this sphere.
Problems of personnel training, retraining and professional skill improvement in building field
In all times education served as the instrument of pre-term investment in economy. In fact, the success of any business directly depends on professionalism of the executors. Presently it is also issue of the day when the competition in the building market forces to quickly master the advanced methods of work, modern technical equipment and the newest technologies, and only qualified personnel can do it.
Vocational training in building specialities is carried out in Russia by more than 100 higher educational institutions, about 300 technical schools and colleges, 545 vocational schools .
Popularity of secondary vocational training in building is growing .
While the level and speed of scientific and technical progress depend on graduates of higher schools, its depth and scale depend on graduates of technical schools and colleges. Desire of the youth to work in building can be explained by the fast growth of workers average wages.
The results of graduates employment and training in Russia are also affected by numerous unresolved problems.
First of all, problems of graduates’ employment are raised by absence of the valid state forecast of personnel demand and uncertain situation at the labour market . As a result, the real structure of specialists training is formed by educational institutions on the basis of the educational services demand of population. For this reason some specialities (lawyers, economists) are in large access. Deficiency of specialists that exists today in the building complex has provoked artificial growth of wages. Satiety of the labour market will allow building companies to avoid unreasonable overpayments and let them redirect the saved means for personnel training, retraining and professional skill improvement .
Formation of the state task for labour training and secondary vocational education of specialists has not begun yet, but today construction firms and housing and communal services are in urgent need for them.
Moreover, according to the forms of the state statistical observation, 18% of graduates in the group of specialities «Building and architecture» are drafted in the Аrmed forces. Where there is mutual understanding between educational institution direction and military commissariats of cities and areas, these specialists are not lost for the branch. Educational institutions do not register intake or return of specialists after military service to building organizations and housing and communal services.
In 2002 from 50 up to 70 % of graduates of some Russian Gosstroy educational institutions were not assigned to a job and independently sought employment .
This fact is consequence not only of a significant weakening of communications between educational institutions and consumers, but also of ineffective work of educational institutions heads.
Discrepancy of wage-rate and skill characteristics on posts of engineers and technicians and requirements to a level of graduates training greatly complicates the revelation of objective demand for specialists.
It is necessary to solve one more problem. The organization of specialists training in view of the labour market needs, introduction of new specialities requires creation in educational institutions of new laboratories, rooms and workshops equipped with modern equipment. However, it is not provided with budgetary financing.
At last, it is necessary to underline that problems of labour training in market conditions concerns not only the government. Manufacture should also radically change its attitude to labour training. The overwhelming majority of building organizations, housing and communal services do not show due interest in establishment of effective, mutually advantageous partner relations with educational institutes and do not participate in financing their activity for received specialists .
Therefore, in order to achieve the quality of the education corresponding to modern and perspective requirements of economy, to support competitiveness and mobility of graduates in the labour market it is necessary not only to keep up with the production standard, but also in a close contact with science to head for forward education.
Библиографические ссылки на источники
ПРИ ОБУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
В ВЫСШЕЙ ШКОЛЕ
Материалы научно-практической конференции
(6 октября 2005 г.)
Печатается с авторских оригиналов
Компьютерная вёрстка М.В. Рябининой
Дизайн обложки Н.В. Привальцевой
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