Учебное пособие Санкт-Петербург




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12. Nanotechnology


Nanotechnology is a field of applied science and technology covering a broad range of topics. The main unifying theme is the control of matter on a scale smaller than 1 micrometer, normally between 1-100 nanometers , as well as the fabrication of devices on this same length scale. It is known to be a highly multidisciplinary field, drawing from fields such as colloid science, device physics, and supramolecular chemistry.

The term “nanotechnology” was defined by Tokyo Science University Professor Norio Taniguchi in a 1974 paper as follows:” Nanotechnology “ mainly consists of processing, separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or by one molecule”.

Nanotechnology and nanoscience are considered to have started in the early 1980s with major developments : the birth of cluster science and the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope(STM). These developments led to the discovery of fullerenes in 1986 and nanotubes a few years later.

A unique aspect of nanotechnology is the vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume present in nanoscale materials, which opens new possibilities in surface - based science, such as catalysis.

Scientists showed nanomaterials to posses different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macro scale. Due to that fact unique applications for nanomaterials can be found (1524 печ. зн.).


12 Тесты по теме инфинитив и инфинитивные конструкции (ESP).


Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык.


Тест №1

1. This substance is found to be useful.

2. The radius of our orbit is believed to be increasing very slowly.

3. They proved to have provided all for the experiment.

4. There appear to be two distinct effects in this case.

5. The lithium nucleus is too small for so many collisions (столкновение-) to occur.

6. Alpha-rays were shown to be identical, по matter from what radioactive element they are emitted.

7. In liquids and solids the movement of molecules must be supposed to be more restricted.

8. Only а limited number of reactions are known to be influenced by light

9. Such reaction was not observed to happen.

10. Many materials which may appear to be amorphous are really crystalline in structure.

11. Hydrogen does not appear to combine with clorine with appreciab velocity in the dark.

12. Uranium was the first element which was found to possess the property of radioactivity.


Тест №2

1. A substance is known to possess these properties is called an acid.

2. This was the cubic equation which was believed in ancient Egypt to be insoluble.

3. Secondary radiation may be expected to rise when the primary radiations are observed.

4. Electrons can be made to travel at very high speed.

5. The speed of the particles is a bit too swift (быстрый) for us to study in detail.

6. We consider the hotness or coldness of any body to depend on the quantity of heat possessed by the body.

7. Properties of substances are their characteristic quality which may be used to describe them.

8. Pressure causes ice melt.

9. This apparatus enables accurate measurements to be carried out with ease.

10. The first organic compound isolated by chemists was wine.

11. The effect is too small to be detected.

12. In order for two molecules to react they must be in contact.


Тест №3

1. For a reaction to take place, an A molecule must first meet а В molecule.

2 А small crystal of ice added, to the supercooled water is sufficient to cause the арреаrance of icе.

3. It is possible to compress this substance,

4 Не heard the bell ring.

5. Strong acids Arrenius assumed to be highly ionized.

6. This theory was the first concept of matter to be based upon experimental evidence.

7. He seems to know this rule well.

8. I happened to be out when he called.

9. Z was taken to be equal 9.

10. This substance has been isolated in а free form and has been state to fluoresce in the dark.

11. А star gradually cools down and can be said to undergo an evolutiоnаy change.

12. Аbove - 100˚ the oxide (F2O2) decomposed slowly to give what was at first thought to be а new oxide FO.


Тест №4

1. He is always the first to come.

2. The substance to be analyzed should be pure.

3. There will be six independent elements to be determined.

4. Attractive forces may make molecules со11ide.

5. А catalyst аllows a greater quantity of the products of а reaction to be manufactured.

6. I was not able to write my test. It proved to be too difficult.

7 The guests are likely to arrive soon.

8. The results are expected to agree with theoretical predictions.

9, Such reactions was not observed to happen.

10. Water proved to be а compound.

11. During the Dark Ages (средние века) people believed the Earth to be flat.

12. А11 students are supposed to know Newton’s laws of ' mechanics.


Тест№5

1. А11 substances are known to have some ability to transmit electrons.

2 Some liquids prove to be good conductors.

3. This metal is likely to be brittle (хрупкий) at the temperature mentioned.

4. Salt water appears to conduct electricity well.

5. We know electric current to flow in metal parts.

6. Everybody considers electronic devices to play a great role in industrial control.

7. They have seеn the device begin to operate,

8. There are many problems to be solved in order to understand these phenomene.

9. The lecture to be followed by an experiment is to take place at our institute.

10. Crookes was the first to recognize the cathode rays as negatively charged particlaes.

11. The mechanical systems are often too simple to be of any practical interest.

Тест №6

1. То observe is the primary rule of any experiment.

2. We use lines of force as did Faraday, so as to picture the electric field more clearly.

3. It is impossible for people to work at very high temperatures at 200˚ for instance.

4. The time required for the equilibrium to be established varies greatly.

5. What makes a moving body stop?

6. Elasticity is the property of matter that enables it to keep its original form.

7. Many years ago scientists believed an electric current to be а from of energy.

8. We know electric current to be surrounded by a magnetic field.

9. A voltmeter is an instrument to be used for measuring the potenti al difference between any two points in a circuit.

10. Today scientists in order to describe mass and length use the metric system of units.

11 Care should be taken for the conditions of work to be changed and made normal.

12. He chanced to observe an unusual effect.


Тест №7

1. Falling on а special kind of cell, light can cause an electric current to flow.

2. What causes а body to move? Isaac Newton was the first to answer this question.

3. А copper atom has 29 electrons; at least one of them can be easily made to leave the atom.

4. Lomonosov proved heat to be а form of energy.

5. All molecules are supposed to be in motion.

6. We know the strength of а current to depend upon the resistance of the circuit.

7. When the currents to be detected and measured are very small, one should use а galvonometer.

8. The lecture to be followed by an experiment to take place at our Institute.

9. The precipitate was observed, to dissolve slowly.

10. Silicon is only known to form either four or six bonds.

11. Аir was considered by the encients to be element.

12. For the tests to be comparable the tests should be made exactly in the same way.


Тест №8

1. The copper wire that connects two plates in an electric cell forms a very easy path for the electrons to move.

2. This law is generally taken to аррlу to all gases аnd their mixtures.

3. Uranium was the first element which was found to possess the proрerty of radioactivity.

4. This substance is known to dissolve in hot water.

5. This substance is to be found in nature.

6. Light is to be considered as some kind of wave motion of electromagnetic origin.

7. Ions have been found by numerous experiments to move as easily through а jell (гель) as through the liquid solution.

8. Their method was to add radon to the substance to be examined.

9. They watched the temperature rise gradually.

10. Assume the total preassure to be equal to 10.

11. Other gases were found 1о behave like air,

12. The eclipse (затмение) of the sun was predicated to occur in 1460.


Тест №9

1. The metal to be found in this ore is of great value.

2. Аttractive forces may make molecules collide.

3. Chlorides can be made by methods to be described later.

4. Which method is to be chosen in this case?

5. Unfortunately the thermal conductivity is very hard to determine.

6. In this experiment we are to compare the relative weight of two substances.

7. The question is not simple to answer.

8 This is the first factor to be taken into consideration.

9. The time taken for equilibrium conditions to be set is small.

10. It is not possible for a liquid to be compressed nearly as much as a gas.

11. They found radon to be times as heavy as hydrogen.

12. As present time, 96 substances are known which chemists consider to be elements.

Тест №10

1. We know to have been a difficult problem to solve.

2. Lasers proved to be of great help in medicine and industry.

3. To explain this simple fact is not so very easy.

4. It takes the rays of the sun 8 minutes to get to the Earth.

5. Phosphorus is too active element to be found free in nature.

6. Elements combine to produce a compound.

7. One way to obtaining hydrogen is to pass electric current thru water.

8. The next step will be produced a diagram of the system.

9. We observed the evaporation of water, a phenomenon to be more fully described later.

10. The report to be followed by a concert will take place at 8 o’clock.

11. The first liqueified gas to be used as a refrigerant on a large scale was ammonia.

12. Here is one more important point for the speaker to explain.


Тест №11

1. Deformation appeared to have no measurable effect on conductivity

2. Let us take the volume of this body to equal v.

3. The temperature was too low for the substance to decompose.

4. Polonium was the first of the radioactive elements to be isolated by the chemists.

5. These methods are to be described in the next chapter.

6, There are some more figures to be referred to latex.

7. The atom may eject (изгонять) another particle to become в different atom.

8, To give а true picture of the surrounding matter is the task of natural science.

9. The waves are too short to affect the eye.

10, Lead (свинец) will dissolve in sodium solution to give green solutions.

11. The problem has been to solidify the substance under investigation.

12. Experiments have proved the pressure of а gas at fixed temperature to depend on its concentration.


13 Дополнительный материал (General English)


13.1 Задание по теме «Субъектный и объектный инфинитивные обороты»


Прочтите информацию на тему “ Известно ли Вам, что….”, выберите 3-4 заинтересовавших вас факта и, используя их, составьте предложения с конструкцией Complex Subject и Complex Object.

Пример:

Muhammad is the most popular name in the world.

1.Complex Subject

а).Muhammad is said to be the most popular name in the world (глаголом в пассиве).

б). Muhammad appears to be the most popular name in the world (глаголом в активе).

в). Muhammad is likely to be the most popular name in the world (со словосочетанием).


2.Complex Object

а).Statistics data show Muhammad to be the most popular name in the world.

б).They say Muhammad to be the most popular name in the world.

в).We know Muhammad to be the most popular name in the world.


Did you know that….


A. Languages of the world


1. Papua New Guinea has the greatest concentration of separate languages in the world, with more than 10 per cent of world’s total of 4-5,000.

2. The language used by more people as their native tongue than any other is Mandarin, spoken by an estimated 68 per cent of China’s population.

3. English is the second most commonly spoken language? And the most

widespread.

4. Chippewa, The North American India language, has the most verb forms up to 6,000.

5.Turkish has only one irregular verb olmak, meaning “ to be”.

6.All languages have the vowel ‘a’(as in the English word ‘father’).

7. English has over 250 irregular verbs.

8. The language with the most letters is Cambodian, with 74 ( including some without any current use).

9. The English language including contains the most words than any other language in the world.

10. Shakespeare used a vocabulary of about 33,000 words.

11. British people who had a full 16 years of education use perhaps 5,000 words in speech and up to 10,000 words in written communications.


B. Strange but true!


1. The most common name in the world is Muhammad ( this sentence was taken as an example).

2. Bamboo can grow one meter in 24 hours.

3. Napoleon was afraid of cats.

4. There were elephants, lions, and camels in Alaska 12,000 years ago.

5. In winters of 1420 and 1438 , wolves were found in the streets of Paris.

6. If all the ice in the world melted, the sea would rise over 50 meters.

7. 85% of all the world plants grow in the sea.

8. Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland, is heated by underground hot springs.

9. Nearly 25% of the surface of Los Angeles occupied by cars.

10.99% of all forms of life that have ever existed on the earth are now extinct.

11. 35% of all Americans are overweight.

12. Your skin weighs nearly three kilograms.

13. The first parachute jump was made by a dog in a basket ( belonging to the French balloonist Blanchard) in 1785.


13.2 Тестовые задания на перевод по теме “Инфинитив и инфинитивные конструкции”

A. Complex Subject


Переведите следующие предложения, включенные в группу “ a” на русский язык, а предложения, включенные в группу “b” на английский язык.

var.1

a) 1. It seems tо be raining for ages.

2. Jim is said to have left.

З. The earthquake is said to have killed many people.

4. Gagarin is known tо say "Let' s go" at the start.

5. She appears to have remembered nothing.

6. We are sure to be caught by the storm.

b) 7. Сообщили, что все банки закрыты.

8. Считают, что ее бывший муж живет в Риме.

9. Он, несомненно, влюбился в нее.

10. Видели,ч то приехали пожарные.

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