Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины) по отрасли




НазваниеРабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины) по отрасли
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particular. This criticism, advanced by Hume, can be regarded as conclusive. In order to evade this difficulty, Hume had recourse to a new psychological element, the habit of association, which connects impressions with one another and clothes them with universality and necessity. However, it might be observed that if the intellect can link phenomena to one another and give them the notes of universality and necessity, such an intellect is no "tabula rasa," as Hume asserted it to be; it evidently possesses the innate concept of universality and necessity, which it attributes to the particular phenomena when it links them together in groups or classes.

These highly unsatisfactory theories were uppermost in the mind of Kant when he undertook to solve the same problem, namely, that of the objective and ethical value of our knowledge. In his endeavor to present a conclusive solution, Kant composed his three Critiques -- so named because, in the true sense of the word, "to criticize" means to discuss and judge. Thus Kant's entire work is a careful examination and judgment of Rationalism and Empiricism, with a view to determining the merits and deficiencies of the two.

According to Kant, Rationalism is a type of "analytic judgment," in so far as it constructs a system of knowledge that is endowed with universality and necessity. However, such knowledge is tautological and sterile; that is, it is unable to lead us to an understanding of nature. To mark an advance of knowledge, according to Kant, a judgment must be "synthetic"; that is, it must be a judgment whose predicate extends our knowledge beyond the subject. On the other hand, Empiricism is a type of "synthetic" judgment, but it is an a posteriori synthetic judgment, one whose predicate is a fact of experience, and consequently deprived of universality and necessity. Such judgments, devoid of universality and necessity, cannot serve to build up true or philosophical knowledge.

Kant teaches that there is another type of judgment called synthetic a priori, which leads to true scientific knowledge. It enjoys the universality and necessity of analytic judgments without being tautological, and possesses the fecundity of synthetical a posteriori judgments without being restricted to the particular beings existing in the empirical world. For the formation of any synthetic a priori judgment it is necessary to have form and matter.

  • The form is given by the intellect, independent of all experience, a priori, and signifies the function, manner and law of knowing and acting, which the subject finds in itself prior to all experience.

  • The matter is the subjective sensations which we receive from the external world.

Through these two elements the benefits of Rationalism and Empiricism are united in the same judgment: the form represents the universal and necessary element, while the matter represents the empirical data. The judgment thus resulting (synthetic a priori) is universal and necessary in virtue of the form, and valid for the empirical world in virtue of the matter. It is to be noted that for the formation of a synthetic a priori judgment it is necessary to have both elements: Form without matter is empty and void; matter without form is blind.

Clearly, a knowledge obtained through Kant's synthetic a priori judgments is of phenomenal value only; it does not give a valid understanding of the objects "in se" or as they exist in nature (noumena), but only in so far as they are thought by the subject. Kant's thinking ego does not assimilate the object, as traditional philosophy maintains, but constructs it. In fact, both matter and form (sensations) are subjective elements and do not bespeak reality; this remains ever separate and distinct from the subject.

Kant presents his study of synthetic a priori judgments in the Critique of Pure Reason. This work is divided into three parts:

  • In the Transcendental Aesthetic, Kant investigates the elements of sensible knowledge in reference to a priori forms of space and time. The object of this study is to justify mathematics as a perfect science.

  • The Transcendental Analytic is an inquiry into intellectual knowledge. Its object is the physical world, and its scope is the justification of "pure physics" (mechanics) as a perfect science.

  • Transcendental Dialectic has for its object that reality which lies beyond our experience; namely, the essence of God, man and the world. Kant reduces these objects of traditional metaphysics to "ideas," about which reason fruitlessly revolves, without hope of ever arriving at any definitive result.

1. Transcendental Aesthetic

The beginning of knowledge is in sensibility, in the reception of sensations. In order to constitute knowledge, sensations must be located in space, if they come to us through the external senses; and in time, i.e., succeeding one another, no matter what their origin -- even if they be simple states of consciousness, such as pleasure and pain.

Now, for Kant, space and time are not realities existing in themselves, as Newton believed, nor are they realities coming from experience, as Aristotle maintained. They are, instead, a priori forms, that is, exigencies of our knowledge. Sense knowledge (pure intuition) carries within itself the following exigencies; Every sensation must be located in space, i.e., above or beneath, to the right or to the left, and in time, that is, antecedent, subsequent, or concomitant to other sensations. Hence space and time are conditions, not of the existence of things but of the possibility of their being manifested in us. In a word, they are subjective forms.

Now, arithmetic and geometry are based on space and time. Consequently, they are based on subjective forms, and the universality and necessity we find in them come through these subjective forms. In other words, arithmetic and geometry are absolute sciences, not because they represent a universal and necessary aspect of the physical world but because they are a priori constructions of the human spirit and receive from it there universality and necessity.

2. Transcendental Analytic

The pure intuitions of time and space give us a manifold but disorganized knowledge of nature. The human spirit, which tends to the unification of knowledge, cannot stop at these confused intuitions. It feels impelled to progress to a higher degree of understanding which is centered in the intellect and whose activity consists in organizing the sensible data dispersed in space and time. This is possible through the a priori forms or categories with which the intellect is endowed. The function of such forms or categories is the following:

  • In the intuition, for example, of a tree, I had certain sensible data (colors, leaves, branches, etc.) existing in space and in temporal succession.

  • The intellect sets to work on these data in accordance with its nature -- that is, according to its a priori forms -- and stabilizes, as it were, these sensitive and ephemeral data with the concept of substance. Substance, then, is one of the categories of the intellect. But the intellect does not rest here.

  • It proceeds still further and, placing the present data in relation to the data that have preceded the tree, it associates them in a second concept, that of cause. This is the second category, by virtue of which phenomena are bound to one another by a universal and necessary connection, in such a way that, given the antecedent phenomenon (the cause), another phenomenon (the effect) must follow always and everywhere.

The categories of the intellect are twelve, and are divided by Kant into four classes -- quantity, quality, relations, and modes. These categories, by giving permanence and necessity to sensible data, serve as a framework in reference to which the mechanical laws of nature are understood. It is likewise to be noted that this permanent unification of sensible data is possible only on condition that the unifying intellect remains identical with itself. If the intellect be diverse for every sensible datum, no permanent unification would be possible. Hence the universality and objectivity of science imply the permanence of the intellect in its identity.

3. Transcendental Dialectic

The classification of sensible intuitions, performed by the intellect through its categories, does not attain perfect unity. It remains always in the world of phenomena, in a phenomenal series which extends itself indefinitely in space and time. Within us, however, there is the tendency to achieve a definite unification of phenomena, and as a consequence there arise in us certain "ideas" which serve as a point of reference and organization for the totality of phenomena. These "ideas" are three:

  • Personal ego, the unifying principle of all internal phenomena;

  • The External world, the unifying principle of all phenomena coming from without; and

  • God, the unifying principle of all phenomena, regardless of their origin.

The personal ego, the world, and God (the supreme realities of traditional metaphysics), are called noumena, i.e., realities in themselves, suprasensible and unconditioned beings. Kant presents these three entities in the Transcendental Dialectic, the third part of the Critique of Pure Reason.

Thus the Transcendental Dialectic brings us to the third grade of human knowledge. The faculty which busies itself with these "ideas" Kant calls reason. The aim of this third part of the Critique of Pure Reason is to see whether the ideas of ego, the world, and God allow us to know the reality they represent, or whether such knowledge is impossible, these ideas being then a kind of empty subjective exigency, and nothing more. Clearly Kant's Criticism ends in Skepticism. Pure reason is always connected with sensible intuitions, and therefore it cannot arrive at the knowledge of the personal ego, of the world, and of God; these are realities which are beyond the data of intuition.

In regard to the "personal ego" (substance) -- the object of rational psychology in traditional philosophy -- Kant observes that it vanishes in paralogisms, i.e., in sophisms, false reasoning. Indeed, contrary to Descartes, Kant believed that spiritual substance is not known directly. What we know directly is the action of knowing (phenomenon). A series of these actions, even if extended ad infinitum, will never give us knowledge of a reality such as the personal ego, which must lie beyond this series. Moreover, for Kant, substance is a category of the intellect that has relation only to sensible data, and it is consequently useless in the quest of a knowledge of suprasensible realities. Kant's criticism on this point is directed against Descartes, who maintained that the soul, a spiritual substance, is the first object of knowledge.

In reference to the external world, to which traditional philosophy dedicates its studies in cosmology, Kant says that it is lost in antinomies, that is, in contradictory propositions, and that the intellect is not capable of distinguishing which of the opposed propositions is true. These antinomies are four in number, each one being made up of a thesis and its corresponding antithesis. They are the following:

  • Thesis: The world must have a beginning in time and be enclosed in finite space. Antithesis: The world is eternal and infinite.

  • Thesis: Matter is ultimately divisible into simple parts (atoms or monads) which are incapable of further division. Antithesis: Every material thing is divisible; there exists nowhere in the world anything that is simple.

  • Thesis: Besides the causality which is in accordance with the laws of nature (and therefore necessary), there is a causality which is free. Antithesis: There is no freedom; everything in the world takes place entirely according to the laws of nature.

  • Thesis: There exists an absolutely necessary Being who belongs to the world, either as a part or as a cause of it. Antithesis: Nowhere does there exist an absolutely necessary Being, either in the world or outside it.

The first two antinomies (the opposition existing between a finite and infinite universe and between divisible and indivisible matter) pertain to the physical world. According to Kant, they not correspond to the "thing in itself" (noumenon), for they consist in an illegitimate application of the categories of space and time to the "thing in itself." In other words, in these two antinomies the physical world is considered at the same time as a "thing in itself" independent of the mechanical necessity of nature (space and time) and as a subject of this same mechanical necessity. Any opposition derived from this contradictory position is necessarily false.

The other two antinomies are concerned, the first with the spirit (freedom), the second with God; and they may be true from the noumenical and the phenomenal point of view. Indeed, there will be the same contradiction as noted above, if freedom and God are conceived of as beings subject to mechanical causality. But the spirit and God may be affirmed without any consideration of space and time; and in this case the theses of the two antinomies do not imply any contradiction.

Thus the theses are true if they are affirmed simply from the noumenal point of view; likewise the antitheses are true if they are affirmed simply from the phenomenal point of view. Hence Kant concludes his criticism, leaving the door open for the affirmation of the existence of spirit and God. However, it has to be noted that such a conclusion cannot be called true knowledge, because it is not based on any intuition; for Kant intuition alone gives origin to true knowledge. Later we shall see that Kant affirms the existence of spirit and of God as postulates of practical reason.

Finally, in reference to the idea of God, Kant reduces the arguments which rational theology brought forward to prove the existence of God to the following:

  • Ontological Argument (St. Anselm, Descartes. Kant proclaims this proof inefficacious not only because God is not the object of intuition, but also because the passage from the phenomenal world (thought) to the noumenal world (reality) is illegitimate.

  • Cosmological Argument. Kant declares this argument inefficacious because it is based on the principle of causality; and causality is, for him, a category valid only in the world of experience and not for what lies beyond experience.

  • Teleological Argument. This argument shows us that where there is finality or purpose there is an Intelligence, an architect. But, as Kant rightly observes, this does not mean the most perfect Being, i.e., God.

Thus the Critique of Pure Reason concludes that our knowledge does not attain metaphysical realities (noumena). Kant does not deny the existence of God and of the external world, nor the immortality of the soul; but he says that such entities are closed to scientific inquiry. This latter has the phenomenal world as its object, and is utterly incapable of penetrating the supra-phenomenal world, i.e., the world of the noumena, the unconditioned. According to Kant, God, the world and the soul are attainable through another activity, practical reason, which we shall now examine.

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