This special issue will appear in Spring 2009, Volume 37, Number 1, and the manuscript submission deadline will be April 1st, 2008




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НазваниеThis special issue will appear in Spring 2009, Volume 37, Number 1, and the manuscript submission deadline will be April 1st, 2008
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The Journal

of the

American Academy

of Psychoanalysis

and

Dynamic Psychiatry


A SYMPOSIUM:

ON THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF GOD REPRESENTATIONS

WITHIN THE PSYCHONALYTIC RELATIONSHIP:

WHEN IS THREE A CROWD?


GUEST EDITORS


Moshe Halevi Spero, Ph.D. | Jerusalem, Israel

&

Mariam Cohen, M.D. | Scottsdale, Arizona


© June-July, 2007


BACKGROUND


We are pleased to announce the dedication of a special issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry dedicated to a significant but relatively neglected aspect of the relationship between psychoanalysis and religion. This special issue will appear in Spring 2009, Volume 37, Number 1, and the manuscript submission deadline will be April 1st, 2008.


The plan of the Symposium is to bring together a select group of authors who are willing to briefly describe a specific clinical situation in which the interaction of the analyst and the patient has become involved, on some level, with the religious representations of either the analyst, the patient, or both. (We are aware that our authors may differ in how they define this interaction). As the title of the Symposium suggests, we are not limiting this discussion to patients who are religious believers in a formal or strictly doctrinaire sense. At the same time, we want to solicit discussion of something much more specific than the amorphous dimension known as spirituality. Instead, we are interested in religious sentiments, beliefs, metaphors or language that have an image of God or some kind of “divine object” at their center, and the ways in which these impact upon the “ordinary” representational fields of the therapeutic partners and the contents of these representations.


In this Symposium, we will ask our authors to take up the clinical descriptive narrative they have chosen and scrutinize it in the light of a set of specific questions. We believe that this manner of exposition will enable the professional audience to gain a more firm grasp on some of the as yet insufficiently explored dimensions of the meeting points between psychoanalysis, religious beliefs and fantasies and the personal dynamics of the analyst and analysand. Our research review and similar reviews recently published by others demonstrate that this sort of clinical discussion of the role of the representation of God (the so-called divine object representation) in the analytic relationship has been lacking in recent discussions of the interface between analysis and religion.


We are specifically asking our authors not to rehash some rather well-known and well-worn theoretical dilemmas (although theoretical issues may serve as a starting point for an essay). Over the past 15-20 years in the psychoanalytic literature there has been considerable interest in the relationship between classical and contemporary psychoanalytic theory and religious belief—particularly belief in a non-empirically verifiable entity identified as God—and spirituality in general. In addition to numerous journal essays and chapters since the turn of the century alone, several single-author texts and edited collections have been devoted to the complex problems involved in the analysis of the epistemological applications or limits of psychoanalysis with regard to this very special kind of “object representation.” Some authors have that the divine object representation is a special form of representation, and others have taken an opposite stand. Still other writers have focused on psychoanalysis’s contribution to the understanding of the sources and development (preverbal as well as oedipal) of religious belief and the more general sense of spirituality (Cohen, 2003; Spero, 2004).


Characteristically, compared to the literature preceding the 1980s, contemporary writers have been increasingly willing to share important and often eloquent glimpses into the psychoanalyst’s personal religious- or spiritually-oriented memories and conflicts, enabling the reader to appreciate how these served as bases for continued or suspended religious belief in the writer’s personal and professional development. Nevertheless, the role of representations of God (or any other way of identifying the divine) within the psychoanalytic framework, specifically, within the analytic relationship has been neglected. Certainly epistemological and theoretical issues are important; however, their importance, and the relevance of refracting them further, depends on the experience within the clinical laboratory.


As Guest Editors of this Symposium, we feel that the most valuable type of writing today focuses on clinical data that is rich enough to offer the reader the intrapsychic and intersubjective quality of religious or spiritual experience as it develops within the analytic consulting room. We are referring particularly to the way in which the frame of the analytic relationship is expressed in the matrix of the transference and the countertransference or, for those who consider this a distinct domain, all that arises within the dimension of the “analytic third.” It is our opinion that in the current psychoanalysis-and-religion literature, even when clinical material is presented, usually in the form of thumbnail sketches or brief vignettes, it is rare that the full richness of the actual phenomenology of the patient’s religious experience comes through. It is even more rare that the treating analyst shares the analogous “religious” or spiritual dynamics that might be taking place within his or her own internal experience of the analytic relationship and setting. We consider this lack problematic.: If Winnicott, Bion, Rizzuto, Eigen, Bollas, Symington and similarly-minded thinkers are correct in hypothesizing that God representations or some form or another of spiritual or faith “object” are an inherent endowment or constituent of the human psyche—whether or not the clinician happens to believe that there actually exists an objective thing such as the God posited by most religions—then it becomes most likely that the patient’s dynamic transformations in these areas (especially when they are tumultuous and complex enough to warrant publication!) have some impact on the parallel world of the analyst.



The analytic transparency that we are looking for is not quite satisfied by the interesting biographical expositions that have recently been published by some analysts (cited above). Through the latter, we certainly gain valuable insight into the role of religious experience in the personal and professional development of these analysts, but two problems remain. First, such essays may lend to a misleading impression that such biographical data are not relevant in the case of analysts who might claim to have no impression that religious or spiritual factors played or play any such role in their lives. In fact, there is little reason to believe that this is the case, and on the basis of the hypothesis mentioned above, this would actually be a potentially disruptive presumption, clinically.


Second, the biographical data offered in the personally revealing essays just mentioned are not—cannot be—the equivalent to a description of the actual interaction during analytic time between the object relational and representational underpinnings of the psychoanalyst’s mind or spirit in concert with or in reaction to the concurrent or complementary goings-on in the world of the analysand. Given the degree of frankness and sincerity with which many contemporary analytic authors report the countertransference dynamics of personal struggles with aggressive, erotic, sensory, somatic and even bizarre psychotic experiences—indeed, the willingness to view such data as very often the conditio sine qua non for understanding the patient’s inner world—it becomes difficult to justify not providing such material in clinical discussion of religious issues.


THE FOCUS AND METHOD


Generally, when periodicals publish “special issues” dedicated to a given topic, a group of authors, specially selected or randomly harvested, offer papers that present whatever angle of intersect seems appropriate to the topic under discussion, in the eyes of the authors and the editors. Under that format there is a striving for the maximum variety and “spread” of perspectives around the elected theme. However, since we want to focus on the specific topic described above, we propose to ask invited authors to present clinical material and to respond to three questions.


In what manner did the religious material, feeling or issues surface within the analytic material or relationship (direct declaration, parapraxes, enactment, dream)? What can the analyst reconstruct regarding his or her feelings and thoughts regarding the religious experience as it began to take form within the treatment (awe, surprise, wonderment, boredom, anticipation), and in what ways did such reactions inform about the nature of the patient’s internal experience?

In what ways were the analyst’s own biographical material, feelings, fantasies or conflicts regarding religious experience able to enter into the analyst’s subjective experience of the meaning of the developments within the world of the patient.

Were countertransference phenomena of any pertinent kind or quality necessary in order to better discern or comprehend these issues? How did the analyst integrate the various dimensions of the overall experience reported?


We will ask that these questions be answered from within the context of pertinent clinical material drawn from the participant’s clinical practice as well as from his or her own personal development, to the greatest degree that the participant feels willing or able.


We are hopeful that the authors will offer the kind of inner experiences that touch upon or run along the edge of their own religious feelings and beliefs or lack of them. Some of these experiences may surface relatively easily concurrent with the analyst’s conscious awareness and reflection during the clinical process, and others will have been distilled gradually from the countertransference or related processes. For, if we have accepted with regard to countertransference in general, that there is great value in coming to grips with the various erotic and aggressive and other personal feelings which emerge during countertransference, then we must come to grips with the religious sentiments or imagery that surfaces at this point as well. This would not only include specific religious or spiritually-oriented feelings, fears, anxieties and fantasies that arise within the analyst in reaction to or alongside the patient's religious experiences, but also the willingness to wonder about these kinds of feelings should they fail to surface with such patients. It would be important to explore, for instance, those instances when preoccupation with the specifics of belief and practice masks or prevents a deeper appreciation of the underlying ground of spirituality and faith, but also the opposite: under what occasions does excessive abstraction or dispersal of faith and spiritual mask or obscure specific kinds of object representations and intrapsychic or intersubjective dynamics—on either the patient’s or the analyst’s part.


We are seeking moments of positive transformation or change within the dimension of religious belief or spiritual experience. However, we are equally interested in moments of stalemate, resistance, developmental deficits and any other kind of “moment” within the analysis when, among other dynamic factors and dimensions, the religious content, beliefs or underlying representations of the patient were central to the causal nexus pertinent to the moment selected. Moreover, we need to know what the analytic couple did with this moment, how the material was handled, how the relevant representations took form in the transference-countertransference matrix, how they interfered with or contributed to the maintenance of the frame.


Since we are hoping to be able to include a fairly large number of contributors, we are setting a limit on how long the individual essays should be. Thus, we ask that essays be in the form of a manuscript of not longer than 14 double-spaced pages, including double-spaced references. Literature reviews and lengthy introductions are to be kept to a minimum, including only those necessary to clarify what specific type of experiences they wish to elaborate, question or theorize, or what background orientation they adopt in general or regarding religious issues in specific. For the sake of clarity, and best use of writing space, we will suggest that 12 references would already be a large list. Toward the end of the essay, the author should gear toward some kind of summary statement, including what the author thinks was or was not accomplished, and what conclusions or tentative hypotheses he or she wishes to draw from the experience. Restraint of this kind should make possible a large number of presentations, and also enable the editors’ concluding comparative analysis to be more focused.


SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY


Akhtar, S., & Parens, H. (Eds.) (2001). Does God help? Developmental and clinical aspects of

religious belief. Northvale, NJ: Aronson.


Aron, L. (2004). God’s influence on my psychoanalytic vision and values. Psychoanalytic

Psychology, 21:442-451.


Bakan, D. (1958). Sigmund Freud and the Jewish mystical tradition. London: Free Association,

1990.


Black, D. M. (2006). Psychoanalysis and religion in the 21st century: Competitors or collaborators?

London: Routledge.


Blass, R. (2006). Beyond illusion: Psychoanalysis and the question of religious truth. In:

D. M. Black (Ed.), Psychoanalysis and religion in the 21st century: Competitors or

collaborators? (pp. 23-43). London: Routledge.


Bomford, R. (1999). The symmetry of God. London: Free Association.


Cohen, M. (2003). The affirmation of a religious (and not merely spiritual!) orientation in

clinical treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic

Psychiatry, 31: 269-273.


Corveleyn, J., & Luyten, P. (2005). Psychodynamic psychologies and religion: Past,

present and future. In: R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the

psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 80-1000). New York: Guilford.


de Mello Franco, O. (1998). Religious experience and psychoanalysis: From man-as-God

to man-with-God. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 79:113-131.


Eisnitz, I. C. (1991). The analysis of a religious man. In: G.Pirooz-Sholevar & J. Glenn

(Eds.), Psychoanalytic case studies (pp. 133-181). Madison, CT: International

Universities Press.


Epstein, M. (1995). Thoughts without a thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist perspective. New

York: Basic.


Fayek, A. (2004). Islam and its effect on my practice of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic

Psychology, 21:452-457.


Field, N. (Ed.) (2005). Ten lectures on psychotherapy and spirituality. London:Karnac.


Finn, M., & Gartner, J. (Eds.) (1992). Object relations theory and religion: Clinical applications.

New York: Praeger.


Jones, J. W. (1991). Contemporary psychoanalysis and religion: Transference and transcendence.

New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.


Jones, J. W. (2001). Terror and transformation: The ambiguity of religion in psychoanalytic

perspectives. Hove: Brunner/Routledge.


Kakar, S. (1991). The Analyst and the mystic: Psychoanalytic reflections on religion and mysticism.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Klauber, J. (1974). Notes on psychical roots of religion, with particular reference to the

development of Western Christianity. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 55:

249-255.


Klein, D. (1985). Jewish origins of the psychoanalytic movement. Chicago: University of

Chicago Press.


Kochems, T. (1993). Countertransference and transference aspects of religious material

in psychotherapy: The isolation or integration of religious material. In M. L.

Randour (Eds.), Exploring sacred landscapes: Religious and spiritual experiences in

Psychotherapy (pp. 34-54). New York: Columbia University Press.


McDargh, J. (1983). Psychoanalytic object relations theory and the study of religion. Lanham, MA:

University Press of America.


McDargh, J. (1993). On developing a psychotheological perspective. In M. L. Randour

(Ed.), Exploring sacred landscapes: Religious and spiritual experiences in Psychotherapy (pp.

172-193). New York: Columbia University Press.


Meissner, W. W. (1984). Psychoanalysis and religious experience. New Haven, CT: Yale

University Press.


Meissner, W. W. (2002). The troubled seminarian. In J. Reppen & M. A. Schulman

(Eds.), Failures in psychoanalysis (pp. 153-78). Madison, CT: International

Universities Press.


Meissner, W. W. (2005). On putting a cloud in a bottle: Psychoanalytic perspectives on

mysticism. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 74: 507-559.


Meissner, W. W., & Schlauch, C. R. (Eds.) (2003). Psyche and spirit: Dialectics of

transformation. Lanham, MA: University of America Press.


Ostow, M. (Ed.) (1982). Judaism and psychoanalysis. New York: Ktav.


Randour, M. L. (Ed.) (1993). Exploring religious landscapes: Religious and spiritual

experiences in psychotherapy. New York: Columbia University Press.


Rizzuto, A.-M. (1979). The birth of the living God: A psychoanalytic study. Chicago:

University of Chicago Press.


Rizzuto, A.-M. (1998). Why did Freud reject God? A psychodynamic interpretation. New Haven,

CT: Yale University Press.


Rizzuto, A.-M. (2004). Roman Catholic background and psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic

Psychology, 21:436-441.


Roland, A. (2003). Psychoanalysis and the spiritual quest: Framing a new paradigm. In A.

Roland, B. Ulanov, & S. Barbre (Eds.), Creative dissent: Psychoanalysis in evolution

(pp. 219-220). Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.


Sorenson, R. L. (2004). Kenosis and alterity in Christian spirituality. Psychoanalytic

Psychology, 21:458-462.


Smith, J. H., & Handelman, S. (Eds.) (1990). Psychoanalysis and religion. Baltimore, MD:

Johns Hopkins Press.


Spero, M. H. (1992). Religious objects as psychological structures: A critical integration of object

relations theory, psychotherapy and Judaism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Spero, M. H. (1998). “Brilliantly lit streets:” Oedipal and preoedipal influences on the

transformation of God representations in a schizoid male. Psychoanalysis &

Contemporary Thought, 21: 521-591.


Spero, M. H. (2004). What con-verges and what di-verges when religious object

representations transform? An annotated critique of Cohen (2002). Journal of the

American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 32: 669-708.


Spero, M. H. (2007). Reading notes on the beginning phase of the treatment of a

religious patient. Psychoanalytic Social Work, 13:13-29.


Spero, M. H. (2008). The experience of religious transformation during psychoanalysis as

an event horizon. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 28:000-000.


Spezzano, C., & Gargiulo, G. J. (Eds.) (1997). Souls on the couch: Spirituality, religion and

morality in contemporary psychoanalysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.


Stein, S. M. (Ed.) (1999). Beyond belief: Psychotherapy and religion. London: Karnac.


Symington, N. (1994). Emotion and the spirit: Questioning the claims of psychoanalysis and

religion. London: Karnac.


Symington, N. (2001). The spirit of sanity. London: Karnac.


Vergote, A. (1978). Guilt and desire: Religious attitudes and their pathological derivatives.

(Trans.) M. H. Wood. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988.


Ward, I. (Ed.) (1993). Is psychoanalysis another religion? Contemporary essays on spirit, faith

and morality in psychoanalysis. London: Freud Museum.


Yerushalmi, Y. H. (2001). Freud’s Moses: Judaism terminable and interminable. New Haven,

CT: Yale University Press.


NOTES FOR AUTHORS


The greater the consistency and accuracy of the bibliographical details and format of your manuscript, the less likely are discomfiting and misleading errors at all stages of publication.


All manuscripts must be double-spaced, with ample margins. Be sure to number pages. Manuscripts shall be no longer than 14 pages, including References and footnotes.


Begin all essays with its title, followed by the author’s name. These are followed by an abstract (beginning with the italicized word Abstract: ) of no more than 100-120 words (long abstracts will be edited down, and we would rather not have to do this), followed, on a separate line, by the italicized words Key Words: after which shall follow 5, 6 key words. All of these items (title, name, abstract, key words) should be typed flush with the left margin and not centered.


Indent each paragraph, including the very first and the first following each subsection, by 4-5 spaces. We ask that authors leave 2 spaces between the period (full stop) at ends of a sentence and the following sentence. Feel free to use italics for emphasis, but do not overuse.


Manuscripts must be “saved” in rich text format only (i.e., not in doc format alone. Our experience teaches that Word.doc does not carry across computers and e-mail very well, and special symbols and signs, such as the diacritical accent marks of French and German terms, get lost or appear as gibberish). RTFs should then be submitted by e-mail to both of the two Guest Editors.


When preparing the References section (which should be kept to a minimum, as it will count among the 14 pages allowed per essay) follow the style you find above in the Selected Bibliography accompanying the prospectus for this Symposium.


Note that the Publisher uses the & (ampersand) symbol instead of the word “and” in separating the names of authors. Use complete names of periodicals and not abbreviations; the name of the journal is to be italicized and so is the volume number but not the page numbers. Annuals (e.g., Progress in Self Psychology, Psychoanalytic Study of the Child) are cited as texts and not as journals.


Please use full book titles including subtitles whenever possible.


Note the following special bibliographic circumstances:


Use the following format with Freud’s works, paying special attention to the difference between works originally published as essays and or as books—only the latter are to be italicized [see Index volume of the Standard Edition]); e.g.,


Freud, S. (1903). Three essays on the theory of sexuality. In: J. Strachey (Ed. & Trans.),

The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 7, pp.

135-243). London: Hogarth, 1958.


Freud, S. (1930[1929]). Civilization and its discontents. In: J. Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The

standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 27, pp.

57-146). London: Hogarth, 1961.


The same applies when referring to compiled essays of C. G. Jung, J. Piaget, C. S. Peirce, M. Klein, D. W. Winnicott, and also contemporary authors (e.g., Harold F. Searles, Thomas Ogden), in any field, whose works are generally available and referenced in collected editions; e.g.,


Winnicott, D. W. (1963). Morals and education. In: The maturational process and the

facilitating environment (pp. 93-105). New York International Universities Press,

1971.


Osbornne, W. J. C. (1925). Willy, willy, willy: An elegy. In: L. Sandres (Ed.), The collected

poems and short stories of William J. C. Osbornne (p. 56). Perthshire: Clunie, 1987.

Use italicized letters a, b, c and so forth (both in the text and in the References section) to distinguish multiple references that have the same year of publication.


Smith, J. H. (1996a)…


Smith, J. H. (1996b)….


When a text has been edited and/or translated, always indicate the editor (Ed.), editors (Eds.) and/or translator (Trans.); note that the editor’s name appears before the title of the text whereas the translator’s name appears after the title of the text; e.g.,


Kochems, T. (1993). Countertransference and transference aspects of religious material

in psychotherapy: The isolation or integration of religious material. In M. L.

Randour (Ed.), Exploring sacred landscapes: Religious and spiritual experiences in

Psychotherapy (pp. 34-54). New York: Columbia University Press.


but


Lemaire, A. (1970). The engendering of the unconscious by primal repression. In: Jacques

Lacan, D. Macey (Trans.) (pp. 95-131). New York: Routledge, 1997.


In the case of Jacques Lacan, we ask authors to make every effort to provide the most accurate and complete citations available; e.g.,


Lacan, J. (1990). The Seminar of Jacques Lacan: Book III: The Psychoses. J.-A. Miller (Ed.),

R. Grigg (Trans.). New York: Norton.1993.


Do not make sweeping references to Lacan’s Ecrits (neither in French nor in English), as if that were a single work, but rather to the specific essay in focus, as it is referenced within the Ecrits. We recommend that authors consult the carefully annotated references that appear in Dany Nobus’s (2000) Jacques Lacan and the Freudian Practice of Psychoanalysis (London: Routledge) and Dylan Evan’s (1996) An Introductory Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis (London: Routledge). These two works refer to almost all of Lacan’s chapter essays, articles, letters and approved as well as non-approved editions of his works.

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