Our second design challenge is a combination of two of the Design for Emerging Markets (dem) projects: “Filter Press” and “Put Wheels on Anything”. Our team




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Project 2: BALTO Filter

Leah Frederick

Kelsi McKinley Lester

Steven Schweigert

Eric Sternberg


April 27, 2012


Team Eight


Abstract


Our second design challenge is a combination of two of the Design for Emerging Markets (DEM) projects: “Filter Press” and “Put Wheels on Anything”. Our team decided to design a water transportation and filter system for a village in Kenya. Initially we conducted detailed research on the living conditions, economy, and local resources in Kenya. WE determined that the design had to be durable, made of local materials, and easy to assemble and repair. After creating a preliminary design based mostly on our concept generation and pugh charts, we used the SCAMPER system to revise the design; focusing on the sustainability, adaptability, and simplification. This led us to creating a very flexible design with many options for cost, sustainability, and performance, depending on the local situation and available materials. Once we discussed the revisions, we created the final design and built a prototype of the BALTO filter.


1.0 Introduction


1.0.1 Design Task


Our team has decided to combine two design projects to create a device that will pump, filter, and transport water to villages in Kenya. A key factor in our design is sustainability. By evaluating our own ecological footprint scores, we decided that we wanted the design to be as sustainable as possible, through “Green Design.” Andrew Lau defines Green Design as, “practicing engineering with the inclusion of natural systems, both as a model and as a fundamental consideration.” (Ogot and Kremer 303) We focused on the sustainability, “the ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Ogot and Kremer 304), aspect by selecting a design that could be locally manufactured, and made a much as possible out of local materials. These features help reduce the environmental impact of our design, which will ultimately help the earth stay below the maximum carrying capacity (Ogot and Kremer 306). It also had to be as simple as possible in order to be easily repaired if necessary.


1.0.2 Design Process


To complete this project, our team must execute a design based on a consumer-needs assessment, external research into comparable designs, and an investigation of the local society and resources.


1.1 Initial Problem Statement


After some preliminary research, we learned that some people in Kenya must travel miles by foot to collect and carry water back to their village. We propose to design a device on wheels that can pump, filter, and transport water to these villages.


2.0 Customer Needs Assessment


2.0.1 Customer Needs: Data Collection and Results


To collect data concerning our water filtration design, we researched Kenya and philanthropic organizations currently making water filtration devices to determine which features were best for the local economy and societal structure. We then informally interviewed a student who spent a semester in Kenya to ensure that our customer needs met the needs that she saw in the villages. Unfortunately, we cannot directly interview the customers because they do not have Internet access there and Kenya is too far away to deliver a face-to-face questionnaire. Although we did not follow the traditional methods of customer needs assessment, we still feel that we accurately captured the needs of the consumer. We decided that performance is most important because of the high health risks associated with improperly filtered water. Portability was the second most important customer need because the Kenyans must travel so far to obtain water. Therefore, based on our assessment of customer needs we will create a water filtration device that focuses on water purity and mobility of the filter.

Figure 1. Initial Customer Needs List Obtained from Focus Group and Individual Interviews

Transport Water

Filter Water

Size (able to push)

Maintainable

Low Cost

Large Capacity

Handle

Expandable

Able to Distribute Water

Works on Various Terrain

Able to Pump Water


Figure 2. Hierarchal Customer Needs List Obtained from Focus Group and Individual Interviews

1.0 Performance

1.1 Large Capacity for Water

1.2 Able to Distribute water

1.3 Able to Expand to hold more water

F.1 Siphon/Pump Water

F.2 Filters Water to Safe Drinkable Levels


2.0 User-Friendly

2.1 Easy to operate

2.2 Relatively Maintenance Free (Easy to Clean)

2.3 Ease of Repair


3.0 Portable

3.1 Easy to maneuver

3.2 Ergonomic to Use

3.3 Useable on rural terrain

3.4 Lightweight

C.1 Inexpensive to Manufacture

C.2 Utilizes local resources


Figure 3. AHP Pairwise Comparison Chart to Determine Weighting for Main Objective Categories

 

1.0 Performance

2.0 User-Friendliness

3.0 Portability

Weight

1.0 Performance

1.00

2.00

2.00

0.48

2.0 User-Friendliness

0.50

1.00

0.50

0.19

3.0 Portability

0.50

2.00

1.00

0.33


Figure 3 shows that the performance of the design is more important than its user-friendliness and portability, reflecting the fact that the filter and water collection features of the design must be functional.


Figure 4. AHP Pairwise Comparison Chart to Determine Weighting of Performance Sub-Objectives




1.1 Large Capacity for Water

1.2 Able to Distribute Water

1.3 Able to Expand to hold more water

Weight

1.1 Large Capacity for Water

1.00

0.20

5.00

0.28

1.2 Able to Distribute Water

5.00

1.00

9.00

0.67

1.3 Able to Expand to hold more water

0.20

0.11

1.00

0.06


Figure 4 shows that it is most important that the design is able to distribute water, rather than being able to expand or have a large capacity. If the capacity is too large, then the cart would get too heavy to control, so that makes the capacity and expansion less important than distribution.


Figure 5. AHP Pairwise Comparison Chart to Determine Weighting of User-Friendliness Sub-Objectives

 

2.1 Easy to Operate

2.2 Maintenance Free

2.3 Cost to Consumer

2.3 Ease of Repair

Total

Weight

2.1 Easy to Operate

1.00

0.50

0.50

3.00

5.00

0.24

2.2 Maintenance Free

2.00

1.00

0.33

2.00

5.33

0.26

2.3 Cost to Consumer

2.00

3.00

1.00

0.50

6.50

0.31

2.4 Ease of Repair

0.33

0.50

2.00

1.00

3.83

0.19


Figure 5 shows that it is most important for the design to be maintenance free. Since there are not very many resources available in the villages, it is important that the cart does not need to be constantly worked on and repaired. For the same reasons, however, the design must be very easy to operate without extensive instruction.


Figure 6. AHP Pairwise Comparison Chart to Determine Weighting of Portability Sub-Objectives




3.1 Easy to Maneuver

3.2 Ergonomic to Use

3.3 Useable on Rural Terrain

3.4 Lightweight

Weight

3.1 Easy to Maneuver

1.00

4.00

1.00

2.00

0.37

3.2 Ergonomic to Use

0.25

1.00

0.33

1.00

0.12

3.3 Useable on Rural Terrain

1.00

3.00

1.00

3.00

0.37

3.4 Lightweight

0.50

1.00

0.33

1.00

0.13


Figure 6 shows that the design must be easy to maneuver on rural terrain. Since we have learned that the villagers walk up to four miles a day to collect water, it it most important that the cart is easy to use and control on various terrain. As long as this fact is true, the weight and ergonomic factors are less important.


Figure 6. Weighted Customer Needs List

1.0 Performance (0.48, 0.48)

1.1 Large Capacity for Water (0.1344,0.28)

1.2 Able to Distribute water (0.3216, 0.67)

1.3 Able to Expand to hold more water (.0288, 0.06)

F.1 Siphon/Pump Water

F.2 Filters Water to Safe Drinkable Levels


2.0 User-Friendly (0.19,0.19)

2.1 Easy to operate (.0456, 0.24)

2.2 Relatively Maintenance Free (Easy to Clean) (0.0494, 0.26)

2.3 Cost to Consumer (0.0589,0.31)

2.4 Ease of Repair (0.0361, 0.19)


3.0 Portable (0.33,0.33)

3.1 Easy to maneuver (0.1221, 0.37)

3.2 Ergonomic to Use (0.0396, 0.12)

3.3 Useable on rural terrain (0.1221, 0.37)

3.4 Lightweight (0.0429, 0.13)

C.1 Inexpensive to Manufacture

C.2 Utilizes local resources

C.2 Utilizes local resources



3.0 Revised Problem Statement


Our design problem is to create a device that can transport large amounts of water to villages in Kenya. Most importantly, it must be able to pump or siphon the water and filter it to safe drinkable levels. Ideally, it will have a large capacity (able to carry more than the typical person could carry), and be able to distribute the water through a tap. The design must be simple and easy to operate, and it should be easy to use on rugged terrain. It also will be inexpensive and able to be created out of local resources.

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