Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps




НазваниеRefrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps
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MONTREAL PROTOCOL


ON SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE


THE OZONE LAYER




UNEP


2010 Report of the

Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps

Technical Options Committee


2010 Assessment

UNEP

2010 Report of the

Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps

Technical Options Committee


2010 Assessment


Montreal Protocol

On Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer


UNEP

2010 Report of the

Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps

Technical Options Committee


2010 Assessment


The text of this report is composed in Times New Roman.


Co-ordination: Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat

Pumps Technical Options Committee


Composition: Lambert Kuijpers (Co-chair)


Formatting, Reproduction: UNEP Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat


Date: February 2011


No copyright involved

Printed in Kenya; 2011


ISBN 978-9966-20-002-0


DISCLAIMER


The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) co-chairs and members, the Refrigeration AC and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee, co-chairs and members, and the companies and organisations that employ them do not endorse the performance, worker safety, or environmental acceptability of any of the technical options discussed. Every industrial operation requires consideration of worker safety and proper disposal of contaminants and waste products. Moreover, as work continues - including additional toxicity evaluation - more information on health, environmental and safety effects of alternatives and replacements will become available for use in selecting among the options discussed in this document.


UNEP, the TEAP co-chairs and members, the Refrigeration, AC and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee, co-chairs and members, in furnishing or distributing this information, do not make any warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or utility; nor do they assume any liability of any kind whatsoever resulting from the use or reliance upon any information, material, or procedure contained herein, including but not limited to any claims regarding health, safety, environmental effect or fate, efficacy, or performance, made by the source of information.


Mention of any company, association, or product in this document is for information purposes only and does not constitute a recommendation of any such company, association, or product, either express or implied by UNEP, the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel co-chairs or members, the Refrigeration, AC and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee co-chairs or members, or the companies or organisations that employ them.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


The UNEP Refrigeration, A/C and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee acknowledges with thanks the outstanding contributions from all of the individuals and organisations who provided technical support to committee members. In developing this report, particularly the chapter lead authors were instrumental.


The names of chapter lead authors, co-authors and contributors are given at the start of each chapter. Addresses and contact numbers of the chapter lead authors and all other authors of the UNEP TOC Refrigeration, A/C and Heat Pumps can be found in Annex I.


The opinions expressed are those of the Committee and do not necessarily reflect the views of any sponsoring or supporting organisations.


Gratitude is expressed to UNEP’s Ozone Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya for the co-operation in formatting and styling of the report and for the reproduction of this report.


UNEP

2010 Report of the

Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps

Technical Options Committee


2010 Assessment


Table of Contents


Key messages vi

Abstract Executive Summary 1

Executive Summaries of All Chapters 5

1 Introduction 15

1.1 Montreal Protocol Developments 15

1.2 The UNEP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel 19

1.3 The Technical Options Committee Refrigeration, A/C and Heat Pumps 20

1.4 Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps 23

2 Refrigerants 28

2.1 Introduction 28

2.2 Data Summary 29

2.3 Status and Research Needs for Data 37

2.4 References 41

Paulo Vodianitskaia 47

3 Domestic Refrigeration 47

3.1Introduction 47

3.2 Options for New Equipment 47

3.3 Options for Existing Equipment 51

3.4 End-of-Life Conservation and Containment Concerns 52

3.5 Current Refrigerant Use 52

3.6 References 55

4 Commercial Refrigeration 57

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Application 57

4.2.2 Data on Outlets and stand-alone equipment 59

4.3 options for new equipment 59

4.5 Options for Existing Equipment 67

4.9 References 69

5 Industrial systems 72

5.1 Introduction 72

5.2 Applications (including size of market, current practice, regional variations) 76

5.3 Working Fluid Options for New Equipment 78

5.4 Retrofit Options for Existing Equipment 81

5.5 Overview of Refrigerant Consumption, Banks and Emissions 82

5.6 Service Requirements 83

5.7 References 83

6 Transport Refrigeration 85

6.1 Introduction 85

6.2 Technical Progress 86

6.3 Refrigerant Options for Existing Equipment 90

6.4 Refrigerant Options for New Equipment 91

6.5 Recovery, Reuse and Destructions of Refrigerants 93

6.6 Bank and Emission Data 93

6.7 References 97

__________________________________________________________ 99

Air-to-Air Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps 99

Chapter Lead Author 99

Lead Authors or Co-Authors 99

Reviewing Authors 99

7 Air-to Air Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps 100

7.1 Introduction 100

7.2 Applications 100

7.3 Current Use of HCFC-22 104

7.4 Options for New Equipment 105

7.5 Options for Existing Equipment 111

7.6 High Ambient Considerations 113

7.7 References 116

8 Water heating heat pumps 120

8.1 Introduction 120

8.2 Types of Heat Pumps 120

8.3 Heat Pump Implications and Trends 122

8.4 Current Refrigerant Options for Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 123

8.5 future refrigerant Options for New Heat Pumps 125

8.6 References 127

9 Chillers 130

9.1 Function of Chillers 130

9.2 Types of Chillers 130

9.3 Developments and Trends in Chiller Markets 134

9.4 Current Refrigerant Choices and Options for Mechanical Vapour-Compression Chillers 136

9.5 refrigerant Options for New Chiller Equipment 138

9.6 Options for Existing Chiller Equipment 142

9.7 Banks and Emissions Relating to Chillers 144

9.8 References 144

10 Vehicle Air Conditioning 148

10.1 Introduction 148

10.2 Technical Progress 151

10.3 Existing Mobile Air Conditioning Systems 151

10.4 Options for Future Mobile Air Conditioning Systems 152

10.5 References 157

11 Refrigerant Conservation 164

11.1 Introduction 164

11.2 Recovery, Recycling, and Reclamation 165

11.3 Refrigerant Recovery and Recycling Equipment 165

11.4 Technician Training and Service Certification 166

11.5 Refrigerant Reclamation, Separation, Destruction 167

11.6 Equipment Design and Service 170

11.7 Direct Regulation as a Means of Refrigerant Conservation 173

11.8 End-of-life 176

11.9 Examples of Conservation Approaches 177

11.10 Article 5 Issues 180

11.11 References 181

Annex 1 – Authors, Co-authors and Contributors to the 2010 RTOC Report 183

Annex 2: - Excerpt of the Final Report on Global inventories of the worldwide fleets of refrigerating and air conditioning equipment in order to determine refrigerant emissions. The 1990 to 2006 updating. 1

1. Global results: refrigerant demands, banks, and emissions 3

1.1 Global demand of refrigerants in year 2006 3

1.2 Refrigerant banks, by application sector and by country 5

1.3 Refrigerant emissions, by application sector and by country 8

1.4 Refrigerant CO2 equivalent emissions, by application sector and by country 10

1.5 Refrigerant recovery 12

1.6 Data quality and data consistency 12

2. Method of calculation, data and databases 17

2.1 Refrigerant Inventory methods and emissions calculation for the refrigeration industry 17

2.2 Refrigerants and regulations 26

2.3 Refrigerant GWPs from the IPCC Second and the Fourth Assessment Reports 28

2.4 Consistency and improvement of data quality 30

Appendix 1 34
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