Скачать 117.33 Kb.
Hillis, D. (1998). The Pattern On The Stone: The Simple Ideas That Make Computers Work. London: Basic Books.
Holland, J. (1995) Hidden Order. How adaptation builds complexity. New-York, Addison-Wesley.
Holland, J. (1998). Emergence. From chaos to order. New York, Basic books.
Hordijk, W., J. Crutchfield, and M. Mitchell (1996), “Embedded Particle Computation in Evolved Cellular Automata”, in T. Toffoli, M. Biafore, and J. Leao (eds.), PhysComp’96. Cambridge, MA: New England Complex Systems Institute, 153–158.
Hovda P. (2008) “Quantifying weak emergence.” Minds & Machines 18:461–473.
Humphreys, P. (1997), “How Properties Emerge”, Philosophy of Science 64: 53–70.
Humphreys P. (2008), “Synchronic and Diachronic Emergence”, in Huneman and Humphreys 2008, 431–442.
Huneman P. (2011) “Computer sciences meet evolutionary biology: issues in gradualism” Logics, epistemology and the unity of science, Vol. 4, Rahman S., Pombo O. (ed.), Springer,
Huneman, P. (2008a). « Combinatorial vs. computational views of emergence: Emergence made ontological? » Philosophy of Science, 75, 595–607.
Huneman, P. (2008b), “Emergence and Adaptation”, in Huneman and Humphreys 2008, 493–520.
Huneman P. (2010) « Determinism, predictability and open-ended evolution: lessons from computational emergence. » Synthese, on-line first.
Israeli N., Goldenfeld N., (2004) "On computational irreducibility and the predictability of complex physical systems". Physics Review Letters
Kim J. (1999), "Making Sense of Emergence", Philosophical Studies 95, 3-36.
Klee, R. (1984), “Microdeterminisms and Concepts of Emergence”, Philosophy of Science 51: 44–63.
Langton C. (1989), “Artificial life”, in Artificial Life , Chris Langton, ed. SFI Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, Proc. Vol. VI. Redwood City, CA: Addison-Wesley.
Laughlin R. B., D. Pines, J.Schmalian, B.Stojkovi, P.Wolynes (2000), “The middle way”, PNAS, 97, 1, 32-37
Laughlin, Robert (2005), A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down, Basic Books
Levins, R.: 1966, ‘The Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology’. In: E. Sober (ed.): Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, first edition, pp. 18–27.
Lewis D. (1973) “Causation”, Journal of Philosophy, 70: 556–67.
Lipton, P. (1991) Inference to the Best Explanation. London: Routledge..
Mc Laughlin B. (1992), “The rise and fall of British emergentism”, Beckermann A., Flohr H, Kim J. (eds), Emergence or reduction ?, Berlin, de Gruyter.
Nagel T. (1974) 1974, "What Is it Like to Be a Bat?", Philosophical Review, pp. 435-50
Nagel, K., and K. Rasmussen (1994), “Traffic at the Edge of Chaos”, in R. Brooks (ed.), Artificial Life IV. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Newman, D. (1996), “Emergence and Strange Attractors”, Philosophy of Science 63: 245– 261
O’Connor, T. (1994), “Emergent Properties”, American Philosophical Quarterly 31: 91–104.
Rasmussen S. and C.L. Barrett (1995), `Elements of a Theory of Simulation’, Advancers in Artificial Life: Third European Conference on Artificial Life. F. Moran et al (eds), pp. 515-529
Rasmussen S., Baas N., Mayer B., Nilsson M., Olesen M. (2002), “Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies”, Artificial life, 7, 4: 329-353
Reynolds C. (1987), “Flocks, herds and schools: a distributed behavioural model”, Computer graphics, 21 (4): 25-34
Salzberg C., Antony A., and Hiroki Sayama H. (2003) “Genetic diversification and adaptation of self-replicators discovered in simple cellular automata”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Humans and Computers (HC-2003), pp.194-199, University of Aizu, Japan, 2003.
Sayama H. (1998), “Spontaneous evolution of self reproducing loops in cellular automata”, InterJournal Complex Systems, 236, and Unifying Themes in Complex Systems Volume II: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Complex Systems, Y. Bar-Yam and A. A. Minai, eds., Westview Press, pp.363-374.
Schelling, T. (1969), “Models of Segregation”, American Economic Review 59 (2): 488–493.
Seager, W. (2005), “Emergence and Efficacy”, in C. Erneling and D. Johnson (eds.), The Mind as a Scientific Object between Brain and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 176–192.
Shalizi C., Haslinger R., Rouquier J.B., Klinkner C., Moore C. (2006) “Automatic filters for the detection of coherent structures in spatiotemporal systems” ArXiv CG/0508001
Silberstein, M. (2002), “Reduction, Emergence and Explanation”, in M. Silberstein and P.Machamer (eds.), Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Science. Oxford: Blackwell, 80–107.
Tassier, T. (2004), “A Model of Fads, Fashions and Group Formations”, Complexity 9 (5): 51–61
Weisberg M. (2006a) Robustness analysis. Philosophy of science. 73, 730-742.
Wimsatt W. (1997), “Aggregation: reductive heuristics for finding emergence”, Philosophy of science, 64, S372-S384
1 This is a question left open here – it’s enough to point that, following Kim, many philosophical approaches of emergence concern the emergence of properties, even if physicists like Laughlin (2005) talk of the emergence of laws. I argued (Huneman 2008b) that one should first of all speak of emergent processes instead of emergence of properties, these ones being emergent only in a derivative way.
2 This idea of the "arrow of explanation", although metaphorical, is quite rich and had few influence in the following debates. A crucial question is to decide whether this direction is due to epistemic reasons (what is an explanation in general) or to empirical ones (the structure of our world…)
3 Let A and B be two types of properties: A supervenes on B for iff any difference in the properties of type A; there exists a difference in properties of type B. If A is thought and B is body, one immediately sees that this concept aims at formulating the fact that one mental state can be realized by several physical or brain states? For longer developments see Kim (1993).
4 Idea that any physical fact or event has a cause which is also physical – notwithstanding what other facts or causes may exist. This postulate is supposed to be inherent to modern science.
5 See Atay and Jost 2004, 18.
6 Also Bechtel and Richardson 1992.
7 See also Bar Yam (2004).
8 Humphreys (1997) is the first systematic investigations of epistemological problems raised by the generalized use of simulations in the science. Huneman (in press) tackled this problem in the framework of evolutionary explanations.
9 Even if this hypothesis turned out to be wrong, the fact that NP is strictly is strictly included in PSPACE entails that the fact of being PSPACE complete renders the prediction problem for non constant-free rules incommensurably more difficult for any cognitive capacity than this problem for constant-free rules, likely to be solved in polynomial time.
10 Demonstration in Huneman 2008b.
11On this loop see Sayama & Salzberg 2003, Sayama 1998.
12 For emergence in ABM according to my criteria, see Wilson, 2010.
13 A fine grained description of levels of counterfactual dependency, defining modes of regularity and prediction, is done in Huneman (2010).
Лекция методология Microsoft Solutions Framework. Выработка концепции. Планирование