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Jan 2, US Secretary of State John Hay announced the Open Door Policy to prompt trade with China. This policy rejected efforts to carve up China or restrict its ports.
Jan 8, The Boers attacked Ladysmith, but were turned back by General White in South Africa.
Jan 27, Foreign diplomats in Peking fear revolt and demanded that the Imperial Government discipline the Boxer Rebels.
Feb 6, President McKinley appointed W.H. Taft commissioner to report on the Philippines.
Feb 22, Hawaii became a US territory.
May 31, U.S. troops arrived in Peking to help put down Boxer Rebellion.
Jun 13, China’s Boxer Rebellion against foreigners and Chinese Christians erupted into violence. The Boxer Rebellion was a violent, anti-foreign uprising that broke out in reaction to years of foreign interference with Chinese affairs. Led by a Chinese secret society called Yi He Tuan—“the Righteous, Harmonious Fists”—the Boxers were aided by the Empress Dowager Ci Xi and pillaged the countryside, murdering foreigners and Chinese Christians.
Jul 9, Queen Victoria signed The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, uniting 6 separate colonies under a federal government, effective Jan 1, 1901.
Aug 14, International forces, i.e. European allies, including 2,000 U.S. Marines entered Beijing to put down the Boxer Rebellion, which was aimed at purging China of foreigners and foreign influence.
Nov, Henry Ford’s Detroit Automobile Company failed. It was revived in 1901 as the Henry Ford Co.
-Freud published his “Interpretation of Dreams.”
-The population of the world again doubled from what it was in 1800 to more than 1600 million.
-The Nobel Foundation was established in Sweden in accord with the will of Alfred Nobel.
Jan 1, The Commonwealth of Australia was proclaimed. Although independent it still recognized Britain’s royalty as its head of state. The governor-general, the representative of the queen, is nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the British monarch.
Jan 22, Britain's Queen Victoria died at age 82. She was the monarch of Great Britain and Ireland and Empress of India, and died after presiding over her vast empire for nearly 64 years--the longest reign in British history.
Jan 23, A great fire ravaged Montreal, resulting in $2.5 million in property lost.
Feb 5, Loop-the-loop centrifugal RR (roller coaster) was patented by Ed Prescot.
Mar 7, Blacks were found to be still enslaved in certain parts of South Carolina.
Aug 30, Hubert Cecil Booth patented the vacuum cleaner.
Sep 14, President McKinley died in Buffalo, N.Y., of gunshot wounds inflicted by Leon Czolgosz. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in as the 26th President of the United States upon the death of William McKinley, who had been shot eight days earlier.
Sep, US Brig. Gen’l. Jacob Smith ordered US Marine and Army units to turn the island of Samar in the Philippines into a "howling wilderness" so that "even birds could not live there" in retaliation for the Sep 5 attack at Balangiga.
Dec 12, Italian scientist and engineer Guglielmo Marconi received the first long-distance radio transmission in St. John's, Newfoundland, 2,232 miles.
-New York State issued the first license plate.
-In Australia an immigration act was introduced that became known as the "White Australia Policy." It allowed custom’s agents to require that an immigrant write a passage of 50 words in a European language directed by the officer. The dictation requirement was ended in 1958 and the whole policy was ended in 1973.
Jan 1, In Pasadena the 1st Rose Bowl football game was held and the Univ. of Michigan beat Stanford 49 to 0. The next Rose Bowl game was held 11 years later.
Apr 20, Radium was isolated as a pure metal by Curie and André-Louis Debierne through the electrolysis of a pure radium chloride solution. Pierre and Marie Curie had discovered the element in 1898.
May 31, The Boer War ended between the Boars of South Africa and Great Britain with the Treaty of Vereeniging. This effectively ended a 3-year uprising by the Boers, led by Louis Botha, commandant general of the Transvaal forces. Botha was a signatory at the peace conference. The combination of superior fire power and a brutal war of attrition launched by Lord Kitchener forced the Boers to give in. Kitchener burned the farms of Africans and Boers alike and collected as many as a 100,000 women and children in carelessly run and unhygienic con-centration camps on the open veldt. Britain annexed Transvaal.
Sep 17, U.S. troops were sent to Panama to keep train lines open over the isthmus as Panamanian nationals struggled for independence from Colombia.
18, Brooklyn toymaker Morris Michton named the teddy bear after Teddy Roosevelt.
Feb 22, The US side of Niagara Falls ran short of water due to drought.
Mar 23, The Wright brothers obtained an airplane patent.
Jun 16, Ford Motor Co. was incorporated.
Jun 16, Pepsi Cola company formed.
Jun 25, Marie Curie announced her discovery of radium.
Jul 23, The Ford Motor Company sold its first automobile, the Model A.
Oct 20, The Joint Commission, set up on January 24 by Great Britain and the United States to arbitrate the disputed Alaskan boundary, ruled in favor of the United States. The de-ciding vote was Britain’s, which embittered Canada. The United States gained ports on the pan-handle coast of Alaska.
Nov 18, The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty was signed, granting the United States a strip of land across the Isthmus of Panama and the right to build and fortify the Panama Canal
Dec 13, Italo Marconi received a patent for the ice cream cone in NJ.
Dec 17, The Wright brothers' Flyer I flew for 12 seconds in the first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
-The hot fudge sundae was first served.
-J.L. Kraft started a cheese business. In 2005 Kraft was the largest food company in the US and spent some $90 million annually on advertising directly to children.
-The first Crayolas were red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown and black.
Feb 8, The Russo-Japanese War began. In a surprise attack at Port Arthur, Korea, the Japanese disabled seven Russian warships. During the war, Russia suffered a series of stun-ning defeats to Japan; the fighting ended with an agreement mediated by President Theodore Roosevelt, who went on to win the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.
Apr 19, Much of Toronto was destroyed by fire.
Although invented in Waco, Texas in the 1880s, Dr Pepper first received national expo-sure at the St. Louis World's Fair.
May 4, 1st day of NYC subway, 350,000 people rode the 9.1 mile tracks
Nov 15, King C. Gillette patented his Gillette razor blade.
Dec 5, Japanese destroyed Russian fleet at Port Arthur in Korea
-Canada's North West Mounted Police force was renamed the Royal North West Mounted Police by King Edward VII. With the incorporation of the federal organization called the Dominion Police in 1920, the name Royal Canadian Mounted Police was adopted.
-In Victoria, British Columbia, Jennie Butchart began a garden of peas and roses. The garden grew to 55 acres of flower beds and became world famous.
-The eastern Samoan islands became territories of the United States and later became known as American Samoa.
Jan 22 “Bloody Sunday,” Russian Orthodox Father George Gapon led a procession in St. Petersburg of some 200,000 who were marching on the Winter Palace to present their grievances to Czar Nicholas. Troops on the scene panicked, firing into the crowd and killing hundreds, thus igniting the Revolution of 1905.
Feb 7, Congress granted statehood to Oklahoma. New Mexico and Arizona were the only remaining territories
May 26, There was a pogrom against Jews in Minsk, Belorussia.
May 29, There was a pogrom against Jewish community in Brisk, Lithuania.
Jun 29, Russian troops intervened as riots erupt in ports all over the country, leaving many ships looted.
Jul 8, The mutinous crew of the battleship Potemkin surrendered to Rumanian authorities.
Oct 15, US President Grover Cleveland wrote an article for "Ladies Home Journal", joining others in the US who opposed women voters. The president said, "We all know how much further women go than men in their social rivalries and jealousies... sensible and responsible women do not want to vote."
Nov 10, Sailors revolted in Kronstadt, Russia.
Nov 28, Arthur Griffith formed Sinn Fein in Dublin. Sinn Fein is Gaelic for "we ourselves," but also for "ourselves alone." This political party became the unofficial political wing of militant Irish groups in their struggle against British rule.
-Einstein presented his theory of relativity declaring that the very measurement of time intervals is affected by the motion of the observer. He proposed that light is itself quantized, or particle-like, to explain how electrons were emitted when light hit certain metals. He presented four papers, the first on Brownian motion, the second was on the composition of light, the third proposed the Special Theory of Relativity, and the fourth established the equivalence of mass and energy. Einstein presented 5 papers this year, one of which was titled “Does the Inertia of a Body Depend on its Energy Content?” This paper provided an incomplete proof of E=mc2, an equation that had already been know for a few years. In 2008 Hans C. Ohanian authored “Einstein’s Mistakes: The Human Failings of Genius.”
-Revolution broke out in Russia and nationalist feelings ignited in the Baltic states.
-Over 1 million Russians staged a general strike demanding political reforms.
Jan 7, Harry Houdini’s fame as the "King of Handcuffs" was assured when he escaped from the Washington, D.C., jail cell of President James Garfield’s assassin, Charles Guiteau. For the next 20 years, Houdini astounded worldwide audiences with illusions such as the "Upside-Down Water Torture Cell" and straitjacket escapes. Houdini died on October 31, 1926.
Jan 13, The Golden Gate Hotel opened on Fremont Street in Las Vegas, Nev.
Feb 19, W.K. Kellogg & Ch Bolin incorporated the Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Co. Will Kellogg spent 2/3 of the company budget to advertise Corn Flakes..
Apr 18, At 5:12 a.m. the San Francisco 8.2 earthquake occurred. Seismologists in 1977 reduced the magnitude to 7.9. 28,000 buildings were destroyed and 498 blocks leveled. One quarter of the city burned. About 700 people died. The massive earthquake was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles and as far inland as Nevada. It caused severe damage and loss of life in the San Francisco Bay area, and a three-day fire spawned by the shaking reduced 4.7 square miles of the city to blackened ruins. Military officials estimated $400 million of damage and a total of 700-800 killed.
Jul 12, French Captain Alfred Dreyfus was found innocent in France of his earlier court-martial for spying for Germany. Dreyfus had served over 4 years on Devil’s Island before a top French court rehabilitated his name in what came to be called the Dreyfus Affair (papillon).
Oct 20, Dr. Lee DeForest demonstrated his electrical vacuum tube (radio tube).
Nov 21, China prohibited opium trade.
Dec 24, Canadian physicist Reginald A. Fessenden became the first person to broadcast a music program over radio, from Brant Rock, Mass.
-In England the Manchester engineer Henry Royce and millionaire’s son Charles Rolls built the first Rolls-Royce car.
Feb 26, Members of US Congress raised their own salaries to $7500.
Mar 1, There were only 15,000 Jews left in Odessa, Russia. The attacks on the Jews continued as more and more evacuated.
Mar 9, Indiana enacted the nation’s 1st involuntary sterilization law based on eugenics. It was intended "to prevent procreation of confirmed criminals, idiots, imbeciles, and rapists." More than 30 states ended up passing compulsory sterilization laws that were eventually overturned or repealed.
May 27, Bubonic Plague broke out in San Francisco.
May, The idea of a day set apart every year to honor motherhood is credited to Anna Jarvis of Philadelphia, who, in 1907, suggested the wearing of carnations on the second Sunday in May to honor mothers. Her enthusiastic campaign for a nationwide observance attracted enough public support that President Woodrow Wilson issued a proclamation designating the second Sunday in May 1914 the first national Mother’s Day.
Jun 14, Women in Norway won the right to vote.
Aug 26, Harry Houdini escaped from chains underwater at Aquatic Park in 57 sec.
Aug 31, England, Russia and France formed their Triple Entente.
Dec 9, US Christmas seals went on sale for the first time, at the Wilmington, Del., post office. Proceeds went to fight tuberculosis. The fists US Christmas seals were issued by the Red Cross in a program founded by a Delaware woman to support a TB sanitarium
-Royal Dutch combines its oil operations with Shell Transport & Trading Co.
-Stalin (1879-1953) organized an armed robbery on 2 coaches carrying treasure to the state bank in central Tbilisi, Georgia. He delivered his gains to Lenin. In 2007 Simon Sebag Montefiore authored “Young Stalin.”
Jan 1, The 1st time-ball signifying new year was dropped at Times Square, NYC.
24, This is considered the starting date of the Boy Scouts movement in England. Lt. General Robert S.S. Baden-Powell, had achieved fame as a hero in the Boer War and applied his methods of training British soldiers in South Africa in woodcraft and survival methods to young English boys in the early 1900s. The Boy Scouts of America was incorporated in 1910
Feb 27, The forty-sixth star was added to the U.S. flag, signifying Oklahoma’s admission to statehood.
Mar 4, The New York board of education banned the act of whipping students in school.
May 26, The first major oil strike in the Middle East took place
Jun 30, An explosion near the Tunguska River in Siberia incinerated some 300 sq. km. that encircled the impact of an estimated 60 meter diameter stony meteorite. It flattened some 40,000 trees over 900 sq. miles and caused damage equivalent to a 15-megaton hydrogen bomb. The explosion in Siberia, which knocked down trees in a 30-mile radius and struck people unconscious some 40 miles away, is believed by some scientists to be caused by a falling fragment from a meteorite.
Aug 12, Henry Ford’s first Model T rolled off the assembly line. It’s later advertising slogan was "Gets Ya There, and Gets Ya Back." From when it was first put on the market in 1908 to when it was discontinued in 1927, some 15 million of the Ford Model T were built. The model T featured steering on the left side of the car for a better line of sight when passing other cars.
Dec 1, The US Dept. of Agriculture as of this day restricted opium imports to the US based on morphine content. Opium with under 3% morphine, which included opium for smoking, was restricted. This severely impacted the customs revenue in San Francisco and created an uproar in the city’s Chinatown.
Dec 26, Jack Johnson (1878-1946) of Texas knocked out Tommy Burns in Australia to become the 1st black world heavyweight boxing champion. He was not officially given the title until 1910 when he beat Jim Jeffries in Las Vegas. In 1913 Johnson fled the US because of trumped up charges of violating the Mann Act's stipulations against transporting white women across state lines for prostitution.
-The marathon of the Olympic Games was changed from 24 to 26 miles so that the finish line would fall in front of the Royal Box in England. The length was set at 26 miles 385 yards.
В публикации изложена точка зрения автора в отношении содержания и соотношения таких понятий как уголовная и уголовно-правовая политика...